# Biblio

The security of current key exchange protocols such as Diffie-Hellman key exchange is based on the hardness of number theoretic problems. However, these key exchange protocols are threatened by weak random number generators, advances to CPU power, a new attack from the eavesdropper, and the emergence of a quantum computer. Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) addresses these challenges by using quantum properties to exchange a secret key without the risk of being intercepted. Recent developments on the QKD system resulted in a stable key generation with fewer errors so that the QKD system is rapidly becoming a solid commercial proposition. However, although the security of the QKD system is guaranteed by quantum physics, its careless implementation could make the system vulnerable. In this paper, we proposed the first side-channel attack on plug-and-play QKD system. Through a single electromagnetic trace obtained from the phase modulator on Alice's side, we were able to classify the electromagnetic trace into four classes, which corresponds to the number of bit and basis combination in the BB84 protocol. We concluded that the plug-and-play QKD system is vulnerable to side-channel attack so that the countermeasure must be considered.

We report a an experimental study of device-independent quantum random number generation based on an detection-loophole free Bell test with entangled photons. After considering statistical fluctuations and applying an 80 Gb × 45.6 Mb Toeplitz matrix hashing, we achieve a final random bit rate of 114 bits/s, with a failure probability less than 10-5.

In this paper we show how genetic algorithms can be effectively applied to study the security of arbitrary quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols when faced with adversaries limited to current-day technology. We compare two approaches, both of which take into account practical limitations on the quantum power of an adversary (which can be specified by the user). Our system can be used to determine upper-bounds on noise tolerances of novel QKD protocols in this scenario, thus making it a useful tool for researchers. We compare our algorithm's results with current known numerical results, and also evaluate it on newer, more complex, protocols where no results are currently known.

Quantum technology is a new field of physics and engineering. In emerging areas like Quantum Cryptography, Quantum Computing etc, Quantum circuits play a key role. Quantum circuit is a model for Quantum computation, the computation process of Quantum gates are based on reversible logic. Encoder and Decoder are designed using Quantum gates, and synthesized in the QCAD simulator. Quantum error correction (QEC) is essential to protect quantum information from errors due to quantum noise and decoherence. It is also use to achieve fault-tolerant quantum computation that deals with noise on stored information, faulty quantum gates and faulty measurements.

Securing Internet of things is a major concern as it deals with data that are personal, needed to be reliable, can direct and manipulate device decisions in a harmful way. Also regarding data generation process is heterogeneous, data being immense in volume, complex management. Quantum Computing and Internet of Things (IoT) coined as Quantum IoT defines a concept of greater security design which harness the virtue of quantum mechanics laws in Internet of Things (IoT) security management. Also it ensures secured data storage, processing, communication, data dynamics. In this paper, an IoT security infrastructure is introduced which is a hybrid one, with an extra layer, which ensures quantum state. This state prevents any sort of harmful actions from the eavesdroppers in the communication channel and cyber side, by maintaining its state, protecting the key by quantum cryptography BB84 protocol. An adapted version is introduced specific to this IoT scenario. A classical cryptography system `One-Time pad (OTP)' is used in the hybrid management. The novelty of this paper lies with the integration of classical and quantum communication for Internet of Things (IoT) security.

Power communication network is an important infrastructure of power system. For a large number of widely distributed business terminals and communication terminals. The data protection is related to the safe and stable operation of the whole power grid. How to solve the problem that lots of nodes need a large number of keys and avoid the situation that these nodes cannot exchange information safely because of the lack of keys. In order to solve the problem, this paper proposed a segmentation and combination technology based on quantum key to extend the limited key. The basic idea was to obtain a division scheme according to different conditions, and divide a key into several different sub-keys, and then combine these key segments to generate new keys and distribute them to different terminals in the system. Sufficient keys were beneficial to key updating, and could effectively enhance the ability of communication system to resist damage and intrusion. Through the analysis and calculation, the validity of this method in the use of limited quantum keys to achieve the business data secure transmission of a large number of terminal was further verified.

In this letter, we proposed a novel scheme for the realization of scalable and flexible semi-quantum secret sharing between a boss and multiple dynamic agent groups. In our scheme, the boss Alice can not only distribute her secret messages to multiple users, but also can dynamically adjust the number of users and user groups based on the actual situation. Furthermore, security analysis demonstrates that our protocol is secure against both external attack and participant attack. Compared with previous schemes, our protocol is more flexible and practical. In addition, since our protocol involving only single qubit measurement that greatly weakens the hardware requirements of each user.

In this work NTRU-like cryptosystem NTRU Prime IIT Ukraine, which is created on the basis of existing cryptographic transformations end-to-end encryption type, is considered. The description of this cryptosystem is given and its analysis is carried out. Also, features of its implementation, comparison of the main characteristics and indicators, as well as the definition of differences from existing NTRU-like cryptographic algorithms are presented. Conclusions are made and recommendations are given.

This paper establishes a probability model of multiple paths scheme of quantum key distribution with public nodes among a set of paths which are used to transmit the key between the source node and the destination node. Then in order to be used in universal net topologies, combining with the key routing in the QKD network, the algorithm of the multiple paths scheme of key distribution we propose includes two major aspects: one is an approach which can confirm the number and the distance of the selection of paths, and the other is the strategy of stochastic paths with labels that can decrease the number of public nodes and avoid the phenomenon that the old scheme may produce loops and often get the nodes apart from the destination node father than current nodes. Finally, the paper demonstrates the rationality of the probability model and strategies about the algorithm.

Identity-Based Encryption (IBE) was introduced as an elegant concept for secure data exchange due to its simplified key management by specifically addressing the asymmetric key distribution problems in multi-user scenarios. In the context of ad-hoc network connections that are of particular importance in the emerging Internet of Things, the simple key discovery procedures as provided by IBE are very beneficial in many situations. In this work we demonstrate for the first time that IBE has become practical even for a range of embedded devices that are populated with low-cost ARM Cortex-M microcontrollers or reconfigurable hardware components. More precisely, we adopt the IBE scheme proposed by Ducas et al. at ASIACRYPT 2014 based on the RLWE problem for which we provide implementation results for two security levels on the aforementioned embedded platforms. We give evidence that the implementations of the basic scheme are efficient, as for a security level of 80 bits it requires 103 ms and 36 ms for encryption and decryption, respectively, on the smallest ARM Cortex-M0 microcontroller.

In this paper, a practical quantum public-key encryption model is proposed by studying the recent quantum public-key encryption. This proposed model makes explicit stipulations on the generation, distribution, authentication, and usage of the secret keys, thus forms a black-box operation. Meanwhile, this proposed model encapsulates the process of encryption and decryption for the users, and forms a blackbox client-side. In our models, each module is independent and can be replaced arbitrarily without affecting the proposed model. Therefore, this model has a good guiding significance for the design and development of the quantum public key encryption schemes.

Protection of information achieves keeping confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the data. These features are essential for the proper operation of modern industrial technologies, like Smart Grid. The complex grid system integrates many electronic devices that provide an efficient way of exploiting the power systems but cause many problems due to their vulnerabilities to attacks. The aim of the work is to propose a solution to the privacy problem in Smart Grid communication network between the customers and Control center. It consists in using the relatively new cryptographic task - quantum key distribution (QKD). The solution is based on choosing an appropriate quantum key distribution method out of all the conventional ones by performing an assessment in terms of several parameters. The parameters are: key rate, operating distances, resources, and trustworthiness of the devices involved. Accordingly, we discuss an answer to the privacy problem of the SG network with regard to both security and resource economy.

Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) is a revolutionary technology which leverages the laws of quantum mechanics to distribute cryptographic keying material between two parties with theoretically unconditional security. Terrestrial QKD systems are limited to distances of \textbackslashtextless;200 km in both optical fiber and line-of-sight free-space configurations due to severe losses during single photon propagation and the curvature of the Earth. Thus, the feasibility of fielding a low Earth orbit (LEO) QKD satellite to overcome this limitation is being explored. Moreover, in August 2016, the Chinese Academy of Sciences successfully launched the world's first QKD satellite. However, many of the practical engineering performance and security tradeoffs associated with space-based QKD are not well understood for global secure key distribution. This paper presents several system-level considerations for modeling and studying space-based QKD architectures and systems. More specifically, this paper explores the behaviors and requirements that researchers must examine to develop a model for studying the effectiveness of QKD between LEO satellites and ground stations.

In this paper, a novel quantum encryption algorithm for color image is proposed based on multiple discrete chaotic systems. The proposed quantum image encryption algorithm utilize the quantum controlled-NOT image generated by chaotic logistic map, asymmetric tent map and logistic Chebyshev map to control the XOR operation in the encryption process. Experiment results and analysis show that the proposed algorithm has high efficiency and security against differential and statistical attacks.

This paper proposes a novel scheme for RFID anti-counterfeiting by applying bisectional multivariate quadratic equations (BMQE) system into an RF tag data encryption. In the key generation process, arbitrarily choose two matrix sets (denoted as A and B) and a base Rab such that [AB] = λRABT, and generate 2n BMQ polynomials (denoted as p) over finite field Fq. Therefore, (Fq, p) is taken as a public key and (A, B, λ) as a private key. In the encryption process, the EPC code is hashed into a message digest dm. Then dm is padded to d'm which is a non-zero 2n×2n matrix over Fq. With (A, B, λ) and d'm, Sm is formed as an n-vector over F2. Unlike the existing anti-counterfeit scheme, the one we proposed is based on quantum cryptography, thus it is robust enough to resist the existing attacks and has high security.

A fresh look at the way secure communications is currently being done has been undertaken as a consequence of the large hacking's that have taken place recently. A plausible option maybe a return to the future via Morse code using how a quantum bit (Qubit) reacts when entangled to suggest a cypher. This quantum cyphers uses multiple properties of unique entities that have many random radicals which makes hacking more difficult that traditional 'Rivest-Shamir-Adleman' (RSA), 'Digital Signature Algorithm' (DSA) or 'Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm' (ECDSA). Additional security is likely by Backchannelling (slipstreaming) Quantum Morse code (Q-Morse) keys composed of living and non-living entities. This means Blockchain ledger history (forwards-backwards) is audited during an active session. Verification keys are Backchannelling (slipstreaming) during the session (e.g. train driver must incrementally activate a switch otherwise the train stops) using predicted-expected sender-receiver properties as well as their past history of disconformities to random radicals encountered. In summary, Quantum Morse code (Q-Morse) plausibly is the enabler to additional security by Backchannelling (slipstreaming) during a communications session.

Randomness is a vital resource for modern-day information processing, especially for cryptography. A wide range of applications critically rely on abundant, high-quality random numbers generated securely. Here, we show how to expand a random seed at an exponential rate without trusting the underlying quantum devices. Our approach is secure against the most general adversaries, and has the following new features: cryptographic level of security, tolerating a constant level of imprecision in devices, requiring only unit size quantum memory (for each device component) in an honest implementation, and allowing a large natural class of constructions for the protocol. In conjunction with a recent work by Chung et al. [2014], it also leads to robust unbounded expansion using just 2 multipart devices. When adapted for distributing cryptographic keys, our method achieves, for the first time, exponential expansion combined with cryptographic security and noise tolerance. The proof proceeds by showing that the Rényi divergence of the outputs of the protocol (for a specific bounding operator) decreases linearly as the protocol iterates. At the heart of the proof are a new uncertainty principle on quantum measurements and a method for simulating trusted measurements with untrusted devices.

Quantum cryptography and quantum search algorithm are considered as two important research topics in quantum information science. An asymmetrical quantum encryption protocol based on the properties of quantum one-way function and quantum search algorithm is proposed. Depending on the no-cloning theorem and trapdoor one-way functions of the public-key, the eavesdropper cannot extract any private-information from the public-keys and the ciphertext. Introducing key-generation randomized logarithm to improve security of our proposed protocol, i.e., one private-key corresponds to an exponential number of public-keys. Using unitary operations and the single photon measurement, secret messages can be directly sent from the sender to the receiver. The security of the proposed protocol is proved that it is information-theoretically secure. Furthermore, compared the symmetrical Quantum key distribution, the proposed protocol is not only efficient to reduce additional communication, but also easier to carry out in practice, because no entangled photons and complex operations are required.