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2020-07-13
Xiao, Yonggang, Liu, Yanbing.  2019.  BayesTrust and VehicleRank: Constructing an Implicit Web of Trust in VANET. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology. 68:2850–2864.
As Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) features random topology and accommodates freely connected nodes, it is important that the cooperation among the nodes exists. This paper proposes a trust model called Implicit Web of Trust in VANET (IWOT-V) to reason out the trustworthiness of vehicles. Such that untrusted nodes can be identified and avoided when we make a decision regarding whom to follow or cooperate with. Furthermore, the performance of Cooperative Intelligent Transport System (C-ITS) applications improves. The idea of IWOT-V is mainly inspired by web page ranking algorithms such as PageRank. Although there does not exist explicit link structure in VANET because of random topology and dynamic connections, social trust relationship among vehicles exists and an implicit web of trust can be derived. To accomplish the derivation, two algorithms are presented, i.e., BayesTrust and VehicleRank. They are responsible for deriving the local and global trust relationships, respectively. The simulation results show that IWOT-V can accurately identify trusted and untrusted nodes if enough local trust information is collected. The performance of IWOT-V affected by five threat models is demonstrated, and the related discussions are also given.
Grüner, Andreas, Mühle, Alexander, Meinel, Christoph.  2019.  Using Probabilistic Attribute Aggregation for Increasing Trust in Attribute Assurance. 2019 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence (SSCI). :633–640.
Identity management is an essential cornerstone of securing online services. Service provisioning relies on correct and valid attributes of a digital identity. Therefore, the identity provider is a trusted third party with a specific trust requirement towards a verified attribute supply. This trust demand implies a significant dependency on users and service providers. We propose a novel attribute aggregation method to reduce the reliance on one identity provider. Trust in an attribute is modelled as a combined assurance of several identity providers based on probability distributions. We formally describe the proposed aggregation model. The resulting trust model is implemented in a gateway that is used for authentication with self-sovereign identity solutions. Thereby, we devise a service provider specific web of trust that constitutes an intermediate approach bridging a global hierarchical model and a locally decentralized peer to peer scheme.
Agrawal, Shriyansh, Sanagavarapu, Lalit Mohan, Reddy, YR.  2019.  FACT - Fine grained Assessment of web page CredibiliTy. TENCON 2019 - 2019 IEEE Region 10 Conference (TENCON). :1088–1097.
With more than a trillion web pages, there is a plethora of content available for consumption. Search Engine queries invariably lead to overwhelming information, parts of it relevant and some others irrelevant. Often the information provided can be conflicting, ambiguous, and inconsistent contributing to the loss of credibility of the content. In the past, researchers have proposed approaches for credibility assessment and enumerated factors influencing the credibility of web pages. In this work, we detailed a WEBCred framework for automated genre-aware credibility assessment of web pages. We developed a tool based on the proposed framework to extract web page features instances and identify genre a web page belongs to while assessing it's Genre Credibility Score ( GCS). We validated our approach on `Information Security' dataset of 8,550 URLs with 171 features across 7 genres. The supervised learning algorithm, Gradient Boosted Decision Tree classified genres with 88.75% testing accuracy over 10 fold cross-validation, an improvement over the current benchmark. We also examined our approach on `Health' domain web pages and had comparable results. The calculated GCS correlated 69% with crowdsourced Web Of Trust ( WOT) score and 13% with algorithm based Alexa ranking across 5 Information security groups. This variance in correlation states that our GCS approach aligns with human way ( WOT) as compared to algorithmic way (Alexa) of web assessment in both the experiments.
Paschalides, Demetris, Christodoulou, Chrysovalantis, Andreou, Rafael, Pallis, George, Dikaiakos, Marios D., Kornilakis, Alexandros, Markatos, Evangelos.  2019.  Check-It: A plugin for Detecting and Reducing the Spread of Fake News and Misinformation on the Web. 2019 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence (WI). :298–302.
Over the past few years, we have been witnessing the rise of misinformation on the Internet. People fall victims of fake news continuously, and contribute to their propagation knowingly or inadvertently. Many recent efforts seek to reduce the damage caused by fake news by identifying them automatically with artificial intelligence techniques, using signals from domain flag-lists, online social networks, etc. In this work, we present Check-It, a system that combines a variety of signals into a pipeline for fake news identification. Check-It is developed as a web browser plugin with the objective of efficient and timely fake news detection, while respecting user privacy. In this paper, we present the design, implementation and performance evaluation of Check-It. Experimental results show that it outperforms state-of-the-art methods on commonly-used datasets.
Hepp, Thomas, Spaeh, Fabian, Schoenhals, Alexander, Ehret, Philip, Gipp, Bela.  2019.  Exploring Potentials and Challenges of Blockchain-based Public Key Infrastructures. IEEE INFOCOM 2019 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS). :847–852.
Traditional public key infrastructures (PKIs), in particular, X.509 and PGP, is plagued by security and usability issues. As reoccurring incidents show, these are not only of theoretical nature but allow attackers to inflict severe damage. Emerging blockchain technology allows for advances in this area, facilitating a trustless immutable ledger with fast consensus. There have been numerous proposals for utilization of the blockchain in the area of PKI, either as extensions upon existing methods or independent solutions. In this paper, we first study traditional PKI, then proceed with novel approaches, showing how they can improve upon recent issues. We provide a comprehensive evaluation, finding that independent blockchain-based solutions are preferable in the future, mainly due to their stronger security. However, global adoption of these yet requires advances in blockchain development, e.g., concerning scalability.
Kurbatov, Oleksandr, Shapoval, Oleksiy, Poluyanenko, Nikolay, Kuznetsova, Tetiana, Kravchenko, Pavel.  2019.  Decentralized Identification and Certification System. 2019 IEEE International Scientific-Practical Conference Problems of Infocommunications, Science and Technology (PIC S T). :507–510.
This article describes an approach to identification and certification in decentralized environment. The protocol proposes a way of integration for blockchain technology and web-of-trust concept to create decentralized public key infrastructure with flexible management for user identificators. Besides changing the current public key infrastructure, this system can be used in the Internet of Things (IoT). Each individual IoT sensor must correctly communicate with other components of the system it's in. To provide safe interaction, components should exchange encrypted messages with ability to check their integrity and authenticity, which is presented by this scheme.
2020-06-29
Sebbar, Anass, Zkik, Karim, Baadi, Youssef, Boulmalf, Mohammed, ECH-CHERIF El KETTANI, Mohamed Dafir.  2019.  Using advanced detection and prevention technique to mitigate threats in SDN architecture. 2019 15th International Wireless Communications Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC). :90–95.
Software defined networks represent a new centralized network abstraction that aims to ease configuration and facilitate applications and services deployment to manage the upper layers. However, SDN faces several challenges that slow down its implementation such as security which represents one of the top concerns of SDN experts. Indeed, SDN inherits all security matters from traditional networks and suffers from some additional vulnerability due to its centralized and unique architecture. Using traditional security devices and solutions to mitigate SDN threats can be very complicated and can negatively effect the networks performance. In this paper we propose a study that measures the impact of using some well-known security solution to mitigate intrusions on SDN's performances. We will also present an algorithm named KPG-MT adapted to SDN architecture that aims to mitigate threats such as a Man in the Middle, Deny of Services and malware-based attacks. An implementation of our algorithm based on multiple attacks' scenarios and mitigation processes will be made to prove the efficiency of the proposed framework.
Jamader, Asik Rahaman, Das, Puja, Acharya, Biswa Ranjan.  2019.  BcIoT: Blockchain based DDos Prevention Architecture for IoT. 2019 International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control Systems (ICCS). :377–382.
The Internet of Things (IoT) visualizes a massive network with billions of interaction among smart things which are capable of contributing all sorts of services. Self-configuring things (nodes) are connected dynamically with a global network in IoT scenario. The small things are widely spread in a real world paradigm with minimal processing capacity and limited storage. The recent IoT technologies have more concerns about the security, privacy and reliability. Sharing personal data over the centralized system still remains as a challenging task. If the infrastructure is able to provide the assurance for transferring the data but for now it requires special attention on security and data consistency. Because, centralized system and infrastructure is viewed as a more attractive point for hacker or cyber-attacker. To solve this we present a secured smart contract based on Blockchain to develop a secured communicative network. A Hash based secret key is used for encryption and decryption purposes. A demo attack is done for developing a better understanding on blockchain technology in terms of their comparison and calculation.
Sultana, Subrina, Nasrin, Sumaiya, Lipi, Farhana Kabir, Hossain, Md Afzal, Sultana, Zinia, Jannat, Fatima.  2019.  Detecting and Preventing IP Spoofing and Local Area Network Denial (LAND) Attack for Cloud Computing with the Modification of Hop Count Filtering (HCF) Mechanism. 2019 International Conference on Computer, Communication, Chemical, Materials and Electronic Engineering (IC4ME2). :1–6.
In today's world the number of consumers of cloud computing is increasing day by day. So, security is a big concern for cloud computing environment to keep user's data safe and secure. Among different types of attacks in cloud one of the harmful and frequently occurred attack is Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack. DDoS is one type of flooding attack which is initiated by sending a large number of invalid packets to limit the services of the victim server. As a result, server can not serve the legitimate requests. DDoS attack can be done by a lot of strategies like malformed packets, IP spoofing, smurf attack, teardrop attack, syn flood attack, local area network denial (LAND) attack etc. This paper focuses on IP spoofing and LAND based DDoS attack. The objective of this paper is to propose an algorithm to detect and prevent IP spoofing and LAND attack. To achieve this objective a new approach is proposed combining two existing solutions of DDoS attack caused by IP spoofing and ill-formed packets. The proposed approach will provide a transparent solution, filter out the spoofed packets and minimize memory exhaustion through minimizing the number of insertions and updates required in the datatable. Finally, the approach is implemented and simulated using CloudSim 3.0 toolkit (a virtual cloud environment) followed by result analysis and comparison with existing algorithms.
Luo, Wenliang, Han, Wenzhi.  2019.  DDOS Defense Strategy in Software Definition Networks. 2019 International Conference on Computer Network, Electronic and Automation (ICCNEA). :186–190.
With the advent of the network economy and the network society, the network will enter a ubiquitous and omnipresent situation. Economic, cultural, military and social life will strongly depend on the network, while network security issues have become a common concern of all countries in the world. DDOS attack is undoubtedly one of the greatest threats to network security and the defense against DDOS attack is very important. In this paper, the principle of DDOS attack is summarized from the defensive purpose. Then the attack prevention in software definition network is analyzed, and the source, intermediate network, victim and distributed defense strategies are elaborated.
Ahuja, Nisha, Singal, Gaurav.  2019.  DDOS Attack Detection Prevention in SDN using OpenFlow Statistics. 2019 IEEE 9th International Conference on Advanced Computing (IACC). :147–152.
Software defined Network is a network defined by software, which is one of the important feature which makes the legacy old networks to be flexible for dynamic configuration and so can cater to today's dynamic application requirement. It is a programmable network but it is prone to different type of attacks due to its centralized architecture. The author provided a solution to detect and prevent Distributed Denial of service attack in the paper. Mininet [5] which is a popular emulator for Software defined Network is used. We followed the approach in which collection of the traffic statistics from the various switches is done. After collection we calculated the packet rate and bandwidth which shoots up to high values when attack take place. The abrupt increase detects the attack which is then prevented by changing the forwarding logic of the host nodes to drop the packets instead of forwarding. After this, no more packets will be forwarded and then we also delete the forwarding rule in the flow table. Hence, we are finding out the change in packet rate and bandwidth to detect the attack and to prevent the attack we modify the forwarding logic of the switch flow table to drop the packets coming from malicious host instead of forwarding it.
Kaljic, Enio, Maric, Almir, Njemcevic, Pamela.  2019.  DoS attack mitigation in SDN networks using a deeply programmable packet-switching node based on a hybrid FPGA/CPU data plane architecture. 2019 XXVII International Conference on Information, Communication and Automation Technologies (ICAT). :1–6.
The application of the concept of software-defined networks (SDN) has, on the one hand, led to the simplification and reduction of switches price, and on the other hand, has created a significant number of problems related to the security of the SDN network. In several studies was noted that these problems are related to the lack of flexibility and programmability of the data plane, which is likely first to suffer potential denial-of-service (DoS) attacks. One possible way to overcome this problem is to increase the flexibility of the data plane by increasing the depth of programmability of the packet-switching nodes below the level of flow table management. Therefore, this paper investigates the opportunity of using the architecture of deeply programmable packet-switching nodes (DPPSN) in the implementation of a firewall. Then, an architectural model of the firewall based on a hybrid FPGA/CPU data plane architecture has been proposed and implemented. Realized firewall supports three models of DoS attacks mitigation: DoS traffic filtering on the output interface, DoS traffic filtering on the input interface, and DoS attack redirection to the honeypot. Experimental evaluation of the implemented firewall has shown that DoS traffic filtering at the input interface is the best strategy for DoS attack mitigation, which justified the application of the concept of deep network programmability.
Rahman, Md. Mahmudur, Roy, Shanto, Yousuf, Mohammad Abu.  2019.  DDoS Mitigation and Intrusion Prevention in Content Delivery Networks using Distributed Virtual Honeypots. 2019 1st International Conference on Advances in Science, Engineering and Robotics Technology (ICASERT). :1–6.

Content Delivery Networks(CDN) is a standout amongst the most encouraging innovations that upgrade performance for its clients' websites by diverting web demands from browsers to topographically dispersed CDN surrogate nodes. However, due to the variable nature of CDN, it suffers from various security and resource allocation issues. The most common attack which is used to bring down a whole network as well as CDN without even finding a loophole in the security is DDoS. In this proposal, we proposed a distributed virtual honeypot model for diminishing DDoS attacks and prevent intrusion in securing CDN. Honeypots are specially utilized to imitate the primary server with the goal that the attack is alleviated to the fake rather than the main server. Our proposed layer based model utilizes honeypot to be more effective reducing the cost of the system as well as maintaining the smooth delivery in geographically dispersed servers without performance degradation.

Ahalawat, Anchal, Dash, Shashank Sekhar, Panda, Abinas, Babu, Korra Sathya.  2019.  Entropy Based DDoS Detection and Mitigation in OpenFlow Enabled SDN. 2019 International Conference on Vision Towards Emerging Trends in Communication and Networking (ViTECoN). :1–5.
Distributed Denial of Service(DDoS) attacks have become most important network security threat as the number of devices are connected to internet increases exponentially and reaching an attack volume approximately very high compared to other attacks. To make the network safe and flexible a new networking infrastructure such as Software Defined Networking (SDN) has come into effect, which relies on centralized controller and decoupling of control and data plane. However due to it's centralized controller it is prone to DDoS attacks, as it makes the decision of forwarding of packets based on rules installed in switch by OpenFlow protocol. Out of all different DDoS attacks, UDP (User Datagram Protocol) flooding constitute the most in recent years. In this paper, we have proposed an entropy based DDoS detection and rate limiting based mitigation for efficient service delivery. We have evaluated using Mininet as emulator and Ryu as controller by taking switch as OpenVswitch and obtained better result in terms of bandwidth utilization and hit ratio which consume network resources to make denial of service.
Giri, Nupur, Jaisinghani, Rahul, Kriplani, Rohit, Ramrakhyani, Tarun, Bhatia, Vinay.  2019.  Distributed Denial Of Service(DDoS) Mitigation in Software Defined Network using Blockchain. 2019 Third International conference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC). :673–678.
A DDoS attack is a spiteful attempt to disrupt legitimate traffic to a server by overwhelming the target with a flood of requests from geographically dispersed systems. Today attackers prefer DDoS attack methods to disrupt target services as they generate GBs to TBs of random data to flood the target. In existing mitigation strategies, because of lack of resources and not having the flexibility to cope with attacks by themselves, they are not considered to be that effective. So effective DDoS mitigation techniques can be provided using emerging technologies such as blockchain and SDN(Software-Defined Networking). We propose an architecture where a smart contract is deployed in a private blockchain, which facilitates a collaborative DDoS mitigation architecture across multiple network domains. Blockchain application is used as an additional security service. With Blockchain, shared protection is enabled among all hosts. With help of smart contracts, rules are distributed among all hosts. In addition, SDN can effectively enable services and security policies dynamically. This mechanism provides ASes(Autonomous Systems) the possibility to deploy their own DPS(DDoS Prevention Service) and there is no need to transfer control of the network to the third party. This paper focuses on the challenges of protecting a hybridized enterprise from the ravages of rapidly evolving Distributed Denial of Service(DDoS) attack.
Blazek, Petr, Gerlich, Tomas, Martinasek, Zdenek.  2019.  Scalable DDoS Mitigation System. 2019 42nd International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing (TSP). :617–620.
Distributed Denial of Service attacks (DDoS) are used by attackers for their effectiveness. This type of attack is one of the most devastating attacks in the Internet. Every year, the intensity of DDoS attacks increases and attackers use sophisticated multi-target DDoS attacks. In this paper, a modular system that allows to increase the filtering capacity linearly and allows to protect against the combination of DDoS attacks is designed and implemented. The main motivation for development of the modular filtering system was to find a cheap solution for filtering DDoS attacks with possibility to increase filtering capacity. The proposed system is based on open-source detection and filtration tools.
Yadav, Sanjay Kumar, Suguna, P, Velusamy, R. Leela.  2019.  Entropy based mitigation of Distributed-Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attack on Control Plane in Software-Defined-Network (SDN). 2019 10th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1–7.
SDN is new networking concept which has revolutionized the network architecture in recent years. It decouples control plane from data plane. Architectural change provides re-programmability and centralized control management of the network. At the same time it also increases the complexity of underlying physical infrastructure of the network. Unfortunately, the centralized control of the network introduces new vulnerabilities and attacks. Attackers can exploit the limitation of centralized control by DDoS attack on control plane. The entire network can be compromised by DDoS attack. Based on packet entropy, a solution for mitigation of DDoS attack provided in the proposed scheme.
Xuanyuan, Ming, Ramsurrun, Visham, Seeam, Amar.  2019.  Detection and Mitigation of DDoS Attacks Using Conditional Entropy in Software-defined Networking. 2019 11th International Conference on Advanced Computing (ICoAC). :66–71.
Software-defined networking (SDN) is a relatively new technology that promotes network revolution. The most distinct characteristic of SDN is the transformation of control logic from the basic packet forwarding equipment to a centralized management unit called controller. However, the centralized control of the network resources is like a double-edged sword, for it not only brings beneficial features but also introduces single point of failure if the controller is under distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks. In this paper, we introduce a light-weight approach based on conditional entropy to improve the SDN security with an aim of defending DDoS at the early stage. The experimental results show that the proposed method has a high average detection rate of 99.372%.
Daneshgadeh, Salva, Ahmed, Tarem, Kemmerich, Thomas, Baykal, Nazife.  2019.  Detection of DDoS Attacks and Flash Events Using Shannon Entropy, KOAD and Mahalanobis Distance. 2019 22nd Conference on Innovation in Clouds, Internet and Networks and Workshops (ICIN). :222–229.
The growing number of internet based services and applications along with increasing adoption rate of connected wired and wireless devices presents opportunities as well as technical challenges and threads. Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks have huge devastating effects on internet enabled services. It can be implemented diversely with a variety of tools and codes. Therefore, it is almost impossible to define a single solution to prevent DDoS attacks. The available solutions try to protect internet services from DDoS attacks, but there is no accepted best-practice yet to this security breach. On the other hand, distinguishing DDoS attacks from analogous Flash Events (FEs) wherein huge number of legitimate users try to access a specific internet based services and applications is a tough challenge. Both DDoS attacks and FEs result in unavailability of service, but they should be treated with different countermeasures. Therefore, it is worthwhile to investigate novel methods which can detect well disguising DDoS attacks from similar FE traffic. This paper will contribute to this topic by proposing a hybrid DDoS and FE detection scheme; taking 3 isolated approaches including Kernel Online Anomaly Detection (KOAD), Shannon Entropy and Mahalanobis Distance. In this study, Shannon entropy is utilized with an online machine learning technique to detect abnormal traffic including DDoS attacks and FE traffic. Subsequently, the Mahalanobis distance metric is employed to differentiate DDoS and FE traffic. the purposed method is validated using simulated DDoS attacks, real normal and FE traffic. The results revealed that the Mahalanobis distance metric works well in combination with machine learning approach to detect and discriminate DDoS and FE traffic in terms of false alarms and detection rate.
Tran, Thang M., Nguyen, Khanh-Van.  2019.  Fast Detection and Mitigation to DDoS Web Attack Based on Access Frequency. 2019 IEEE-RIVF International Conference on Computing and Communication Technologies (RIVF). :1–6.

We have been investigating methods for establishing an effective, immediate defense mechanism against the DDoS attacks on Web applications via hacker botnets, in which this defense mechanism can be immediately active without preparation time, e.g. for training data, usually asked for in existing proposals. In this study, we propose a new mechanism, including new data structures and algorithms, that allow the detection and filtering of large amounts of attack packets (Web request) based on monitoring and capturing the suspect groups of source IPs that can be sending packets at similar patterns, i.e. with very high and similar frequencies. The proposed algorithm places great emphasis on reducing storage space and processing time so it is promising to be effective in real-time attack response.

Das, Saikat, Mahfouz, Ahmed M., Venugopal, Deepak, Shiva, Sajjan.  2019.  DDoS Intrusion Detection Through Machine Learning Ensemble. 2019 IEEE 19th International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion (QRS-C). :471–477.
Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks have been the prominent attacks over the last decade. A Network Intrusion Detection System (NIDS) should seamlessly configure to fight against these attackers' new approaches and patterns of DDoS attack. In this paper, we propose a NIDS which can detect existing as well as new types of DDoS attacks. The key feature of our NIDS is that it combines different classifiers using ensemble models, with the idea that each classifier can target specific aspects/types of intrusions, and in doing so provides a more robust defense mechanism against new intrusions. Further, we perform a detailed analysis of DDoS attacks, and based on this domain-knowledge verify the reduced feature set [27, 28] to significantly improve accuracy. We experiment with and analyze NSL-KDD dataset with reduced feature set and our proposed NIDS can detect 99.1% of DDoS attacks successfully. We compare our results with other existing approaches. Our NIDS approach has the learning capability to keep up with new and emerging DDoS attack patterns.
Nenova, Maria, Atanasov, Denis, Kassev, Kiril, Nenov, Andon.  2019.  Intrusion Detection System Model Implementation against DDOS attacks. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Microwaves, Antennas, Communications and Electronic Systems (COMCAS). :1–4.
In the paper is presented implementation of a system for detecting intrusion actions. An implementation of intrusion detection systems (IDS), their architectures, and intrusion detection methods are investigated. Analyzed are methods for SNORT (IDS) bandwidth traffic analysis in intrusion detection and prevention systems. The main requirements for Installation and configuration of the system are also discussed. Then the configuration of the firewall policy and specifics there, are also presented. It is also described the database structure, the operating modes, and analysis of the rules. Two of the most commonly implemented attacks and model for defense against them is proposed.
Wehbi, Khadijeh, Hong, Liang, Al-salah, Tulha, Bhutta, Adeel A.  2019.  A Survey on Machine Learning Based Detection on DDoS Attacks for IoT Systems. 2019 SoutheastCon. :1–6.
Internet of Things (IoT) is transforming the way we live today, improving the quality of living standard and growing the world economy by having smart devices around us making decisions and performing our daily tasks and chores. However, securing the IoT system from malicious attacks is a very challenging task. Some of the most common malicious attacks are Denial of service (DoS), and Distributed Denial of service (DDoS) attacks, which have been causing major security threats to all networks and specifically to limited resource IoT devices. As security will always be a primary factor for enabling most IoT applications, developing a comprehensive detection method that effectively defends against DDoS attacks and can provide 100% detection for DDoS attacks in IoT is a primary goal for the future of IoT. The development of such a method requires a deep understanding of the methods that have been used thus far in the detection of DDoS attacks in the IoT environment. In our survey, we try to emphasize some of the most recent Machine Learning (ML) approaches developed for the detection of DDoS attacks in IoT networks along with their advantage and disadvantages. Comparison between the performances of selected approaches is also provided.
Ateş, Çağatay, Özdel, Süleyman, Yıldırım, Metehan, Anarım, Emin.  2019.  DDoS Attack Detection Using Greedy Algorithm and Frequency Modulation. 2019 27th Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (SIU). :1–4.
Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack is one of the major threats to the network services. In this paper, we propose a DDoS attack detection algorithm based on the probability distributions of source IP addresses and destination IP addresses. According to the behavior of source and destination IP addresses during DDoS attack, the distance between these features is calculated and used.It is calculated with using the Greedy algorithm which eliminates some requirements associated with Kullback-Leibler divergence such as having the same rank of the probability distributions. Then frequency modulation is proposed in the detection phase to reduce false alarm rates and to avoid using static threshold. This algorithm is tested on the real data collected from Boğaziçi University network.
Liang, Xiaoyu, Znati, Taieb.  2019.  An empirical study of intelligent approaches to DDoS detection in large scale networks. 2019 International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications (ICNC). :821–827.
Distributed Denial of Services (DDoS) attacks continue to be one of the most challenging threats to the Internet. The intensity and frequency of these attacks are increasing at an alarming rate. Numerous schemes have been proposed to mitigate the impact of DDoS attacks. This paper presents a comprehensive empirical evaluation of Machine Learning (ML)based DDoS detection techniques, to gain better understanding of their performance in different types of environments. To this end, a framework is developed, focusing on different attack scenarios, to investigate the performance of a class of ML-based techniques. The evaluation uses different performance metrics, including the impact of the “Class Imbalance Problem” on ML-based DDoS detection. The results of the comparative analysis show that no one technique outperforms all others in all test cases. Furthermore, the results underscore the need for a method oriented feature selection model to enhance the capabilities of ML-based detection techniques. Finally, the results show that the class imbalance problem significantly impacts performance, underscoring the need to address this problem in order to enhance ML-based DDoS detection capabilities.