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Bouzar-Benlabiod, L., Rubin, S. H., Belaidi, K., Haddar, N. E..  2020.  RNN-VED for Reducing False Positive Alerts in Host-based Anomaly Detection Systems. 2020 IEEE 21st International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration for Data Science (IRI). :17–24.
Host-based Intrusion Detection Systems HIDS are often based on anomaly detection. Several studies deal with anomaly detection by analyzing the system-call traces and get good detection rates but also a high rate off alse positives. In this paper, we propose a new anomaly detection approach applied on the system-call traces. The normal behavior learning is done using a Sequence to sequence model based on a Variational Encoder-Decoder (VED) architecture that integrates Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) cells. We exploit the semantics behind the invoking order of system-calls that are then seen as sentences. A preprocessing phase is added to structure and optimize the model input-data representation. After the learning step, a one-class classification is run to categorize the sequences as normal or abnormal. The architecture may be used for predicting abnormal behaviors. The tests are achieved on the ADFA-LD dataset.
Moti, Z., Hashemi, S., Jahromi, A. N..  2020.  A Deep Learning-based Malware Hunting Technique to Handle Imbalanced Data. 2020 17th International ISC Conference on Information Security and Cryptology (ISCISC). :48–53.
Nowadays, with the increasing use of computers and the Internet, more people are exposed to cyber-security dangers. According to antivirus companies, malware is one of the most common threats of using the Internet. Therefore, providing a practical solution is critical. Current methods use machine learning approaches to classify malware samples automatically. Despite the success of these approaches, the accuracy and efficiency of these techniques are still inadequate, especially for multiple class classification problems and imbalanced training data sets. To mitigate this problem, we use deep learning-based algorithms for classification and generation of new malware samples. Our model is based on the opcode sequences, which are given to the model without any pre-processing. Besides, we use a novel generative adversarial network to generate new opcode sequences for oversampling minority classes. Also, we propose the model that is a combination of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) to classify malware samples. CNN is used to consider short-term dependency between features; while, LSTM is used to consider longer-term dependence. The experiment results show our method could classify malware to their corresponding family effectively. Our model achieves 98.99% validation accuracy.
Hossain, T., rakshit, A., Konar, A..  2020.  Brain-Computer Interface based User Authentication System for Personal Device Security. 2020 International Conference on Computer, Electrical Communication Engineering (ICCECE). :1—6.

The paper proposes a novel technique of EEG induced Brain-Computer Interface system for user authentication of personal devices. The scheme enables a human user to lock and unlock any personal device using his/her mind generated password. A two stage security verification is employed in the scheme. In the first stage, a 3 × 3 spatial matrix of flickering circles will appear on the screen of which, rows are blinked randomly and user has to mentally select a row which contains his desired circle.P300 is released when the desired row is blinked. Successful selection of row is followed by the selection of a flickering circle in the desired row. Gazing at a particular flickering circle generates SSVEP brain pattern which is decoded to trace the mentally selected circle. User is able to store mentally uttered number in the selected circle, later the number with it's spatial position will serve as the password for the unlocking phase. Here, the user is equipped with a headphone where numbers starting from zero to nine are spelled randomly. Spelled number matching with the mentally uttered number generates auditory P300 in the subject's brain. The particular choice of mentally uttered number is detected by successful detection of auditory P300. A novel weight update algorithm of Recurrent Neural Network (RNN), based on Extended-Kalman Filter and Particle Filter is used here for classifying the brain pattern. The proposed classifier achieves the best classification accuracy of 95.6%, 86.5% and 83.5% for SSVEP, visual P300 and auditory P300 respectively.

Rojas-Dueñas, G., Riba, J., Kahalerras, K., Moreno-Eguilaz, M., Kadechkar, A., Gomez-Pau, A..  2020.  Black-Box Modelling of a DC-DC Buck Converter Based on a Recurrent Neural Network. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT). :456–461.
Artificial neural networks allow the identification of black-box models. This paper proposes a method aimed at replicating the static and dynamic behavior of a DC-DC power converter based on a recurrent nonlinear autoregressive exogenous neural network. The method proposed in this work applies an algorithm that trains a neural network based on the inputs and outputs (currents and voltages) of a Buck converter. The approach is validated by means of simulated data of a realistic nonsynchronous Buck converter model programmed in Simulink and by means of experimental results. The predictions made by the neural network are compared to the actual outputs of the system, to determine the accuracy of the method, thus validating the proposed approach. Both simulation and experimental results show the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed black-box approach.
MATSUNAGA, Y., AOKI, N., DOBASHI, Y., KOJIMA, T..  2020.  A Black Box Modeling Technique for Distortion Stomp Boxes Using LSTM Neural Networks. 2020 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Information and Communication (ICAIIC). :653–656.
This paper describes an experimental result of modeling stomp boxes of the distortion effect based on a machine learning approach. Our proposed technique models a distortion stomp box as a neural network consisting of LSTM layers. In this approach, the neural network is employed for learning the nonlinear behavior of the distortion stomp boxes. All the parameters for replicating the distortion sound are estimated through its training process using the input and output signals obtained from some commercial stomp boxes. The experimental result indicates that the proposed technique may have a certain appropriateness to replicate the distortion sound by using the well-trained neural networks.
Park, S. H., Park, H. J., Choi, Y..  2020.  RNN-based Prediction for Network Intrusion Detection. 2020 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Information and Communication (ICAIIC). :572—574.
We investigate a prediction model using RNN for network intrusion detection in industrial IoT environments. For intrusion detection, we use anomaly detection methods that estimate the next packet, measure and score the distance measurement in real packets to distinguish whether it is a normal packet or an abnormal packet. When the packet was learned in the LSTM model, two-gram and sliding window of N-gram showed the best performance in terms of errors and the performance of the LSTM model was the highest compared with other data mining regression techniques. Finally, cosine similarity was used as a scoring function, and anomaly detection was performed by setting a boundary for cosine similarity that consider as normal packet.
Al-Emadi, S., Al-Mohannadi, A., Al-Senaid, F..  2020.  Using Deep Learning Techniques for Network Intrusion Detection. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Informatics, IoT, and Enabling Technologies (ICIoT). :171—176.
In recent years, there has been a significant increase in network intrusion attacks which raises a great concern from the privacy and security aspects. Due to the advancement of the technology, cyber-security attacks are becoming very complex such that the current detection systems are not sufficient enough to address this issue. Therefore, an implementation of an intelligent and effective network intrusion detection system would be crucial to solve this problem. In this paper, we use deep learning techniques, namely, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) and Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) to design an intelligent detection system which is able to detect different network intrusions. Additionally, we evaluate the performance of the proposed solution using different evaluation matrices and we present a comparison between the results of our proposed solution to find the best model for the network intrusion detection system.
Lei, L., Chen, M., He, C., Li, D..  2020.  XSS Detection Technology Based on LSTM-Attention. 2020 5th International Conference on Control, Robotics and Cybernetics (CRC). :175—180.
Cross-site scripting (XSS) is one of the main threats of Web applications, which has great harm. How to effectively detect and defend against XSS attacks has become more and more important. Due to the malicious obfuscation of attack codes and the gradual increase in number, the traditional XSS detection methods have some defects such as poor recognition of malicious attack codes, inadequate feature extraction and low efficiency. Therefore, we present a novel approach to detect XSS attacks based on the attention mechanism of Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) recurrent neural network. First of all, the data need to be preprocessed, we used decoding technology to restore the XSS codes to the unencoded state for improving the readability of the code, then we used word2vec to extract XSS payload features and map them to feature vectors. And then, we improved the LSTM model by adding attention mechanism, the LSTM-Attention detection model was designed to train and test the data. We used the ability of LSTM model to extract context-related features for deep learning, the added attention mechanism made the model extract more effective features. Finally, we used the classifier to classify the abstract features. Experimental results show that the proposed XSS detection model based on LSTM-Attention achieves a precision rate of 99.3% and a recall rate of 98.2% in the actually collected dataset. Compared with traditional machine learning methods and other deep learning methods, this method can more effectively identify XSS attacks.
Zhang, J..  2020.  DeepMal: A CNN-LSTM Model for Malware Detection Based on Dynamic Semantic Behaviours. 2020 International Conference on Computer Information and Big Data Applications (CIBDA). :313–316.
Malware refers to any software accessing or being installed in a system without the authorisation of administrators. Various malware has been widely used for cyber-criminals to accomplish their evil intentions and goals. To combat the increasing amount and reduce the threat of malicious programs, a novel deep learning framework, which uses NLP techniques for reference, combines CNN and LSTM neurones to capture the locally spatial correlations and learn from sequential longterm dependency is proposed. Hence, high-level abstractions and representations are automatically extracted for the malware classification task. The classification accuracy improves from 0.81 (best one by Random Forest) to approximately 1.0.
Mani, G., Pasumarti, V., Bhargava, B., Vora, F. T., MacDonald, J., King, J., Kobes, J..  2020.  DeCrypto Pro: Deep Learning Based Cryptomining Malware Detection Using Performance Counters. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Autonomic Computing and Self-Organizing Systems (ACSOS). :109—118.
Autonomy in cybersystems depends on their ability to be self-aware by understanding the intent of services and applications that are running on those systems. In case of mission-critical cybersystems that are deployed in dynamic and unpredictable environments, the newly integrated unknown applications or services can either be benign and essential for the mission or they can be cyberattacks. In some cases, these cyberattacks are evasive Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs) where the attackers remain undetected for reconnaissance in order to ascertain system features for an attack e.g. Trojan Laziok. In other cases, the attackers can use the system only for computing e.g. cryptomining malware. APTs such as cryptomining malware neither disrupt normal system functionalities nor trigger any warning signs because they simply perform bitwise and cryptographic operations as any other benign compression or encoding application. Thus, it is difficult for defense mechanisms such as antivirus applications to detect these attacks. In this paper, we propose an Operating Context profiling system based on deep neural networks-Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks-using Windows Performance Counters data for detecting these evasive cryptomining applications. In addition, we propose Deep Cryptomining Profiler (DeCrypto Pro), a detection system with a novel model selection framework containing a utility function that can select a classification model for behavior profiling from both the light-weight machine learning models (Random Forest and k-Nearest Neighbors) and a deep learning model (LSTM), depending on available computing resources. Given data from performance counters, we show that individual models perform with high accuracy and can be trained with limited training data. We also show that the DeCrypto Profiler framework reduces the use of computational resources and accurately detects cryptomining applications by selecting an appropriate model, given the constraints such as data sample size and system configuration.
Mihanpour, A., Rashti, M. J., Alavi, S. E..  2020.  Human Action Recognition in Video Using DB-LSTM and ResNet. 2020 6th International Conference on Web Research (ICWR). :133—138.

Human action recognition in video is one of the most widely applied topics in the field of image and video processing, with many applications in surveillance (security, sports, etc.), activity detection, video-content-based monitoring, man-machine interaction, and health/disability care. Action recognition is a complex process that faces several challenges such as occlusion, camera movement, viewpoint move, background clutter, and brightness variation. In this study, we propose a novel human action recognition method using convolutional neural networks (CNN) and deep bidirectional LSTM (DB-LSTM) networks, using only raw video frames. First, deep features are extracted from video frames using a pre-trained CNN architecture called ResNet152. The sequential information of the frames is then learned using the DB-LSTM network, where multiple layers are stacked together in both forward and backward passes of DB-LSTM, to increase depth. The evaluation results of the proposed method using PyTorch, compared to the state-of-the-art methods, show a considerable increase in the efficiency of action recognition on the UCF 101 dataset, reaching 95% recognition accuracy. The choice of the CNN architecture, proper tuning of input parameters, and techniques such as data augmentation contribute to the accuracy boost in this study.

Palash, M. H., Das, P. P., Haque, S..  2019.  Sentimental Style Transfer in Text with Multigenerative Variational Auto-Encoder. 2019 International Conference on Bangla Speech and Language Processing (ICBSLP). :1—4.

Style transfer is an emerging trend in the fields of deep learning's applications, especially in images and audio data this is proven very useful and sometimes the results are astonishing. Gradually styles of textual data are also being changed in many novel works. This paper focuses on the transfer of the sentimental vibe of a sentence. Given a positive clause, the negative version of that clause or sentence is generated keeping the context same. The opposite is also done with negative sentences. Previously this was a very tough job because the go-to techniques for such tasks such as Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) [1] and Long Short-Term Memories(LSTMs) [2] can't perform well with it. But since newer technologies like Generative Adversarial Network(GAN) and Variational AutoEncoder(VAE) are emerging, this work seem to become more and more possible and effective. In this paper, Multi-Genarative Variational Auto-Encoder is employed to transfer sentiment values. Inspite of working with a small dataset, this model proves to be promising.

Bouzar-Benlabiod, L., Méziani, L., Rubin, S. H., Belaidi, K., Haddar, N. E..  2019.  Variational Encoder-Decoder Recurrent Neural Network (VED-RNN) for Anomaly Prediction in a Host Environment. 2019 IEEE 20th International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration for Data Science (IRI). :75–82.
Intrusion detection systems (IDS) are important security tools. NIDS monitors network's traffic and HIDS filters local one. HIDS are often based on anomaly detection. Several studies deal with anomaly detection using system-call traces. In this paper, we propose an anomaly detection and prediction approach. System-call traces, invoked by the running programs, are analyzed in real time. For prediction, we use a Sequence to sequence model based on variational encoder-decoder (VED) and variants of Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN), these architectures showed their performance on natural language processing. To make the analogy, we exploit the semantics behind the invoking order of system-calls that are then seen as sentences. A preprocessing phase is added to optimize the prediction model input data representation. A one-class classification is done to categorize the sequences into normal or abnormal. Tests are achieved on the ADFA-LD dataset and showed the advantage of the prediction for the intrusion detection/prediction task.
Zhang, T., Wang, R., Ding, J., Li, X., Li, B..  2018.  Face Recognition Based on Densely Connected Convolutional Networks. 2018 IEEE Fourth International Conference on Multimedia Big Data (BigMM). :1–6.
The face recognition methods based on convolutional neural network have achieved great success. The existing model usually used the residual network as the core architecture. The residual network is good at reusing features, but it is difficult to explore new features. And the densely connected network can be used to explore new features. We proposed a face recognition model named Dense Face to explore the performance of densely connected network in face recognition. The model is based on densely connected convolutional neural network and composed of Dense Block layers, transition layers and classification layer. The model was trained with the joint supervision of center loss and softmax loss through feature normalization and enabled the convolutional neural network to learn more discriminative features. The Dense Face model was trained using the public available CASIA-WebFace dataset and was tested on the LFW and the CAS-PEAL-Rl datasets. Experimental results showed that the densely connected convolutional neural network has achieved higher face verification accuracy and has better robustness than other model such as VGG Face and ResNet model.
Zhong, J., Yang, C..  2019.  A Compositionality Assembled Model for Learning and Recognizing Emotion from Bodily Expression. 2019 IEEE 4th International Conference on Advanced Robotics and Mechatronics (ICARM). :821–826.
When we are express our internal status, such as emotions, the human body expression we use follows the compositionality principle. It is a theory in linguistic which proposes that the single components of the bodily presentation as well as the rules used to combine them are the major parts to finish this process. In this paper, such principle is applied to the process of expressing and recognizing emotional states through body expression, in which certain key features can be learned to represent certain primitives of the internal emotional state in the form of basic variables. This is done by a hierarchical recurrent neural learning framework (RNN) because of its nonlinear dynamic bifurcation, so that variables can be learned to represent different hierarchies. In addition, we applied some adaptive learning techniques in machine learning for the requirement of real-time emotion recognition, in which a stable representation can be maintained compared to previous work. The model is examined by comparing the PB values between the training and recognition phases. This hierarchical model shows the rationality of the compositionality hypothesis by the RNN learning and explains how key features can be used and combined in bodily expression to show the emotional state.
Wang, Yufeng, Shi, Wanjiao, Jin, Qun, Ma, Jianhua.  2019.  An Accurate False Data Detection in Smart Grid Based on Residual Recurrent Neural Network and Adaptive threshold. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Energy Internet (ICEI). :499—504.
Smart grids are vulnerable to cyber-attacks, which can cause significant damage and huge economic losses. Generally, state estimation (SE) is used to observe the operation of the grid. State estimation of the grid is vulnerable to false data injection attack (FDIA), so diagnosing this type of malicious attack has a major impact on ensuring reliable operation of the power system. In this paper, we present an effective FDIA detection method based on residual recurrent neural network (R2N2) prediction model and adaptive judgment threshold. Specifically, considering the data contains both linear and nonlinear components, the R2N2 model divides the prediction process into two parts: the first part uses the linear model to fit the state data; the second part predicts the nonlinearity of the residuals of the linear prediction model. The adaptive judgment threshold is inferred through fitting the Weibull distribution with the sum of squared errors between the predicted values and observed values. The thorough simulation results demonstrate that our scheme performs better than other prediction based FDIA detection schemes.
Lee, Haanvid, Jung, Minju, Tani, Jun.  2018.  Recognition of Visually Perceived Compositional Human Actions by Multiple Spatio-Temporal Scales Recurrent Neural Networks. IEEE Transactions on Cognitive and Developmental Systems. 10:1058—1069.

We investigate a deep learning model for action recognition that simultaneously extracts spatio-temporal information from a raw RGB input data. The proposed multiple spatio-temporal scales recurrent neural network (MSTRNN) model is derived by combining multiple timescale recurrent dynamics with a conventional convolutional neural network model. The architecture of the proposed model imposes both spatial and temporal constraints simultaneously on its neural activities. The constraints vary, with multiple scales in different layers. As suggested by the principle of upward and downward causation, it is assumed that the network can develop a functional hierarchy using its constraints during training. To evaluate and observe the characteristics of the proposed model, we use three human action datasets consisting of different primitive actions and different compositionality levels. The performance capabilities of the MSTRNN model on these datasets are compared with those of other representative deep learning models used in the field. The results show that the MSTRNN outperforms baseline models while using fewer parameters. The characteristics of the proposed model are observed by analyzing its internal representation properties. The analysis clarifies how the spatio-temporal constraints of the MSTRNN model aid in how it extracts critical spatio-temporal information relevant to its given tasks.

Su, Jinsong, Zeng, Jiali, Xiong, Deyi, Liu, Yang, Wang, Mingxuan, Xie, Jun.  2018.  A Hierarchy-to-Sequence Attentional Neural Machine Translation Model. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing. 26:623—632.

Although sequence-to-sequence attentional neural machine translation (NMT) has achieved great progress recently, it is confronted with two challenges: learning optimal model parameters for long parallel sentences and well exploiting different scopes of contexts. In this paper, partially inspired by the idea of segmenting a long sentence into short clauses, each of which can be easily translated by NMT, we propose a hierarchy-to-sequence attentional NMT model to handle these two challenges. Our encoder takes the segmented clause sequence as input and explores a hierarchical neural network structure to model words, clauses, and sentences at different levels, particularly with two layers of recurrent neural networks modeling semantic compositionality at the word and clause level. Correspondingly, the decoder sequentially translates segmented clauses and simultaneously applies two types of attention models to capture contexts of interclause and intraclause for translation prediction. In this way, we can not only improve parameter learning, but also well explore different scopes of contexts for translation. Experimental results on Chinese-English and English-German translation demonstrate the superiorities of the proposed model over the conventional NMT model.

Liu, Kai, Zhou, Yun, Wang, Qingyong, Zhu, Xianqiang.  2019.  Vulnerability Severity Prediction With Deep Neural Network. 2019 5th International Conference on Big Data and Information Analytics (BigDIA). :114–119.
High frequency of network security incidents has also brought a lot of negative effects and even huge economic losses to countries, enterprises and individuals in recent years. Therefore, more and more attention has been paid to the problem of network security. In order to evaluate the newly included vulnerability text information accurately, and to reduce the workload of experts and the false negative rate of the traditional method. Multiple deep learning methods for vulnerability text classification evaluation are proposed in this paper. The standard Cross Site Scripting (XSS) vulnerability text data is processed first, and then classified using three kinds of deep neural networks (CNN, LSTM, TextRCNN) and one kind of traditional machine learning method (XGBoost). The dropout ratio of the optimal CNN network, the epoch of all deep neural networks and training set data were tuned via experiments to improve the fit on our target task. The results show that the deep learning methods evaluate vulnerability risk levels better, compared with traditional machine learning methods, but cost more time. We train our models in various training sets and test with the same testing set. The performance and utility of recurrent convolutional neural networks (TextRCNN) is highest in comparison to all other methods, which classification accuracy rate is 93.95%.
Li, Lin, Wei, Linfeng.  2019.  Automatic XSS Detection and Automatic Anti-Anti-Virus Payload Generation. 2019 International Conference on Cyber-Enabled Distributed Computing and Knowledge Discovery (CyberC). :71–76.
In the Web 2.0 era, user interaction makes Web application more diverse, but brings threats, among which XSS vulnerability is the common and pernicious one. In order to promote the efficiency of XSS detection, this paper investigates the parameter characteristics of malicious XSS attacks. We identify whether a parameter is malicious or not through detecting user input parameters with SVM algorithm. The original malicious XSS parameters are deformed by DQN algorithm for reinforcement learning for rule-based WAF to be anti-anti-virus. Based on this method, we can identify whether a specific WAF is secure. The above model creates a more efficient automatic XSS detection tool and a more targeted automatic anti-anti-virus payload generation tool. This paper also explores the automatic generation of XSS attack codes with RNN LSTM algorithm.
Ma, Zhuo, Liu, Yang, Liu, Ximeng, Ma, Jianfeng, Li, Feifei.  2019.  Privacy-Preserving Outsourced Speech Recognition for Smart IoT Devices. IEEE Internet of Things Journal. 6:8406–8420.
Most of the current intelligent Internet of Things (IoT) products take neural network-based speech recognition as the standard human-machine interaction interface. However, the traditional speech recognition frameworks for smart IoT devices always collect and transmit voice information in the form of plaintext, which may cause the disclosure of user privacy. Due to the wide utilization of speech features as biometric authentication, the privacy leakage can cause immeasurable losses to personal property and privacy. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an outsourced privacy-preserving speech recognition framework (OPSR) for smart IoT devices in the long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network and edge computing. In the framework, a series of additive secret sharing-based interactive protocols between two edge servers are designed to achieve lightweight outsourced computation. And based on the protocols, we implement the neural network training process of LSTM for intelligent IoT device voice control. Finally, combined with the universal composability theory and experiment results, we theoretically prove the correctness and security of our framework.
Shu, Yujin, Xu, Yongjin.  2019.  End-to-End Captcha Recognition Using Deep CNN-RNN Network. 2019 IEEE 3rd Advanced Information Management, Communicates, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (IMCEC). :54—58.
With the development of the Internet, the captcha technology has also been widely used. Captcha technology is used to distinguish between humans and machines, namely Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart. In this paper, an end-to-end deep CNN-RNN network model is constructed by studying the captcha recognition technology, which realizes the recognition of 4-character text captcha. The CNN-RNN model first constructs a deep residual convolutional neural network based on the residual network structure to accurately extract the input captcha picture features. Then, through the constructed variant RNN network, that is, the two-layer GRU network, the deep internal features of the captcha are extracted, and finally, the output sequence is the 4-character captcha. The experiments results show that the end-to-end deep CNN-RNN network model has a good performance on different captcha datasets, achieving 99% accuracy. And experiment on the few samples dataset which only has 4000 training samples also shows an accuracy of 72.9 % and a certain generalization ability.
Taori, Rohan, Kamsetty, Amog, Chu, Brenton, Vemuri, Nikita.  2019.  Targeted Adversarial Examples for Black Box Audio Systems. 2019 IEEE Security and Privacy Workshops (SPW). :15—20.
The application of deep recurrent networks to audio transcription has led to impressive gains in automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems. Many have demonstrated that small adversarial perturbations can fool deep neural networks into incorrectly predicting a specified target with high confidence. Current work on fooling ASR systems have focused on white-box attacks, in which the model architecture and parameters are known. In this paper, we adopt a black-box approach to adversarial generation, combining the approaches of both genetic algorithms and gradient estimation to solve the task. We achieve a 89.25% targeted attack similarity, with 35% targeted attack success rate, after 3000 generations while maintaining 94.6% audio file similarity.
Akdeniz, Fulya, Becerikli, Yaşar.  2019.  Performance Comparison of Support Vector Machine, K-Nearest-Neighbor, Artificial Neural Networks, and Recurrent Neural networks in Gender Recognition from Voice Signals. 2019 3rd International Symposium on Multidisciplinary Studies and Innovative Technologies (ISMSIT). :1–4.
Nowadays, biometric data is the most common used data in the field of security. Audio signals are one of these biometric data. Voice signals have used frequently in cases such as identification, banking systems, and forensic cases solution. The aim of this study is to determine the gender of voice signals. In the study, many different methods were used to determine the gender of voice signals. Firstly, Mel Frequency kepstrum coefficients were used to extract the feature from the audio signal. Subsequently, these attributes were classified with support vector machines, k-nearest neighborhood method and artificial neural networks. At the other stage of the study, it is aimed to determine gender from audio signals without using feature extraction method. For this, recurrent neural networks (RNN) was used. The performance analyzes of the methods used were made and the results were given. The best accuracy, precision, recall, f-score in the study has found to be 87.04%, 86.32%, 88.58%, 87.43% using K-Nearest-Neighbor algorithm.
Lou, Xin, Tran, Cuong, Yau, David K.Y., Tan, Rui, Ng, Hongwei, Fu, Tom Zhengjia, Winslett, Marianne.  2019.  Learning-Based Time Delay Attack Characterization for Cyber-Physical Systems. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm). :1—6.
The cyber-physical systems (CPSes) rely on computing and control techniques to achieve system safety and reliability. However, recent attacks show that these techniques are vulnerable once the cyber-attackers have bypassed air gaps. The attacks may cause service disruptions or even physical damages. This paper designs the built-in attack characterization scheme for one general type of cyber-attacks in CPS, which we call time delay attack, that delays the transmission of the system control commands. We use the recurrent neural networks in deep learning to estimate the delay values from the input trace. Specifically, to deal with the long time-sequence data, we design the deep learning model using stacked bidirectional long short-term memory (LSTM) units. The proposed approach is tested by using the data generated from a power plant control system. The results show that the LSTM-based deep learning approach can work well based on data traces from three sensor measurements, i.e., temperature, pressure, and power generation, in the power plant control system. Moreover, we show that the proposed approach outperforms the base approach based on k-nearest neighbors.