Visible to the public Biblio

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Azahari, A. M., Ahmad, A., Rahayu, S. B., Halip, M. H. Mohamed.  2020.  CheckMyCode: Assignment Submission System with Cloud-Based Java Compiler. 2020 8th International Conference on Information Technology and Multimedia (ICIMU). :343–347.
Learning programming language of Java is a basic part of the Computer Science and Engineering curriculum. Specific Java compiler is a requirement for writing and convert the writing code to executable format. However, some local installed Java compiler is suffering from compatibility, portability and storage space issues. These issues sometimes affect student-learning interest and slow down the learning process. This paper is directed toward the solution for such problems, which offers a new programming assignment submission system with cloud-based Java compiler and is known as CheckMyCode. Leveraging cloud-computing technology in terms of its availability, prevalence and affordability, CheckMyCode implements Java cloud-based programming compiler as a part of the assignment management system. CheckMyCode system is a cloud-based system that allows both main users, which are a lecturer and student to access the system via a browser on PC or smart devices. Modules of submission assignment system with cloud compiler allow lecturer and student to manage Java programming task in one platform. A framework, system module, main user and feature of CheckMyCode are presented. Also, taking into account are the future study/direction and new enhancement of CheckMyCode.
Nasir, J., Norman, U., Bruno, B., Dillenbourg, P..  2020.  When Positive Perception of the Robot Has No Effect on Learning. 2020 29th IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN). :313–320.
Humanoid robots, with a focus on personalised social behaviours, are increasingly being deployed in educational settings to support learning. However, crafting pedagogical HRI designs and robot interventions that have a real, positive impact on participants' learning, as well as effectively measuring such impact, is still an open challenge. As a first effort in tackling the issue, in this paper we propose a novel robot-mediated, collaborative problem solving activity for school children, called JUSThink, aiming at improving their computational thinking skills. JUSThink will serve as a baseline and reference for investigating how the robot's behaviour can influence the engagement of the children with the activity, as well as their collaboration and mutual understanding while working on it. To this end, this first iteration aims at investigating (i) participants' engagement with the activity (Intrinsic Motivation Inventory-IMI), their mutual understanding (IMIlike) and perception of the robot (Godspeed Questionnaire); (ii) participants' performance during the activity, using several performance and learning metrics. We carried out an extensive user-study in two international schools in Switzerland, in which around 100 children participated in pairs in one-hour long interactions with the activity. Surprisingly, we observe that while a teams' performance significantly affects how team members evaluate their competence, mutual understanding and task engagement, it does not affect their perception of the robot and its helpfulness, a fact which highlights the need for baseline studies and multi-dimensional evaluation metrics when assessing the impact of robots in educational activities.
Velaora, M., Roy, R. van, Guéna, F..  2020.  ARtect, an augmented reality educational prototype for architectural design. 2020 Fourth World Conference on Smart Trends in Systems, Security and Sustainability (WorldS4). :110—115.

ARtect is an Augmented Reality application developed with Unity 3D, which envisions an educational interactive and immersive tool for architects, designers, researchers, and artists. This digital instrument renders the competency to visualize custom-made 3D models and 2D graphics in interior and exterior environments. The user-friendly interface offers an accurate insight before the materialization of any architectural project, enabling evaluation of the design proposal. This practice could be integrated into learning architectural design process, saving resources of printed drawings, and 3D carton models during several stages of spatial conception.

Martin, S., Parra, G., Cubillo, J., Quintana, B., Gil, R., Perez, C., Castro, M..  2020.  Design of an Augmented Reality System for Immersive Learning of Digital Electronic. 2020 XIV Technologies Applied to Electronics Teaching Conference (TAEE). :1—6.

This article describes the development of two mobile applications for learning Digital Electronics. The first application is an interactive app for iOS where you can study the different digital circuits, and which will serve as the basis for the second: a game of questions in augmented reality.

Rutard, F., Sigaud, O., Chetouani, M..  2020.  TIRL: Enriching Actor-Critic RL with non-expert human teachers and a Trust Model. 2020 29th IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN). :604–611.
Reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms have been demonstrated to be very attractive tools to train agents to achieve sequential tasks. However, these algorithms require too many training data to converge to be efficiently applied to physical robots. By using a human teacher, the learning process can be made faster and more robust, but the overall performance heavily depends on the quality and availability of teacher demonstrations or instructions. In particular, when these teaching signals are inadequate, the agent may fail to learn an optimal policy. In this paper, we introduce a trust-based interactive task learning approach. We propose an RL architecture able to learn both from environment rewards and from various sparse teaching signals provided by non-expert teachers, using an actor-critic agent, a human model and a trust model. We evaluate the performance of this architecture on 4 different setups using a maze environment with different simulated teachers and show that the benefits of the trust model.
Peruma, A., Malachowsky, S., Krutz, D..  2018.  Providing an Experiential Cybersecurity Learning Experience through Mobile Security Labs. 2018 IEEE/ACM 1st International Workshop on Security Awareness from Design to Deployment (SEAD). :51—54.

The reality of today's computing landscape already suffers from a shortage of cybersecurity professionals, and this gap only expected to grow. We need to generate interest in this STEM topic early in our student's careers and provide teachers the resources they need to succeed in addressing this gap. To address this shortfall we present Practical LAbs in Security for Mobile Applications (PLASMA), a public set of educational security labs to enable instruction in creation of secure Android apps. These labs include example vulnerable applications, information about each vulnerability, steps for how to repair the vulnerabilities, and information about how to confirm that the vulnerability has been properly repaired. Our goal is for instructors to use these activities in their mobile, security, and general computing courses ranging from secondary school to university settings. Another goal of this project is to foster interest in security and computing through demonstrating its importance. Initial feedback demonstrates the labs' positive effects in enhancing student interest in cybersecurity and acclaim from instructors. All project activities may be found on the project website:

[Anonymous].  2018.  Cloud-based Labs and Programming Assignments in Networking and Cybersecurity Courses. 2018 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE). :1—9.

This is a full paper for innovate practice. Building a private cloud or using a public cloud is now feasible at many institutions. This paper presents the innovative design of cloudbased labs and programming assignments for a networking course and a cybersecurity course, and our experiences of innovatively using the private cloud at our institution to support these learning activities. It is shown by the instructor's observations and student survey data that our approach benefits learning and teaching. This approach makes it possible and secure to develop some learning activities that otherwise would not be allowed on physical servers. It enables the instructor to support students' desire of developing programs in their preferred programming languages. It allows students to debug and test their programs on the same platform to be used by the instructor for testing and grading. The instructor does not need to spend extra time administrating the computing environments. A majority (88% or more) of the students agree that working on those learning activities in the private cloud not only helps them achieve the course learning objectives, but also prepares them for their future careers.

Bell, S., Oudshoorn, M..  2018.  Meeting the Demand: Building a Cybersecurity Degree Program With Limited Resources. 2018 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE). :1—7.

This innovative practice paper considers the heightening awareness of the need for cybersecurity programs in light of several well publicized cyber-attacks in recent years. An examination of the academic job market reveals that a significant number of institutions are looking to hire new faculty in the area of cybersecurity. Additionally, a growing number of universities are starting to offer courses, certifications and degrees in cybersecurity. Other recent activity includes the development of a model cybersecurity curriculum and the creation of a program accreditation criteria for cybersecurity through ABET. This sudden and significant growth in demand for cybersecurity expertise has some similarities to the significant demand for networking faculty that Computer Science programs experienced in the late 1980s as a result of the rise of the Internet. This paper examines the resources necessary to respond to the demand for cybersecurity courses and programs and draws some parallels and distinctions to the demand for networking faculty over 25 years ago. Faculty and administration are faced with a plethora of questions to answer as they approach this problem: What degree and courses to offer, what certifications to consider, which curriculum to incorporate and how to deliver the material (online, faceto-face, or something in-between)? However, the most pressing question in today's fiscal climate in higher education is: what resources will it take to deliver a cybersecurity program?

Švábenský, V., Vykopal, J..  2018.  Gathering Insights from Teenagers’ Hacking Experience with Authentic Cybersecurity Tools. 2018 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE). :1—4.

This Work-In-Progress Paper for the Innovative Practice Category presents a novel experiment in active learning of cybersecurity. We introduced a new workshop on hacking for an existing science-popularizing program at our university. The workshop participants, 28 teenagers, played a cybersecurity game designed for training undergraduates and professionals in penetration testing. Unlike in learning environments that are simplified for young learners, the game features a realistic virtual network infrastructure. This allows exploring security tools in an authentic scenario, which is complemented by a background story. Our research aim is to examine how young players approach using cybersecurity tools by interacting with the professional game. A preliminary analysis of the game session showed several challenges that the workshop participants faced. Nevertheless, they reported learning about security tools and exploits, and 61% of them reported wanting to learn more about cybersecurity after the workshop. Our results support the notion that young learners should be allowed more hands-on experience with security topics, both in formal education and informal extracurricular events.

Sharevski, F., Trowbridge, A., Westbrook, J..  2018.  Novel approach for cybersecurity workforce development: A course in secure design. 2018 IEEE Integrated STEM Education Conference (ISEC). :175—180.

Training the future cybersecurity workforce to respond to emerging threats requires introduction of novel educational interventions into the cybersecurity curriculum. To be effective, these interventions have to incorporate trending knowledge from cybersecurity and other related domains while allowing for experiential learning through hands-on experimentation. To date, the traditional interdisciplinary approach for cybersecurity training has infused political science, law, economics or linguistics knowledge into the cybersecurity curriculum, allowing for limited experimentation. Cybersecurity students were left with little opportunity to acquire knowledge, skills, and abilities in domains outside of these. Also, students in outside majors had no options to get into cybersecurity. With this in mind, we developed an interdisciplinary course for experiential learning in the fields of cybersecurity and interaction design. The inaugural course teaches students from cybersecurity, user interaction design, and visual design the principles of designing for secure use - or secure design - and allows them to apply them for prototyping of Internet-of-Things (IoT) products for smart homes. This paper elaborates on the concepts of secure design and how our approach enhances the training of the future cybersecurity workforce.

Dai, J..  2018.  Situation Awareness-Oriented Cybersecurity Education. 2018 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE). :1—8.

This Research to Practice Full Paper presents a new methodology in cybersecurity education. In the context of the cybersecurity profession, the `isolation problem' refers to the observed isolation of different knowledge units, as well as the isolation of technical and business perspectives. Due to limitations in existing cybersecurity education, professionals entering the field are often trapped in microscopic perspectives, and struggle to extend their findings to grasp the big picture in a target network scenario. Guided by a previous developed and published framework named “cross-layer situation knowledge reference model” (SKRM), which delivers comprehensive level big picture situation awareness, our new methodology targets at developing suites of teaching modules to address the above issues. The modules, featuring interactive hands-on labs that emulate real-world multiple-step attacks, will help students form a knowledge network instead of isolated conceptual knowledge units. Students will not just be required to leverage various techniques/tools to analyze breakpoints and complete individual modules; they will be required to connect logically the outputs of these techniques/tools to infer the ground truth and gain big picture awareness of the cyber situation. The modules will be able to be used separately or as a whole in a typical network security course.

Wu, X., Chen, Y., Li, S..  2018.  Contactless Smart Card Experiments in a Cybersecurity Course. 2018 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE). :1—4.

This Innovate Practice Work in Progress paper is about education on Cybersecurity, which is essential in training of innovative talents in the era of the Internet. Besides knowledge and skills, it is important as well to enhance the students' awareness of cybersecurity in daily life. Considering that contactless smart cards are common and widely used in various areas, one basic and two advanced contactless smart card experiments were designed innovatively and assigned to junior students in 3-people groups in an introductory cybersecurity summer course. The experimental principles, facilities, contents and arrangement are introduced successively. Classroom tests were managed before and after the experiments, and a box and whisker plot is used to describe the distributions of the scores in both tests. The experimental output and student feedback implied the learning objectives were achieved through the problem-based, active and group learning experience during the experiments.

Zeng, Z., Deng, Y., Hsiao, I., Huang, D., Chung, C..  2018.  Improving student learning performance in a virtual hands-on lab system in cybersecurity education. 2018 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE). :1—5.

This Research Work in Progress paper presents a study on improving student learning performance in a virtual hands-on lab system in cybersecurity education. As the demand for cybersecurity-trained professionals rapidly increasing, virtual hands-on lab systems have been introduced into cybersecurity education as a tool to enhance students' learning. To improve learning in a virtual hands-on lab system, instructors need to understand: what learning activities are associated with students' learning performance in this system? What relationship exists between different learning activities? What instructors can do to improve learning outcomes in this system? However, few of these questions has been studied for using virtual hands-on lab in cybersecurity education. In this research, we present our recent findings by identifying that two learning activities are positively associated with students' learning performance. Notably, the learning activity of reading lab materials (p \textbackslashtextless; 0:01) plays a more significant role in hands-on learning than the learning activity of working on lab tasks (p \textbackslashtextless; 0:05) in cybersecurity education.In addition, a student, who spends longer time on reading lab materials, may work longer time on lab tasks (p \textbackslashtextless; 0:01).

Flores, P..  2019.  Digital Simulation in the Virtual World: Its Effect in the Knowledge and Attitude of Students Towards Cybersecurity. 2019 Sixth HCT Information Technology Trends (ITT). :1—5.

The search for alternative delivery modes to teaching has been one of the pressing concerns of numerous educational institutions. One key innovation to improve teaching and learning is e-learning which has undergone enormous improvements. From its focus on text-based environment, it has evolved into Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) which provide more stimulating and immersive experiences among learners and educators. An example of VLEs is the virtual world which is an emerging educational platform among universities worldwide. One very interesting topic that can be taught using the virtual world is cybersecurity. Simulating cybersecurity in the virtual world may give a realistic experience to students which can be hardly achieved by classroom teaching. To date, there are quite a number of studies focused on cybersecurity awareness and cybersecurity behavior. But none has focused looking into the effect of digital simulation in the virtual world, as a new educational platform, in the cybersecurity attitude of the students. It is in this regard that this study has been conducted by designing simulation in the virtual world lessons that teaches the five aspects of cybersecurity namely; malware, phishing, social engineering, password usage and online scam, which are the most common cybersecurity issues. The study sought to examine the effect of this digital simulation design in the cybersecurity knowledge and attitude of the students. The result of the study ascertains that students exposed under simulation in the virtual world have a greater positive change in cybersecurity knowledge and attitude than their counterparts.

Turkanović, M., Welzer, T., Hölbl, M..  2019.  An Example of a Cybersecurity Education Model. 2019 29th Annual Conference of the European Association for Education in Electrical and Information Engineering (EAEEIE). :1—4.

IT technology is a vital part of our everyday life and society. Additionally, as it is present in strategic domains like the military, healthcare or critical infrastructure, the aspect of protection, i.e. cybersecurity is of utmost importance. In recent years, the demand for cybersecurity experts is exponentially rising. Additionally, the field of cybersecurity is very much interdisciplinary and therefore requires a broad set of skills. Renowned organisations as ACM or IEEE have recognized the importance of cybersecurity experts and proposed guidelines for higher education training of such professionals. This paper presents an overview of a cybersecurity education model from the Information Systems and Information Technology perspective together with a good example and experience of the University of Maribor. The presented education model is shaped according to the guidelines by the Joint Task Force on Cybersecurity Education and the expectations of the Slovene industry regarding the knowledge and skills their future employees should possess.

Yuan, X., Zhang, T., Shama, A. A., Xu, J., Yang, L., Ellis, J., He, W., Waters, C..  2019.  Teaching Cybersecurity Using Guided Inquiry Collaborative Learning. 2019 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE). :1—6.

This Innovate Practice Full Paper describes our experience with teaching cybersecurity topics using guided inquiry collaborative learning. The goal is to not only develop the students' in-depth technical knowledge, but also “soft skills” such as communication, attitude, team work, networking, problem-solving and critical thinking. This paper reports our experience with developing and using the Guided Inquiry Collaborative Learning materials on the topics of firewall and IPsec. Pre- and post-surveys were conducted to access the effectiveness of the developed materials and teaching methods in terms of learning outcome, attitudes, learning experience and motivation. Analysis of the survey data shows that students had increased learning outcome, participation in class, and interest with Guided Inquiry Collaborative Learning.

Ajjimaporn, P., Gibbons, M., Stoick, B., Straub, J..  2019.  Automated Student Assessment for Cybersecurity Courses. 2019 14th Annual Conference System of Systems Engineering (SoSE). :93—95.

The need for cybersecurity knowledge and skills is constantly growing as our lives become more integrated with the digital world. In order to meet this demand, educational institutions must continue to innovate within the field of cybersecurity education and make this educational process as effective and efficient as possible. We seek to accomplish this goal by taking an existing cybersecurity educational technology and adding automated grading and assessment functionality to it. This will reduce costs and maximize scalability by reducing or even eliminating the need for human graders.

Thomas, L. J., Balders, M., Countney, Z., Zhong, C., Yao, J., Xu, C..  2019.  Cybersecurity Education: From Beginners to Advanced Players in Cybersecurity Competitions. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics (ISI). :149—151.

Cybersecurity competitions have been shown to be an effective approach for promoting student engagement through active learning in cybersecurity. Players can gain hands-on experience in puzzle-based or capture-the-flag type tasks that promote learning. However, novice players with limited prior knowledge in cybersecurity usually found difficult to have a clue to solve a problem and get frustrated at the early stage. To enhance student engagement, it is important to study the experiences of novices to better understand their learning needs. To achieve this goal, we conducted a 4-month longitudinal case study which involves 11 undergraduate students participating in a college-level cybersecurity competition, National Cyber League (NCL) competition. The competition includes two individual games and one team game. Questionnaires and in-person interviews were conducted before and after each game to collect the players' feedback on their experience, learning challenges and needs, and information about their motivation, interests and confidence level. The collected data demonstrate that the primary concern going into these competitions stemmed from a lack of knowledge regarding cybersecurity concepts and tools. Players' interests and confidence can be increased by going through systematic training.

Knierim, Pascal, Kiss, Francisco, Schmidt, Albrecht.  2018.  Look Inside: Understanding Thermal Flux Through Augmented Reality. 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality Adjunct (ISMAR-Adjunct). :170—171.
The transition from high school to university is an exciting time for students including many new challenges. Particularly in the field of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, the university dropout rate may reach up to 40%. The studies of physics rely on many abstract concepts and quantities that are not directly visible like energy or heat. We developed a mixed reality application for education, which augments the thermal conduction of metal by overlaying a representation of temperature as false-color visualization directly onto the object. This real-time augmentation avoids attention split and overcomes the perception gap by amplifying the human eye. Augmented and Virtual Reality environments allow students to perform experiments that were impossible to conduct for security or financial reasons. With the application, we try to foster a deeper understanding of the learning material and higher engagement during the studies.
Kommera, Nikitha, Kaleem, Faisal, Shah Harooni, Syed Mubashir.  2016.  Smart augmented reality glasses in cybersecurity and forensic education. 2016 IEEE Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics (ISI). :279—281.
Augmented reality is changing the way its users see the world. Smart augmented-reality glasses, with high resolution Optical Head Mounted display, supplements views of the real-world using video, audio, or graphics projected in front of user's eye. The area of Smart Glasses and heads-up display devices is not a new one, however in the last few years, it has seen an extensive growth in various fields including education. Our work takes advantage of a student's ability to adapt to new enabling technologies to investigate improvements teaching techniques in STEM areas and enhance the effectiveness and efficiency in teaching the new course content. In this paper, we propose to focus on the application of Smart Augmented-Reality Glasses in cybersecurity education to attract and retain students in STEM. In addition, creative ways to learn cybersecurity education via Smart Glasses will be explored using a Discovery Learning approach. This mode of delivery will allow students to interact with cybersecurity theories in an innovative, interactive and effective way, enhancing their overall live experience and experimental learning. With the help of collected data and in-depth analysis of existing smart glasses, the ongoing work will lay the groundwork for developing augmented reality applications that will enhance the learning experiences of students. Ultimately, research conducted with the glasses and applications may help to identify the unique skillsets of cybersecurity analysts, learning gaps and learning solutions.
Zapirain, Esteban Aitor, Maris Massa, Stella.  2018.  Intellectual Property Management in Serious Games. 2018 IEEE Biennial Congress of Argentina (ARGENCON). :1—5.
The aim of this work is to perform an analysis on Technology Transfer strategies for the development of Serious Games at Public National Universities. The results can be extrapolated to other research topics and institutions. First of all, the University role as a producer of knowledge is studied, and possible scenarios for Technology Transfer to third-parties are considered. Moreover, the actors involved in the research and development processes and their corresponding Intellectual Property rights on the Research Results are identified and analysed. Finally, an Intellectual Property Rights protection analysis is undertaken to the different components of a Serious Game type of product, through the modalities of invention patents, utility models, industrial models and designs, brands and author rights. The work concludes that public universities are best fitted as knowledge factories, and the most promising scenario in Technology Transfer is that universities manage their Intellectual Property Rights and licence them to third-party institutions to handle commercialization, while keeping favorable conditions to finance subsequent research and ensuring that products derived from Research Results will be reachable by the society.
Ciupe, Aurelia, Mititica, Doru Florin, Meza, Serban, Orza, Bogdan.  2019.  Learning Agile with Intelligent Conversational Agents. 2019 IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference (EDUCON). :1100—1107.

Conversational agents assist traditional teaching-learning instruments in proposing new designs for knowledge creation and learning analysis, across organizational environments. Means of building common educative background in both industry and academic fields become of interest for ensuring educational effectiveness and consistency. Such a context requires transferable practices and becomes the basis for the Agile adoption into Higher Education, at both curriculum and operational levels. The current work proposes a model for delivering Agile Scrum training through an assistive web-based conversational service, where analytics are collected to provide an overview on learners' knowledge path. Besides its specific applicability into Software Engineering (SE) industry, the model is to assist the academic SE curriculum. A user-acceptance test has been carried out among 200 undergraduate students and patterns of interaction have been depicted for 2 conversational strategies.

Gupta, Avinash, Cecil, J., Tapia, Oscar, Sweet-Darter, Mary.  2019.  Design of Cyber-Human Frameworks for Immersive Learning. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (SMC). :1563—1568.

This paper focuses on the creation of information centric Cyber-Human Learning Frameworks involving Virtual Reality based mediums. A generalized framework is proposed, which is adapted for two educational domains: one to support education and training of residents in orthopedic surgery and the other focusing on science learning for children with autism. Users, experts and technology based mediums play a key role in the design of such a Cyber-Human framework. Virtual Reality based immersive and haptic mediums were two of the technologies explored in the implementation of the framework for these learning domains. The proposed framework emphasizes the importance of Information-Centric Systems Engineering (ICSE) principles which emphasizes a user centric approach along with formalizing understanding of target subjects or processes for which the learning environments are being created.

Cao, Lizhou, Peng, Chao, Hansberger, Jeffery T..  2019.  A Large Curved Display System in Virtual Reality for Immersive Data Interaction. 2019 IEEE Games, Entertainment, Media Conference (GEM). :1—4.

This work presents the design and implementation of a large curved display system in a virtual reality (VR) environment that supports visualization of 2D datasets (e.g., images, buttons and text). By using this system, users are allowed to interact with data in front of a wide field of view and gain a high level of perceived immersion. We exhibit two use cases of this system, including (1) a virtual image wall as the display component of a 3D user interface, and (2) an inventory interface for a VR-based educational game. The use cases demonstrate capability and flexibility of curved displays in supporting varied purposes of data interaction within virtual environments.

Asiri, Somayah, Alzahrani, Ahmad A..  2019.  The Effectiveness of Mixed Reality Environment-Based Hand Gestures in Distributed Collaboration. 2019 2nd International Conference on Computer Applications Information Security (ICCAIS). :1—6.

Mixed reality (MR) technologies are widely used in distributed collaborative learning scenarios and have made learning and training more flexible and intuitive. However, there are many challenges in the use of MR due to the difficulty in creating a physical presence, particularly when a physical task is being performed collaboratively. We therefore developed a novel MR system to overcomes these limitations and enhance the distributed collaboration user experience. The primary objective of this paper is to explore the potential of a MR-based hand gestures system to enhance the conceptual architecture of MR in terms of both visualization and interaction in distributed collaboration. We propose a synchronous prototype named MRCollab as an immersive collaborative approach that allows two or more users to communicate with a peer based on the integration of several technologies such as video, audio, and hand gestures.