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Zhang, Ming, Shang, Yong, Zhao, Yaohuan.  2020.  Strategy of Relay Selection and Cooperative Jammer Beamforming in Physical Layer Security. 2020 IEEE 92nd Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2020-Fall). :1–6.
In this paper, a novel strategy of relay selection and cooperative jammer beamforming is proposed. The proposed scheme selects one node from the intermediate nodes as relay and the rest nodes as friendly jammers. The relay operates in amplify-and-forward (AF) strategy. Jammer weights are derived to null the jamming signals at the destination and relay node and maximize the jamming signal at the eavesdropper. Furthermore, a closed-form optimal solution of power allocation between the selected relay and cooperative jammers is derived. Numerical simulation results show that the proposed scheme can outperform the conventional schemes at the same power consumption.
Tomasin, Stefano, Hidalgo, Javier German Luzon.  2021.  Virtual Private Mobile Network with Multiple Gateways for B5G Location Privacy. 2021 IEEE 94th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2021-Fall). :1–6.
In a beyond-5G (B5G) scenario, we consider a virtual private mobile network (VPMN), i.e., a set of user equipments (UEs) directly communicating in a device-to-device (D2D) fashion, and connected to the cellular network by multiple gateways. The purpose of the VPMN is to hide the position of the VPMN UEs to the mobile network operator (MNO). We investigate the design and performance of packet routing inside the VPMN. First, we note that the routing that maximizes the rate between the VPMN and the cellular network leads to an unbalanced use of the gateways by each UE. In turn, this reveals information on the location of the VPMN UEs. Therefore, we derive a routing algorithm that maximizes the VPMN rate, while imposing for each UE the same data rate at each gateway, thus hiding the location of the UE. We compare the performance of the resulting solution, assessing the location privacy achieved by the VPMN, and considering both the case of single hop and multihop in the transmissions from the UEs to the gateways.
Liu, Yang, Wang, Meng, Xu, Jing, Gong, Shimin, Hoang, Dinh Thai, Niyato, Dusit.  2021.  Boosting Secret Key Generation for IRS-Assisted Symbiotic Radio Communications. 2021 IEEE 93rd Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2021-Spring). :1—6.
Symbiotic radio (SR) has recently emerged as a promising technology to boost spectrum efficiency of wireless communications by allowing reflective communications underlying the active RF communications. In this paper, we leverage SR to boost physical layer security by using an array of passive reflecting elements constituting the intelligent reflecting surface (IRS), which is reconfigurable to induce diverse RF radiation patterns. In particular, by switching the IRS's phase shifting matrices, we can proactively create dynamic channel conditions, which can be exploited by the transceivers to extract common channel features and thus used to generate secret keys for encrypted data transmissions. As such, we firstly present the design principles for IRS-assisted key generation and verify a performance improvement in terms of the secret key generation rate (KGR). Our analysis reveals that the IRS's random phase shifting may result in a non-uniform channel distribution that limits the KGR. Therefore, to maximize the KGR, we propose both a heuristic scheme and deep reinforcement learning (DRL) to control the switching of the IRS's phase shifting matrices. Simulation results show that the DRL approach for IRS-assisted key generation can significantly improve the KGR.
Grewe, Dennis, Wagner, Marco, Ambalavanan, Uthra, Liu, Liming, Nayak, Naresh, Schildt, Sebastian.  2021.  On the Design of an Information-Centric Networking Extension for IoT APIs. 2021 IEEE 94th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2021-Fall). :1–6.
Both the Internet of Things (IoT) and Information Centric Networking (ICN) have gathered a lot of attention from both research and industry in recent years. While ICN has proved to be beneficial in many situations, it is not widely deployed outside research projects, also not addressing needs of IoT application programming interfaces (APIs). On the other hand, today's IoT solutions are built on top of the host-centric communication model associated with the usage of the Internet Protocol (IP). This paper contributes a discussion on the need of an integration of a specific form of IoT APIs, namely WebSocket based streaming APIs, into an ICN. Furthermore, different access models are discussed and requirements are derived from real world APIs. Finally, the design of an ICN-style extension is presented using one of the examined APIs.
Wu, Peiyan, Chen, Wenbin, Wu, Hualin, Qi, Ke, Liu, Miao.  2021.  Enhanced Game Theoretical Spectrum Sharing Method Based on Blockchain Consensus. 2021 IEEE 94th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2021-Fall). :1–7.
The limited spectrum resources need to provide safe and efficient spectrum service for the intensive users. Malicious spectrum work nodes will affect the normal operation of the entire system. Using the blockchain model, consensus algorithm Praft based on optimized Raft is to solve the consensus problem in Byzantine environment. Message digital signatures give the spectrum node some fault tolerance and tamper resistance. Spectrum sharing among spectrum nodes is carried out in combination with game theory. The existing game theoretical algorithm does not consider the influence of spectrum occupancy of primary users and cognitive users on primary users' utility and enthusiasm at the same time. We elicits a reinforcement factor and analyzes the effect of the reinforcement factor on strategy performance. This scheme optimizes the previous strategy so that the profits of spectrum nodes are improved and a good Nash equilibrium is shown, while Praft solves the Byzantine problem left by Raft.
Shi, Jibo, Lin, Yun, Zhang, Zherui, Yu, Shui.  2021.  A Hybrid Intrusion Detection System Based on Machine Learning under Differential Privacy Protection. 2021 IEEE 94th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2021-Fall). :1–6.

With the development of network, network security has become a topic of increasing concern. Recent years, machine learning technology has become an effective means of network intrusion detection. However, machine learning technology requires a large amount of data for training, and training data often contains privacy information, which brings a great risk of privacy leakage. At present, there are few researches on data privacy protection in the field of intrusion detection. Regarding the issue of privacy and security, we combine differential privacy and machine learning algorithms, including One-class Support Vector Machine (OCSVM) and Local Outlier Factor(LOF), to propose an hybrid intrusion detection system (IDS) with privacy protection. We add Laplacian noise to the original network intrusion detection data set to get differential privacy data sets with different privacy budgets, and proposed a hybrid IDS model based on machine learning to verify their utility. Experiments show that while protecting data privacy, the hybrid IDS can achieve detection accuracy comparable to traditional machine learning algorithms.

Wilms, Daniel, Stoecker, Carsten, Caballero, Juan.  2021.  Data Provenance in Vehicle Data Chains. 2021 IEEE 93rd Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2021-Spring). :1–5.
With almost every new vehicle being connected, the importance of vehicle data is growing rapidly. Many mobility applications rely on the fusion of data coming from heterogeneous data sources, like vehicle and "smart-city" data or process data generated by systems out of their control. This external data determines much about the behaviour of the relying applications: it impacts the reliability, security and overall quality of the application's input data and ultimately of the application itself. Hence, knowledge about the provenance of that data is a critical component in any data-driven system. The secure traceability of the data handling along the entire processing chain, which passes through various distinct systems, is critical for the detection and avoidance of misuse and manipulation. In this paper, we introduce a mechanism for establishing secure data provenance in real time, demonstrating an exemplary use-case based on a machine learning model that detects dangerous driving situations. We show with our approach based on W3C decentralized identity standards that data provenance in closed data systems can be effectively achieved using technical standards designed for an open data approach.
Hu, Lei, Li, Guyue, Luo, Hongyi, Hu, Aiqun.  2021.  On the RIS Manipulating Attack and Its Countermeasures in Physical-Layer Key Generation. 2021 IEEE 94th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2021-Fall). :1–5.
Reconfigurable Intelligent Surface (RIS) is a new paradigm that enables the reconfiguration of the wireless environment. Based on this feature, RIS can be employed to facilitate Physical-layer Key Generation (PKG). However, this technique could also be exploited by the attacker to destroy the key generation process via manipulating the channel features at the legitimate user side. Specifically, this paper proposes a new RIS-assisted Manipulating attack (RISM) that reduces the wireless channel reciprocity by rapidly changing the RIS reflection coefficient in the uplink and downlink channel probing step in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. The vulnerability of traditional key generation technology based on channel frequency response (CFR) under this attack is analyzed. Then, we propose a slewing rate detection method based on path separation. The attacked path is removed from the time domain and a flexible quantization method is employed to maximize the Key Generation Rate (KGR). The simulation results show that under RISM attack, when the ratio of the attack path variance to the total path variance is 0.17, the Bit Disagreement Rate (BDR) of the CFR-based method is greater than 0.25, and the KGR is close to zero. In addition, the proposed detection method can successfully detect the attacked path for SNR above 0 dB in the case of 16 rounds of probing and the KGR is 35 bits/channel use at 23.04MHz bandwidth.
Lu, Xinjin, Lei, Jing, Li, Wei.  2020.  A Physical Layer Encryption Algorithm Based on Length-Compatible Polar Codes. 2020 IEEE 92nd Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2020-Fall). :1—7.
The code length and rate of length-compatible polar codes can be adaptively adjusted and changed because of the special coding structure. In this paper, we propose a method to construct length-compatible polar codes by employing physical layer encryption technology. The deletion way of frozen bits and generator matrix are random, which makes polar codes more flexible and safe. Simulation analysis shows that the proposed algorithm can not only effectively improve the performance of length-compatible polar codes but also realize the physical layer security encryption of the system.
Xiao, R., Li, X., Pan, M., Zhao, N., Jiang, F., Wang, X..  2020.  Traffic Off-Loading over Uncertain Shared Spectrums with End-to-End Session Guarantee. 2020 IEEE 92nd Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2020-Fall). :1–5.
As a promising solution of spectrum shortage, spectrum sharing has received tremendous interests recently. However, under different sharing policies of different licensees, the shared spectrum is heterogeneous both temporally and spatially, and is usually uncertain due to the unpredictable activities of incumbent users. In this paper, considering the spectrum uncertainty, we propose a spectrum sharing based delay-tolerant traffic off-loading (SDTO) scheme. To capture the available heterogeneous shared bands, we adopt a mesh cognitive radio network and employ the multi-hop transmission mode. To statistically guarantee the end-to-end (E2E) session request under the uncertain spectrum supply, we formulate the SDTO scheme into a stochastic optimization problem, which is transformed into a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem. Then, a coarse-fine search based iterative heuristic algorithm is proposed to solve the MINLP problem. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed SDTO scheme can well schedule the network resource with an E2E session guarantee.