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Kennard, M., Zhang, H., Akimoto, Y., Hirokawa, M., Suzuki, K..  2020.  Effects of Visual Biofeedback on Competition Performance Using an Immersive Mixed Reality System. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC). :3793—3798.

This paper investigates the effects of real time visual biofeedback for improving sports performance using a large scale immersive mixed reality system in which users are able to play a simulated game of curling. The users slide custom curling stones across the floor onto a projected target whose size is dictated by the user’s stress-related physiological measure; heart rate (HR). The higher HR the player has, the smaller the target will be, and vice-versa. In the experiment participants were asked to compete in three different conditions: baseline, with and without the proposed biofeedback. The results show that when providing a visual representation of the player’s HR or "choking" in competition, it helped the player understand their condition and improve competition performance (P-value of 0.0391).

Guo, W., Atthanayake, I., Thomas, P..  2020.  Vertical Underwater Molecular Communications via Buoyancy: Gaussian Velocity Distribution of Signal. ICC 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–6.
Underwater communication is vital for a variety of defence and scientific purposes. Current optical and sonar based carriers can deliver high capacity data rates, but their range and reliability is hampered by heavy propagation loss. A vertical Molecular Communication via Buoyancy (MCvB) channel is experimentally investigated here, where the dominant propagation force is buoyancy. Sequential puffs representing modulated symbols are injected and after the initial loss of momentum, the signal is driven by buoyancy forces which apply to both upwards and downwards channels. Coupled with the complex interaction of turbulent and viscous diffusion, we experimentally demonstrate that sequential symbols exhibit a Gaussian velocity spatial distribution. Our experimental results use Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to trace molecular clusters and infer statistical characteristics of their velocity profile. We believe our experimental paper's results can be the basis for long range underwater vertical communication between a deep sea vehicle and a surface buoy, establishing a covert and reliable delay-tolerant data link. The statistical distribution found in this paper is akin to the antenna pattern and the knowledge can be used to improve physical security.
Brinkman, Bo.  2012.  Willing to be fooled: Security and autoamputation in augmented reality. 2012 IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality - Arts, Media, and Humanities (ISMAR-AMH). :89—90.

What does it mean to trust, or not trust, an augmented reality system? Froma computer security point of view, trust in augmented reality represents a real threat to real people. The fact that augmented reality allows the programmer to tinker with the user's senses creates many opportunities for malfeasance. It might be natural to think that if we warn users to be careful it will lower their trust in the system, greatly reducing risk.

Baruwal Chhetri, Mohan, Uzunov, Anton, Vo, Bao, Nepal, Surya, Kowalczyk, Ryszard.  2019.  Self-Improving Autonomic Systems for Antifragile Cyber Defence: Challenges and Opportunities. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Autonomic Computing (ICAC). :18–23.

Antifragile systems enhance their capabilities and become stronger when exposed to adverse conditions, stresses or attacks, making antifragility a desirable property for cyber defence systems that operate in contested military environments. Self-improvement in autonomic systems refers to the improvement of their self-* capabilities, so that they are able to (a) better handle previously known (anticipated) situations, and (b) deal with previously unknown (unanticipated) situations. In this position paper, we present a vision of using self-improvement through learning to achieve antifragility in autonomic cyber defence systems. We first enumerate some of the major challenges associated with realizing distributed self-improvement. We then propose a reference model for middleware frameworks for self-improving autonomic systems and a set of desirable features of such frameworks.

Lundgren, Martin, Bergström, Erik.  2019.  Security-Related Stress: A Perspective on Information Security Risk Management. 2019 International Conference on Cyber Security and Protection of Digital Services (Cyber Security). :1–8.
In this study, the enactment of information security risk management by novice practitioners is studied by applying an analytical lens of security-related stress. Two organisations were targeted in the study using a case study approach to obtain data about their practices. The study identifies stressors and stress inhibitors in the ISRM process and the supporting ISRM tools and discusses the implications for practitioners. For example, a mismatch between security standards and how they are interpreted in practice has been identified. This mismatch was further found to be strengthened by the design of the used ISRM tools. Those design shortcomings hamper agility since they may enforce a specific workflow or may restrict documentation. The study concludes that security-related stress can provide additional insight into security-novice practitioners' ISRM challenges.
Sannon, Shruti, Stoll, Brett, DiFranzo, Dominic, Jung, Malte, Bazarova, Natalya N..  2018.  How Personification and Interactivity Influence Stress-Related Disclosures to Conversational Agents. Companion of the 2018 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing. :285–288.
In this exploratory study, we examine how personification and interactivity may influence people's disclosures around sensitive topics, such as psychological stressors. Participants (N=441) shared a recent stressful experience with one of three agent interfaces: 1) a non-interactive, non-personified survey, 2) an interactive, non-personified chatbot, and 3) an interactive, personified chatbot. We coded these responses to examine how agent type influenced the nature of the stressor disclosed, and the intimacy and amount of disclosure. Participants discussed fewer homelife related stressors, but more finance-related stressors and more chronic stressors overall with the personified chatbot than the other two agents. The personified chatbot was also twice as likely as the other agents to receive disclosures that contained very little detail. We discuss the role played by personification and interactivity in interactions with conversational agents, and implications for design.
Berscheid, A., Makarov, Y., Hou, Z., Diao, R., Zhang, Y., Samaan, N., Yuan, Y., Zhou, H..  2018.  An Open-Source Tool for Automated Power Grid Stress Level Prediction at Balancing Authorities. 2018 IEEE/PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition (T D). :1–5.
The behavior of modern power systems is becoming more stochastic and dynamic, due to the increased penetration of variable generation, demand response, new power market structure, extreme weather conditions, contingencies, and unexpected events. It is critically important to predict potential system operational issues so that grid planners and operators can take preventive actions to mitigate the impact, e.g., lack of operational reserves. In this paper, an innovative software tool is presented to assist power grid operators in a balancing authority in predicting the grid stress level over the next operating day. It periodically collects necessary information from public domain such as weather forecasts, electricity demand, and automatically estimates the stress levels on a daily basis. Advanced Neural Network and regression tree algorithms are developed as the prediction engines to achieve this goal. The tool has been tested on a few key balancing authorities and successfully predicted the growing system peak load and increased stress levels under extreme heat waves.
Hossain, M. A., Merrill, H. M., Bodson, M..  2017.  Evaluation of metrics of susceptibility to cascading blackouts. 2017 IEEE Power and Energy Conference at Illinois (PECI). :1–5.
In this paper, we evaluate the usefulness of metrics that assess susceptibility to cascading blackouts. The metrics are computed using a matrix of Line Outage Distribution Factors (LODF, or DFAX matrix). The metrics are compared for several base cases with different load levels of the Western Interconnection (WI). A case corresponding to the September 8, 2011 pre-blackout state is used to compute these metrics and relate them to the origin of the cascading blackout. The correlation between the proposed metrics is determined to check redundancy. The analysis is also used to find vulnerable and critical hot spots in the power system.
Thakre, P. P., Sahare, V. N..  2017.  VM live migration time reduction using NAS based algorithm during VM live migration. 2017 Third International Conference on Sensing, Signal Processing and Security (ICSSS). :242–246.

Live migration is the process used in virtualization environment of datacenters in order to take the benefit of zero downtime during system maintenance. But during migrating live virtual machines along with system files and storage data, network traffic gets increases across network bandwidth and delays in migration time. There is need to reduce the migration time in order to maintain the system performance by analyzing and optimizing the storage overheads which mainly creates due to unnecessary duplicated data transferred during live migration. So there is need of such storage device which will keep the duplicated data residing in both the source as well as target physical host i.e. NAS. The proposed hash map based algorithm maps all I/O operations in order to track the duplicated data by assigning hash value to both NAS and RAM data. Only the unique data then will be sent data to the target host without affecting service level agreement (SLA), without affecting VM migration time, application downtime, SLA violations, VM pre-migration and downtime post migration overheads during pre and post migration of virtual machines.

Reinerman-Jones, L., Matthews, G., Wohleber, R., Ortiz, E..  2017.  Scenarios using situation awareness in a simulation environment for eliciting insider threat behavior. 2017 IEEE Conference on Cognitive and Computational Aspects of Situation Management (CogSIMA). :1–3.

An important topic in cybersecurity is validating Active Indicators (AI), which are stimuli that can be implemented in systems to trigger responses from individuals who might or might not be Insider Threats (ITs). The way in which a person responds to the AI is being validated for identifying a potential threat and a non-threat. In order to execute this validation process, it is important to create a paradigm that allows manipulation of AIs for measuring response. The scenarios are posed in a manner that require participants to be situationally aware that they are being monitored and have to act deceptively. In particular, manipulations in the environment should no differences between conditions relative to immersion and ease of use, but the narrative should be the driving force behind non-deceptive and IT responses. The success of the narrative and the simulation environment to induce such behaviors is determined by immersion, usability, and stress response questionnaires, and performance. Initial results of the feasibility to use a narrative reliant upon situation awareness of monitoring and evasion are discussed.

Zaytsev, A., Malyuk, A., Miloslavskaya, N..  2017.  Critical Analysis in the Research Area of Insider Threats. 2017 IEEE 5th International Conference on Future Internet of Things and Cloud (FiCloud). :288–296.

The survey of related works on insider information security (IS) threats is presented. Special attention is paid to works that consider the insiders' behavioral models as it is very up-to-date for behavioral intrusion detection. Three key research directions are defined: 1) the problem analysis in general, including the development of taxonomy for insiders, attacks and countermeasures; 2) study of a specific IS threat with forecasting model development; 3) early detection of a potential insider. The models for the second and third directions are analyzed in detail. Among the second group the works on three IS threats are examined, namely insider espionage, cyber sabotage and unintentional internal IS violation. Discussion and a few directions for the future research conclude the paper.

Bando, S., Nozawa, A., Matsuya, Y..  2015.  Multidimensional directed coherence analysis of keystroke dynamics and physiological responses. 2015 International Conference on Noise and Fluctuations (ICNF). :1–4.

Techno-stress has been a problem in recent years with a development of information technology. Various studies have been reported about a relationship between key typing and psychosomatic state. Keystroke dynamics are known as dynamics of a key typing motion. The objective of this paper is to clarify the mechanism between keystroke dynamics and physiological responses. Inter-stroke time (IST) that was the interval between each keystroke was measured as keystroke dynamics. The physiological responses were heart rate variability (HRV) and respiration (Resp). The system consisted of IST, HRV, and Resp was applied multidimensional directed coherence in order to reveal a causal correlation. As a result, it was observed that strength of entrainment of physiological responses having fluctuation to IST differed in surround by the noise and a cognitive load. Specifically, the entrainment became weak as a cognitive resource devoted to IST was relatively increased with the keystroke motion had a robust rhythm. On the other hand, the entrainment became stronger as a cognitive resource devoted to IST was relatively decreased since the resource also devoted to the noise or the cognitive load.

Fink, G.A., Griswold, R.L., Beech, Z.W..  2014.  Quantifying cyber-resilience against resource-exhaustion attacks. Resilient Control Systems (ISRCS), 2014 7th International Symposium on. :1-8.

Resilience in the information sciences is notoriously difficult to define much less to measure. But in mechanical engineering, the resilience of a substance is mathematically well-defined as an area under the stress-strain curve. We combined inspiration from mechanics of materials and axioms from queuing theory in an attempt to define resilience precisely for information systems. We first examine the meaning of resilience in linguistic and engineering terms and then translate these definitions to information sciences. As a general assessment of our approach's fitness, we quantify how resilience may be measured in a simple queuing system. By using a very simple model we allow clear application of established theory while being flexible enough to apply to many other engineering contexts in information science and cyber security. We tested our definitions of resilience via simulation and analysis of networked queuing systems. We conclude with a discussion of the results and make recommendations for future work.