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Abdelrahman, Mahmoud S., Kassem, A., Saad, Ahmed A., Mohammed, Osama A..  2022.  Real-Time Wide Area Event Identification and Analysis in Power Grid Based on EWAMS. 2022 IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting (IAS). :1–13.
Event detection and classification are crucial to power system stability. The Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) technology helps in enhancing wide area situational awareness by providing useful synchronized information to the grid control center in order to accurately identify various power system events. This paper demonstrates the viability of using EWAMS (Egyptian Wide Area Measurement System) data as one of the evolving technologies of smart grid to identify extreme events within the Egyptian power grid. The proposed scheme is based on online synchronized measurements of wide-area monitoring devices known as Frequency Disturbance Recorders (FDRs) deployed at selected substations within the grid. The FDR measures the voltage, voltage angle, and frequency at the substation and streams the processed results to the Helwan University Host Server (HUHS). Each FDR is associated with a timestamp reference to the Global Positioning System (GPS) base. An EWAMS-based frequency disturbance detection algorithm based on the rate of frequency deviation is developed to identify varies types of events such as generator trip and load shedding. Based on proper thresholding on the frequency and rate of change of frequency of the Egyptian grid, different types of events have been captured in many locations during the supervision and monitoring the operation of the grid. EWAMS historical data is used to analyze a wide range of data pre-event, during and post-event for future enhancement of situational awareness as well as decision making.
Sen, Ömer, Eze, Chijioke, Ulbig, Andreas, Monti, Antonello.  2022.  On Holistic Multi-Step Cyberattack Detection via a Graph-based Correlation Approach. 2022 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm). :380–386.
While digitization of distribution grids through information and communications technology brings numerous benefits, it also increases the grid's vulnerability to serious cyber attacks. Unlike conventional systems, attacks on many industrial control systems such as power grids often occur in multiple stages, with the attacker taking several steps at once to achieve its goal. Detection mechanisms with situational awareness are needed to detect orchestrated attack steps as part of a coherent attack campaign. To provide a foundation for detection and prevention of such attacks, this paper addresses the detection of multi-stage cyber attacks with the aid of a graph-based cyber intelligence database and alert correlation approach. Specifically, we propose an approach to detect multi-stage attacks by lever-aging heterogeneous data to form a knowledge base and employ a model-based correlation approach on the generated alerts to identify multi-stage cyber attack sequences taking place in the network. We investigate the detection quality of the proposed approach by using a case study of a multi-stage cyber attack campaign in a future-orientated power grid pilot.
Latha., N, Divya, B V, Surendra, Usha, Archana, N V.  2022.  Micro grid Communication Technologies: An Overview. 2022 IEEE Industrial Electronics and Applications Conference (IEACon). :49–54.
Micro grid is a small-scale power supply network designed to provide electricity to small community with integrated renewable energy sources. A micro grid can be integrated to the utility grid. Due to lack of computerized analysis, mechanical switches causing slow response time, poor visibility and situational awareness blackouts are caused due to cascading of faults. This paper presents a brief survey on communication technologies used in smart grid and its extension to micro grid. By integration of communication network, device control, information collection and remote management an intelligent power management system can be achieved
Mohammadpourfard, Mostafa, Weng, Yang, Genc, Istemihan, Kim, Taesic.  2022.  An Accurate False Data Injection Attack (FDIA) Detection in Renewable-Rich Power Grids. 2022 10th Workshop on Modelling and Simulation of Cyber-Physical Energy Systems (MSCPES). :1–5.
An accurate state estimation (SE) considering increased uncertainty by the high penetration of renewable energy systems (RESs) is more and more important to enhance situational awareness, and the optimal and resilient operation of the renewable-rich power grids. However, it is anticipated that adversaries who plan to manipulate the target power grid will generate attacks that inject inaccurate data to the SE using the vulnerabilities of the devices and networks. Among potential attack types, false data injection attack (FDIA) is gaining popularity since this can bypass bad data detection (BDD) methods implemented in the SE systems. Although numerous FDIA detection methods have been recently proposed, the uncertainty of system configuration that arises by the continuously increasing penetration of RESs has been been given less consideration in the FDIA algorithms. To address this issue, this paper proposes a new FDIA detection scheme that is applicable to renewable energy-rich power grids. A deep learning framework is developed in particular by synergistically constructing a Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory (Bi-LSTM) with modern smart grid characteristics. The developed framework is evaluated on the IEEE 14-bus system integrating several RESs by using several attack scenarios. A comparison of the numerical results shows that the proposed FDIA detection mechanism outperforms the existing deep learning-based approaches in a renewable energy-rich grid environment.
Raptis, Theofanis P., Cicconetti, Claudio, Falelakis, Manolis, Kanellos, Tassos, Lobo, Tomás Pariente.  2022.  Design Guidelines for Apache Kafka Driven Data Management and Distribution in Smart Cities. 2022 IEEE International Smart Cities Conference (ISC2). :1–7.
Smart city management is going through a remarkable transition, in terms of quality and diversity of services provided to the end-users. The stakeholders that deliver pervasive applications are now able to address fundamental challenges in the big data value chain, from data acquisition, data analysis and processing, data storage and curation, and data visualisation in real scenarios. Industry 4.0 is pushing this trend forward, demanding for servitization of products and data, also for the smart cities sector where humans, sensors and devices are operating in strict collaboration. The data produced by the ubiquitous devices must be processed quickly to allow the implementation of reactive services such as situational awareness, video surveillance and geo-localization, while always ensuring the safety and privacy of involved citizens. This paper proposes a modular architecture to (i) leverage innovative technologies for data acquisition, management and distribution (such as Apache Kafka and Apache NiFi), (ii) develop a multi-layer engineering solution for revealing valuable and hidden societal knowledge in smart cities environment, and (iii) tackle the main issues in tasks involving complex data flows and provide general guidelines to solve them. We derived some guidelines from an experimental setting performed together with leading industrial technical departments to accomplish an efficient system for monitoring and servitization of smart city assets, with a scalable platform that confirms its usefulness in numerous smart city use cases with different needs.
Korkmaz, Yusuf, Huseinovic, Alvin, Bisgin, Halil, Mrdović, Saša, Uludag, Suleyman.  2022.  Using Deep Learning for Detecting Mirroring Attacks on Smart Grid PMU Networks. 2022 International Balkan Conference on Communications and Networking (BalkanCom). :84–89.
Similar to any spoof detection systems, power grid monitoring systems and devices are subject to various cyberattacks by determined and well-funded adversaries. Many well-publicized real-world cyberattacks on power grid systems have been publicly reported. Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) networks with Phasor Data Concentrators (PDCs) are the main building blocks of the overall wide area monitoring and situational awareness systems in the power grid. The data between PMUs and PDC(s) are sent through the legacy networks, which are subject to many attack scenarios under with no, or inadequate, countermeasures in protocols, such as IEEE 37.118-2. In this paper, we consider a stealthier data spoofing attack against PMU networks, called a mirroring attack, where an adversary basically injects a copy of a set of packets in reverse order immediately following their original positions, wiping out the correct values. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time in the literature, we consider a more challenging attack both in terms of the strategy and the lower percentage of spoofed attacks. As part of our countermeasure detection scheme, we make use of novel framing approach to make application of a 2D Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)-based approach which avoids the computational overhead of the classical sample-based classification algorithms. Our experimental evaluation results show promising results in terms of both high accuracy and true positive rates even under the aforementioned stealthy adversarial attack scenarios.
Alanzi, Mataz, Challa, Hari, Beleed, Hussain, Johnson, Brian K., Chakhchoukh, Yacine, Reen, Dylan, Singh, Vivek Kumar, Bell, John, Rieger, Craig, Gentle, Jake.  2022.  Synchrophasors-based Master State Awareness Estimator for Cybersecurity in Distribution Grid: Testbed Implementation & Field Demonstration. 2022 IEEE Power & Energy Society Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT). :1–5.
The integration of distributed energy resources (DERs) and expansion of complex network in the distribution grid requires an advanced two-level state estimator to monitor the grid health at micro-level. The distribution state estimator will improve the situational awareness and resiliency of distributed power system. This paper implements a synchrophasors-based master state awareness (MSA) estimator to enhance the cybersecurity in distribution grid by providing a real-time estimation of system operating states to control center operators. In this paper, the implemented MSA estimator utilizes only phasor measurements, bus magnitudes and angles, from phasor measurement units (PMUs), deployed in local substations, to estimate the system states and also detects data integrity attacks, such as load tripping attack that disconnects the load. To validate the proof of concept, we implement this methodology in cyber-physical testbed environment at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Electric Grid Security Testbed. Further, to address the "valley of death" and support technology commercialization, field demonstration is also performed at the Critical Infrastructure Test Range Complex (CITRC) at the INL. Our experimental results reveal a promising performance in detecting load tripping attack and providing an accurate situational awareness through an alert visualization dashboard in real-time.
Madbhavi, Rahul, Srinivasan, Babji.  2022.  Enhancing Performance of Compressive Sensing-based State Estimators using Dictionary Learning. 2022 IEEE International Conference on Power Systems Technology (POWERCON). :1–6.
Smart grids integrate computing and communication infrastructure with conventional power grids to improve situational awareness, control, and safety. Several technologies such as automatic fault detection, automated reconfiguration, and outage management require close network monitoring. Therefore, utilities utilize sensing equipment such as PMUs (phasor measurement units), smart meters, and bellwether meters to obtain grid measurements. However, the expansion in sensing equipment results in an increased strain on existing communication infrastructure. Prior works overcome this problem by exploiting the sparsity of power consumption data in the Haar, Hankel, and Toeplitz transformation bases to achieve sub-Nyquist compression. However, data-driven dictionaries enable superior compression ratios and reconstruction accuracy by learning the sparsifying basis. Therefore, this work proposes using dictionary learning to learn the sparsifying basis of smart meter data. The smart meter data sent to the data centers are compressed using a random projection matrix prior to transmission. These measurements are aggregated to obtain the compressed measurements at the primary nodes. Compressive sensing-based estimators are then utilized to estimate the system states. This approach was validated on the IEEE 33-node distribution system and showed superior reconstruction accuracy over conventional transformation bases and over-complete dictionaries. Voltage magnitude and angle estimation error less than 0.3% mean absolute percentage error and 0.04 degree mean absolute error, respectively, were achieved at compression ratios as high as eight.
Dey, Arnab, Chakraborty, Soham, Salapaka, Murti V..  2022.  An End-to-End Cyber-Physical Infrastructure for Smart Grid Control and Monitoring. 2022 IEEE Power & Energy Society Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT). :1–5.
In this article, we propose a generic cyber-physical framework, developed in our laboratory, for smart grid control and monitoring in real-time. Our framework is composed of four key elements: (1) system layer which embeds a physical or emulated power system network, (2) data analysis layer to execute real-time data-driven grid analysis algorithms, (3) backend layer with a generic data storage framework which supports multiple databases with functionally different architectures, and (4) visualization layer where multiple customized or commercially available user interfaces can be deployed concurrently for grid control and monitoring. These four layers are interlinked via bidirectional communication channels. Such a flexible and scalable framework provides a cohesive environment to enhance smart grid situational awareness. We demonstrate the utility of our proposed architecture with several case studies where we estimate a modified IEEE-33 bus distribution network topology entirely from synchrophasor measurements, without any prior knowledge of the grid network, and render the same on visualization platform. Three demonstrations are included with single and multiple system operators having complete and partial measurements.
Jiang, Baoxiang, Liu, Yang, Liu, Huixiang, Ren, Zehua, Wang, Yun, Bao, Yuanyi, Wang, Wenqing.  2022.  An Enhanced EWMA for Alert Reduction and Situation Awareness in Industrial Control Networks. 2022 IEEE 18th International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering (CASE). :888–894.

Intrusion detection systems (IDSs) are widely deployed in the industrial control systems to protect network security. IDSs typically generate a huge number of alerts, which are time-consuming for system operators to process. Most of the alerts are individually insignificant false alarms. However, it is not the best solution to discard these alerts, as they can still provide useful information about network situation. Based on the study of characteristics of alerts in the industrial control systems, we adopt an enhanced method of exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control charts to help operators in processing alerts. We classify all detection signatures as regular and irregular according to their frequencies, set multiple control limits to detect anomalies, and monitor regular signatures for network security situational awareness. Extensive experiments have been performed using real-world alert data. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed enhanced EWMA method can greatly reduce the volume of alerts to be processed while reserving significant abnormal information.

Shyshkin, Oleksandr.  2022.  Cybersecurity Providing for Maritime Automatic Identification System. 2022 IEEE 41st International Conference on Electronics and Nanotechnology (ELNANO). :736–740.

Automatic Identification System (AIS) plays a leading role in maritime navigation, traffic control, local and global maritime situational awareness. Today, the reliable and secure AIS operation is threatened by probable cyber attacks such as imitation of ghost vessels, false distress or security messages, or fake virtual aids-to-navigation. We propose a method for ensuring the authentication and integrity of AIS messages based on the use of the Message Authentication Code scheme and digital watermarking (WM) technology to organize an additional tag transmission channel. The method provides full compatibility with the existing AIS functionality.

Chinthavali, Supriya, Hasan, S.M.Shamimul, Yoginath, Srikanth, Xu, Haowen, Nugent, Phil, Jones, Terry, Engebretsen, Cozmo, Olatt, Joseph, Tansakul, Varisara, Christopher, Carter et al..  2022.  An Alternative Timing and Synchronization Approach for Situational Awareness and Predictive Analytics. 2022 IEEE 23rd International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration for Data Science (IRI). :172–177.

Accurate and synchronized timing information is required by power system operators for controlling the grid infrastructure (relays, Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs), etc.) and determining asset positions. Satellite-based global positioning system (GPS) is the primary source of timing information. However, GPS disruptions today (both intentional and unintentional) can significantly compromise the reliability and security of our electric grids. A robust alternate source for accurate timing is critical to serve both as a deterrent against malicious attacks and as a redundant system in enhancing the resilience against extreme events that could disrupt the GPS network. To achieve this, we rely on the highly accurate, terrestrial atomic clock-based network for alternative timing and synchronization. In this paper, we discuss an experimental setup for an alternative timing approach. The data obtained from this experimental setup is continuously monitored and analyzed using various time deviation metrics. We also use these metrics to compute deviations of our clock with respect to the National Institute of Standards and Technologys (NIST) GPS data. The results obtained from these metric computations are elaborately discussed. Finally, we discuss the integration of the procedures involved, like real-time data ingestion, metric computation, and result visualization, in a novel microservices-based architecture for situational awareness.

Khan, Rashid, Saxena, Neetesh, Rana, Omer, Gope, Prosanta.  2022.  ATVSA: Vehicle Driver Profiling for Situational Awareness. 2022 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy Workshops (EuroS&PW). :348–357.

Increasing connectivity and automation in vehicles leads to a greater potential attack surface. Such vulnerabilities within vehicles can also be used for auto-theft, increasing the potential for attackers to disable anti-theft mechanisms implemented by vehicle manufacturers. We utilize patterns derived from Controller Area Network (CAN) bus traffic to verify driver “behavior”, as a basis to prevent vehicle theft. Our proposed model uses semi-supervised learning that continuously profiles a driver, using features extracted from CAN bus traffic. We have selected 15 key features and obtained an accuracy of 99% using a dataset comprising a total of 51 features across 10 different drivers. We use a number of data analysis algorithms, such as J48, Random Forest, JRip and clustering, using 94K records. Our results show that J48 is the best performing algorithm in terms of training and testing (1.95 seconds and 0.44 seconds recorded, respectively). We also analyze the effect of using a sliding window on algorithm performance, altering the size of the window to identify the impact on prediction accuracy.

Leak, Matthew Haslett, Venayagamoorthy, Ganesh Kumar.  2022.  Situational Awareness of De-energized Lines During Loss of SCADA Communication in Electric Power Distribution Systems. 2022 IEEE/PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition (T&D). :1–5.

With the electric power distribution grid facing ever increasing complexity and new threats from cyber-attacks, situational awareness for system operators is quickly becoming indispensable. Identifying de-energized lines on the distribution system during a SCADA communication failure is a prime example where operators need to act quickly to deal with an emergent loss of service. Loss of cellular towers, poor signal strength, and even cyber-attacks can impact SCADA visibility of line devices on the distribution system. Neural Networks (NNs) provide a unique approach to learn the characteristics of normal system behavior, identify when abnormal conditions occur, and flag these conditions for system operators. This study applies a 24-hour load forecast for distribution line devices given the weather forecast and day of the week, then determines the current state of distribution devices based on changes in SCADA analogs from communicating line devices. A neural network-based algorithm is applied to historical events on Alabama Power's distribution system to identify de-energized sections of line when a significant amount of SCADA information is hidden.

Milov, Oleksandr, Khvostenko, Vladyslav, Natalia, Voropay, Korol, Olha, Zviertseva, Nataliia.  2022.  Situational Control of Cyber Security in Socio-Cyber-Physical Systems. 2022 International Congress on Human-Computer Interaction, Optimization and Robotic Applications (HORA). :1–6.

The features of socio-cyber-physical systems are presented, which dictate the need to revise traditional management methods and transform the management system in such a way that it takes into account the presence of a person both in the control object and in the control loop. The use of situational control mechanisms is proposed. The features of this approach and its comparison with existing methods of situational awareness are presented. The comparison has demonstrated wider possibilities and scope for managing socio-cyber-physical systems. It is recommended to consider a wider class of types of relations that exist in socio-cyber-physical systems. It is indicated that such consideration can be based on the use of pseudo-physical logics considered in situational control. It is pointed out that it is necessary to design a classifier of situations (primarily in cyberspace), instead of traditional classifiers of threats and intruders.

Djeachandrane, Abhishek, Hoceini, Said, Delmas, Serge, Duquerrois, Jean-Michel, Mellouk, Abdelhamid.  2022.  QoE-based Situational Awareness-Centric Decision Support for Network Video Surveillance. ICC 2022 - IEEE International Conference on Communications. :335–340.

Control room video surveillance is an important source of information for ensuring public safety. To facilitate the process, a Decision-Support System (DSS) designed for the security task force is vital and necessary to take decisions rapidly using a sea of information. In case of mission critical operation, Situational Awareness (SA) which consists of knowing what is going on around you at any given time plays a crucial role across a variety of industries and should be placed at the center of our DSS. In our approach, SA system will take advantage of the human factor thanks to the reinforcement signal whereas previous work on this field focus on improving knowledge level of DSS at first and then, uses the human factor only for decision-making. In this paper, we propose a situational awareness-centric decision-support system framework for mission-critical operations driven by Quality of Experience (QoE). Our idea is inspired by the reinforcement learning feedback process which updates the environment understanding of our DSS. The feedback is injected by a QoE built on user perception. Our approach will allow our DSS to evolve according to the context with an up-to-date SA.

Kim, Yeongwoo, Dán, György.  2022.  An Active Learning Approach to Dynamic Alert Prioritization for Real-time Situational Awareness. 2022 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :154–162.

Real-time situational awareness (SA) plays an essential role in accurate and timely incident response. Maintaining SA is, however, extremely costly due to excessive false alerts generated by intrusion detection systems, which require prioritization and manual investigation by security analysts. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to prioritizing alerts so as to maximize SA, by formulating the problem as that of active learning in a hidden Markov model (HMM). We propose to use the entropy of the belief of the security state as a proxy for the mean squared error (MSE) of the belief, and we develop two computationally tractable policies for choosing alerts to investigate that minimize the entropy, taking into account the potential uncertainty of the investigations' results. We use simulations to compare our policies to a variety of baseline policies. We find that our policies reduce the MSE of the belief of the security state by up to 50% compared to static baseline policies, and they are robust to high false alert rates and to the investigation errors.

Yong, Li, Mu, Chen, ZaoJian, Dai, Lu, Chen.  2022.  Security situation awareness method of power mobile application based on big data architecture. 2022 5th International Conference on Data Science and Information Technology (DSIT). :1–6.

According to the characteristics of security threats and massive users in power mobile applications, a mobile application security situational awareness method based on big data architecture is proposed. The method uses open-source big data technology frameworks such as Kafka, Flink, Elasticsearch, etc. to complete the collection, analysis, storage and visual display of massive power mobile application data, and improve the throughput of data processing. The security situation awareness method of power mobile application takes the mobile terminal threat index as the core, divides the risk level for the mobile terminal, and predicts the terminal threat index through support vector machine regression algorithm (SVR), so as to construct the security profile of the mobile application operation terminal. Finally, through visualization services, various data such as power mobile applications and terminal assets, security operation statistics, security strategies, and alarm analysis are displayed to guide security operation and maintenance personnel to carry out power mobile application security monitoring and early warning, banning disposal and traceability analysis and other decision-making work. The experimental analysis results show that the method can meet the requirements of security situation awareness for threat assessment accuracy and response speed, and the related results have been well applied in a power company.

Rasch, Martina, Martino, Antonio, Drobics, Mario, Merenda, Massimo.  2022.  Short-Term Time Series Forecasting based on Edge Machine Learning Techniques for IoT devices. 2022 7th International Conference on Smart and Sustainable Technologies (SpliTech). :1—5.
As the effects of climate change are becoming more and more evident, the importance of improved situation awareness is also gaining more attention, both in the context of preventive environmental monitoring and in the context of acute crisis response. One important aspect of situation awareness is the correct and thorough monitoring of air pollutants. The monitoring is threatened by sensor faults, power or network failures, or other hazards leading to missing or incorrect data transmission. For this reason, in this work we propose two complementary approaches for predicting missing sensor data and a combined technique for detecting outliers. The proposed solution can enhance the performance of low-cost sensor systems, closing the gap of missing measurements due to network unavailability, detecting drift and outliers thus paving the way to its use as an alert system for reportable events. The techniques have been deployed and tested also in a low power microcontroller environment, verifying the suitability of such a computing power to perform the inference locally, leading the way to an edge implementation of a virtual sensor digital twin.
Wolsing, Konrad, Saillard, Antoine, Bauer, Jan, Wagner, Eric, van Sloun, Christian, Fink, Ina Berenice, Schmidt, Mari, Wehrle, Klaus, Henze, Martin.  2022.  Network Attacks Against Marine Radar Systems: A Taxonomy, Simulation Environment, and Dataset. 2022 IEEE 47th Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN). :114—122.
Shipboard marine radar systems are essential for safe navigation, helping seafarers perceive their surroundings as they provide bearing and range estimations, object detection, and tracking. Since onboard systems have become increasingly digitized, interconnecting distributed electronics, radars have been integrated into modern bridge systems. But digitization increases the risk of cyberattacks, especially as vessels cannot be considered air-gapped. Consequently, in-depth security is crucial. However, particularly radar systems are not sufficiently protected against harmful network-level adversaries. Therefore, we ask: Can seafarers believe their eyes? In this paper, we identify possible attacks on radar communication and discuss how these threaten safe vessel operation in an attack taxonomy. Furthermore, we develop a holistic simulation environment with radar, complementary nautical sensors, and prototypically implemented cyberattacks from our taxonomy. Finally, leveraging this environment, we create a comprehensive dataset (RadarPWN) with radar network attacks that provides a foundation for future security research to secure marine radar communication.
Sharma, Himanshu, Kumar, Neeraj, Tekchandani, Raj Kumar, Mohammad, Nazeeruddin.  2022.  Deep Learning enabled Channel Secrecy Codes for Physical Layer Security of UAVs in 5G and beyond Networks. ICC 2022 - IEEE International Conference on Communications. :1—6.
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are drawing enormous attention in both commercial and military applications to facilitate dynamic wireless communications and deliver seamless connectivity due to their flexible deployment, inherent line-of-sight (LOS) air-to-ground (A2G) channels, and high mobility. These advantages, however, render UAV-enabled wireless communication systems susceptible to eavesdropping attempts. Hence, there is a strong need to protect the wireless channel through which most of the UAV-enabled applications share data with each other. There exist various error correction techniques such as Low Density Parity Check (LDPC), polar codes that provide safe and reliable data transmission by exploiting the physical layer but require high transmission power. Also, the security gap achieved by these error-correction techniques must be reduced to improve the security level. In this paper, we present deep learning (DL) enabled punctured LDPC codes to provide secure and reliable transmission of data for UAVs through the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel irrespective of the computational power and channel state information (CSI) of the Eavesdropper. Numerical result analysis shows that the proposed scheme reduces the Bit Error Rate (BER) at Bob effectively as compared to Eve and the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) per bit value of 3.5 dB is achieved at the maximum threshold value of BER. Also, the security gap is reduced by 47.22 % as compared to conventional LDPC codes.
Tabak, Z., Keko, H., Sučić, S..  2022.  Semantic data integration in upgrading hydro power plants cyber security. 2022 45th Jubilee International Convention on Information, Communication and Electronic Technology (MIPRO). :50—54.
In the recent years, we have witnessed quite notable cyber-attacks targeting industrial automation control systems. Upgrading their cyber security is a challenge, not only due to long equipment lifetimes and legacy protocols originally designed to run in air-gapped networks. Even where multiple data sources are available and collection established, data interpretation usable across the different data sources remains a challenge. A modern hydro power plant contains the data sources that range from the classical distributed control systems to newer IoT- based data sources, embedded directly within the plant equipment and deeply integrated in the process. Even abundant collected data does not solve the security problems by itself. The interpretation of data semantics is limited as the data is effectively siloed. In this paper, the relevance of semantic integration of diverse data sources is presented in the context of a hydro power plant. The proposed semantic integration would increase the data interoperability, unlocking the data siloes and thus allowing ingestion of complementary data sources. The principal target of the data interoperability is to support the data-enhanced cyber security in an operational hydro power plant context. Furthermore, the opening of the data siloes would enable additional usage of the existing data sources in a structured semantically enriched form.
Xu, Huikai, Yu, Miao, Wang, Yanhao, Liu, Yue, Hou, Qinsheng, Ma, Zhenbang, Duan, Haixin, Zhuge, Jianwei, Liu, Baojun.  2022.  Trampoline Over the Air: Breaking in IoT Devices Through MQTT Brokers. 2022 IEEE 7th European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS&P). :171—187.
MQTT is widely adopted by IoT devices because it allows for the most efficient data transfer over a variety of communication lines. The security of MQTT has received increasing attention in recent years, and several studies have demonstrated the configurations of many MQTT brokers are insecure. Adversaries are allowed to exploit vulnerable brokers and publish malicious messages to subscribers. However, little has been done to understanding the security issues on the device side when devices handle unauthorized MQTT messages. To fill this research gap, we propose a fuzzing framework named ShadowFuzzer to find client-side vulnerabilities when processing incoming MQTT messages. To avoiding ethical issues, ShadowFuzzer redirects traffic destined for the actual broker to a shadow broker under the control to monitor vulnerabilities. We select 15 IoT devices communicating with vulnerable brokers and leverage ShadowFuzzer to find vulnerabilities when they parse MQTT messages. For these devices, ShadowFuzzer reports 34 zero-day vulnerabilities in 11 devices. We evaluated the exploitability of these vulnerabilities and received a total of 44,000 USD bug bounty rewards. And 16 CVE/CNVD/CN-NVD numbers have been assigned to us.
Shaikh, Rizwan Ahmed, Sohaib Khan, Muhammad, Rashid, Imran, Abbas, Haidar, Naeem, Farrukh, Siddiqi, Muhammad Haroon.  2022.  A Framework for Human Error, Weaknesses, Threats & Mitigation Measures in an Airgapped Network. 2022 2nd International Conference on Digital Futures and Transformative Technologies (ICoDT2). :1—8.
Many organizations process and store classified data within their computer networks. Owing to the value of data that they hold; such organizations are more vulnerable to targets from adversaries. Accordingly, the sensitive organizations resort to an ‘air-gap’ approach on their networks, to ensure better protection. However, despite the physical and logical isolation, the attackers have successfully manifested their capabilities by compromising such networks; examples of Stuxnet and Agent.btz in view. Such attacks were possible due to the successful manipulation of human beings. It has been observed that to build up such attacks, persistent reconnaissance of the employees, and their data collection often forms the first step. With the rapid integration of social media into our daily lives, the prospects for data-seekers through that platform are higher. The inherent risks and vulnerabilities of social networking sites/apps have cultivated a rich environment for foreign adversaries to cherry-pick personal information and carry out successful profiling of employees assigned with sensitive appointments. With further targeted social engineering techniques against the identified employees and their families, attackers extract more and more relevant data to make an intelligent picture. Finally, all the information is fused to design their further sophisticated attacks against the air-gapped facility for data pilferage. In this regard, the success of the adversaries in harvesting the personal information of the victims largely depends upon the common errors committed by legitimate users while on duty, in transit, and after their retreat. Such errors would keep on repeating unless these are aligned with their underlying human behaviors and weaknesses, and the requisite mitigation framework is worked out.
Daughety, Nathan, Pendleton, Marcus, Perez, Rebeca, Xu, Shouhuai, Franco, John.  2022.  Auditing a Software-Defined Cross Domain Solution Architecture. 2022 IEEE International Conference on Cyber Security and Resilience (CSR). :96—103.
In the context of cybersecurity systems, trust is the firm belief that a system will behave as expected. Trustworthiness is the proven property of a system that is worthy of trust. Therefore, trust is ephemeral, i.e. trust can be broken; trustworthiness is perpetual, i.e. trustworthiness is verified and cannot be broken. The gap between these two concepts is one which is, alarmingly, often overlooked. In fact, the pressure to meet with the pace of operations for mission critical cross domain solution (CDS) development has resulted in a status quo of high-risk, ad hoc solutions. Trustworthiness, proven through formal verification, should be an essential property in any hardware and/or software security system. We have shown, in "vCDS: A Virtualized Cross Domain Solution Architecture", that developing a formally verified CDS is possible. virtual CDS (vCDS) additionally comes with security guarantees, i.e. confidentiality, integrity, and availability, through the use of a formally verified trusted computing base (TCB). In order for a system, defined by an architecture description language (ADL), to be considered trustworthy, the implemented security configuration, i.e. access control and data protection models, must be verified correct. In this paper we present the first and only security auditing tool which seeks to verify the security configuration of a CDS architecture defined through ADL description. This tool is useful in mitigating the risk of existing solutions by ensuring proper security enforcement. Furthermore, when coupled with the agile nature of vCDS, this tool significantly increases the pace of system delivery.