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2020-03-30
Heigl, Michael, Schramm, Martin, Fiala, Dalibor.  2019.  A Lightweight Quantum-Safe Security Concept for Wireless Sensor Network Communication. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PerCom Workshops). :906–911.
The ubiquitous internetworking of devices in all areas of life is boosted by various trends for instance the Internet of Things. Promising technologies that can be used for such future environments come from Wireless Sensor Networks. It ensures connectivity between distributed, tiny and simple sensor nodes as well as sensor nodes and base stations in order to monitor physical or environmental conditions such as vibrations, temperature or motion. Security plays an increasingly important role in the coming decades in which attacking strategies are becoming more and more sophisticated. Contemporary cryptographic mechanisms face a great threat from quantum computers in the near future and together with Intrusion Detection Systems are hardly applicable on sensors due to strict resource constraints. Thus, in this work a future-proof lightweight and resource-aware security concept for sensor networks with a processing stage permeated filtering mechanism is proposed. A special focus in the concepts evaluation lies on the novel Magic Number filter to mitigate a special kind of Denial-of-Service attack performed on CC1350 LaunchPad ARM Cortex-M3 microcontroller boards.
Vasiliu, Yevhen, Limar, Igor, Gancarczyk, Tomasz, Karpinski, Mikolaj.  2019.  New Quantum Secret Sharing Protocol Using Entangled Qutrits. 2019 10th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems: Technology and Applications (IDAACS). 1:324–329.
A new quantum secret sharing protocol based on the ping-pong protocol of quantum secure direct communication is proposed. The pairs of entangled qutrits are used in protocol, which allows an increase in the information capacity compared with protocols based on entangled qubits. The detection of channel eavesdropping used in the protocol is being implemented in random moments of time, thereby it is possible do not use the significant amount of quantum memory. The security of the proposed protocol to attacks is considered. A method for additional amplification of the security to an eavesdropping attack in communication channels for the developed protocol is proposed.
Hu, Zhengbing, Vasiliu, Yevhen, Smirnov, Oleksii, Sydorenko, Viktoriia, Polishchuk, Yuliia.  2019.  Abstract Model of Eavesdropper and Overview on Attacks in Quantum Cryptography Systems. 2019 10th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems: Technology and Applications (IDAACS). 1:399–405.
In today's world, it's almost impossible to find a sphere of human life in which information technologies would not be used. On the one hand, it simplifies human life - virtually everyone carries a mini-computer in his pocket and it allows to perform many operations, that took a lot of time, in minutes. In addition, IT has simplified and promptly developed areas such as medicine, banking, document circulation, military, and many other infrastructures of the state. Nevertheless, even today, privacy remains a major problem in many information transactions. One of the most important directions for ensuring the information confidentiality in open communication networks has been and remains its protection by cryptographic methods. Although it is known that traditional cryptography methods give reasons to doubt in their reliability, quantum cryptography has proven itself as a more reliable information security technology. As far is it quite new direction there is no sufficiently complete classification of attacks on quantum cryptography methods, in view of this new extended classification of attacks on quantum protocols and quantum cryptosystems is proposed in this work. Classification takes into account the newest attacks (which use devices loopholes) on quantum key distribution equipment. These attacks have been named \textbackslashtextless; \textbackslashtextless; quantum hacking\textbackslashtextgreater\textbackslashtextgreater. Such classification may be useful for choosing commercially available quantum key distribution system. Also abstract model of eavesdropper in quantum systems was created and it allows to determine a set of various nature measures that need to be further implemented to provide reliable security with the help of specific quantum systems.
Brito, J. P., López, D. R., Aguado, A., Abellán, C., López, V., Pastor-Perales, A., la Iglesia, F. de, Martín, V..  2019.  Quantum Services Architecture in Softwarized Infrastructures. 2019 21st International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON). :1–4.
Quantum computing is posing new threats on our security infrastructure. This has triggered a new research field on quantum-safe methods, and those that rely on the application of quantum principles are commonly referred as quantum cryptography. The most mature development in the field of quantum cryptography is called Quantum Key Distribution (QKD). QKD is a key exchange primitive that can replace existing mechanisms that can become obsolete in the near future. Although QKD has reached a high level of maturity, there is still a long path for a mass market implementation. QKD shall overcome issues such as miniaturization, network integration and the reduction of production costs to make the technology affordable. In this direction, we foresee that QKD systems will evolve following the same path as other networking technologies, where systems will run on specific network cards, integrable in commodity chassis. This work describes part of our activity in the EU H2020 project CiViQ in which quantum technologies, as QKD systems or quantum random number generators (QRNG), will become a single network element that we define as Quantum Switch. This allows for quantum resources (keys or random numbers) to be provided as a service, while the different components are integrated to cooperate for providing the most random and secure bit streams. Furthermore, with the purpose of making our proposal closer to current networking technology, this work also proposes an abstraction logic for making our Quantum Switch suitable to become part of software-defined networking (SDN) architectures. The model fits in the architecture of the SDN quantum node architecture, that is being under standardization by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute. It permits to operate an entire quantum network using a logically centralized SDN controller, and quantum switches to generate and to forward key material and random numbers across the entire network. This scheme, demonstrated for the first time at the Madrid Quantum Network, will allow for a faster and seamless integration of quantum technologies in the telecommunications infrastructure.
Diamanti, Eleni.  2019.  Demonstrating Quantum Advantage in Security and Efficiency with Practical Photonic Systems. 2019 21st International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON). :1–2.
We discuss the current landscape in quantum communication and cryptography, and focus in particular on recent photonic implementations, using encoding in discrete or continuous properties of light, of central quantum network protocols, enabling secret key distribution, verification of entangled resources and transactions of quantum money, with maximal security guarantees. We also describe current challenges in this field and our efforts towards the miniaturization of the developed photonic systems, their integration into telecommunication network infrastructures, including with satellite links, as well as the practical demonstration of novel protocols featuring a quantum advantage in communication efficiency for a wide range of useful tasks in a network environment. These advances enrich the resources and applications of the emerging quantum networks that will play a central role in the context of future quantum-safe communications.
2020-03-16
Ablaev, Farid, Andrianov, Sergey, Soloviev, Aleksey.  2019.  Quantum Electronic Generator of Random Numbers for Information Security in Automatic Control Systems. 2019 International Russian Automation Conference (RusAutoCon). :1–5.

The problems of random numbers application to the information security of data, communication lines, computer units and automated driving systems are considered. The possibilities for making up quantum generators of random numbers and existing solutions for acquiring of sufficiently random sequences are analyzed. The authors found out the method for the creation of quantum generators on the basis of semiconductor electronic components. The electron-quantum generator based on electrons tunneling is experimentally demonstrated. It is shown that it is able to create random sequences of high security level and satisfying known NIST statistical tests (P-Value\textbackslashtextgreater0.9). The generator created can be used for formation of both closed and open cryptographic keys in computer systems and other platforms and has great potential for realization of random walks and probabilistic computing on the basis of neural nets and other IT problems.

2020-03-09
Cao, Yuan, Zhao, Yongli, Li, Jun, Lin, Rui, Zhang, Jie, Chen, Jiajia.  2019.  Reinforcement Learning Based Multi-Tenant Secret-Key Assignment for Quantum Key Distribution Networks. 2019 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC). :1–3.
We propose a reinforcement learning based online multi-tenant secret-key assignment algorithm for quantum key distribution networks, capable of reducing tenant-request blocking probability more than half compared to the benchmark heuristics.
2020-03-04
AL-Mubayedh, Dhoha, AL-Khalis, Mashael, AL-Azman, Ghadeer, AL-Abdali, Manal, Al Fosail, Malak, Nagy, Naya.  2019.  Quantum Cryptography on IBM QX. 2019 2nd International Conference on Computer Applications Information Security (ICCAIS). :1–6.

Due to the importance of securing electronic transactions, many cryptographic protocols have been employed, that mainly depend on distributed keys between the intended parties. In classical computers, the security of these protocols depends on the mathematical complexity of the encoding functions and on the length of the key. However, the existing classical algorithms 100% breakable with enough computational power, which can be provided by quantum machines. Moving to quantum computation, the field of security shifts into a new area of cryptographic solutions which is now the field of quantum cryptography. The era of quantum computers is at its beginning. There are few practical implementations and evaluations of quantum protocols. Therefore, the paper defines a well-known quantum key distribution protocol which is BB84 then provides a practical implementation of it on IBM QX software. The practical implementations showed that there were differences between BB84 theoretical expected results and the practical implementation results. Due to this, the paper provides a statistical analysis of the experiments by comparing the standard deviation of the results. Using the BB84 protocol the existence of a third-party eavesdropper can be detected. Thus, calculations of the probability of detecting/not detecting a third-party eavesdropping have been provided. These values are again compared to the theoretical expectation. The calculations showed that with the greater number of qubits, the percentage of detecting eavesdropper will be higher.

2020-01-27
Takahashi, Ririka, Tanizawa, Yoshimichi, Dixon, Alexander.  2019.  A High-Speed Key Management Method for Quantum Key Distribution Network. 2019 Eleventh International Conference on Ubiquitous and Future Networks (ICUFN). :437–442.

Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) is a technique for sharing encryption keys between two adjacent nodes. It provides unconditional secure communication based on the laws of physics. From the viewpoint of network research, QKD is considered to be a component for providing secure communication in network systems. A QKD network enables each node to exchange encryption keys with arbitrary nodes. However previous research did not focus on the processing speed of the key management method essential for a QKD network. This paper focuses on the key management method assuming a high-speed QKD system for which we clarify the design, propose a high-speed method, and evaluate the throughput. The proposed method consists of four modules: (1) local key manager handling the keys generated by QKD, (2) one-time pad tunnel manager establishing the transparent encryption link, (3) global key manager generating the keys for application communication, and (4) web API providing keys to the application. The proposed method was implemented in software and evaluated by emulating QKD key generation and application key consumption. The evaluation result reveals that it is capable of handling the encryption keys at a speed of 414 Mb/s, 185 Mb/s, 85 Mb/s and 971 Mb/s, for local key manager, one-time pad tunnel manager, global key manager and web API, respectively. These are sufficient for integration with a high-speed QKD system. Furthermore, the method allows the high-speed QKD system consisting of two nodes to expand corresponding to the size of the QKD network without losing the speed advantage.

2020-01-07
Aparna, H., Bhoomija, Faustina, Devi, R. Santhiya, Thenmozhi, K., Amirtharajan, Rengarajan, Praveenkumar, Padmapriya.  2019.  Image Encryption Based on Quantum-Assisted DNA Coded System. 2019 International Conference on Computer Communication and Informatics (ICCCI). :1-4.
Information security is winding up noticeably more vital in information stockpiling and transmission. Images are generally utilised for various purposes. As a result, the protection of image from the unauthorised client is critical. Established encryption techniques are not ready to give a secure framework. To defeat this, image encryption is finished through DNA encoding which is additionally included with confused 1D and 2D logistic maps. The key communication is done through the quantum channel using the BB84 protocol. To recover the encrypted image DNA decoding is performed. Since DNA encryption is invertible, decoding can be effectively done through DNA subtraction. It decreases the complexity and furthermore gives more strength when contrasted with traditional encryption plans. The enhanced strength of the framework is measured utilising measurements like NPCR, UACI, Correlation and Entropy.
Akiwate, Bahubali, Parthiban, Latha.  2018.  A Dynamic DNA for Key-Based Cryptography. 2018 International Conference on Computational Techniques, Electronics and Mechanical Systems (CTEMS). :223-227.

A dynamic DNA for key-based Cryptography that encrypt and decrypt plain text characters, text file, image file and audio file using DNA sequences. Cryptography is always taken as the secure way while transforming the confidential information over the network such as LAN, Internet. But over the time, the traditional cryptographic approaches are been replaced with more effective cryptographic systems such as Quantum Cryptography, Biometric Cryptography, Geographical Cryptography and DNA Cryptography. This approach accepts the DNA sequences as the input to generate the key that going to provide two stages of data security.

2019-10-08
Kim, S., Jin, S., Lee, Y., Park, B., Kim, H., Hong, S..  2018.  Single Trace Side Channel Analysis on Quantum Key Distribution. 2018 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC). :736–739.

The security of current key exchange protocols such as Diffie-Hellman key exchange is based on the hardness of number theoretic problems. However, these key exchange protocols are threatened by weak random number generators, advances to CPU power, a new attack from the eavesdropper, and the emergence of a quantum computer. Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) addresses these challenges by using quantum properties to exchange a secret key without the risk of being intercepted. Recent developments on the QKD system resulted in a stable key generation with fewer errors so that the QKD system is rapidly becoming a solid commercial proposition. However, although the security of the QKD system is guaranteed by quantum physics, its careless implementation could make the system vulnerable. In this paper, we proposed the first side-channel attack on plug-and-play QKD system. Through a single electromagnetic trace obtained from the phase modulator on Alice's side, we were able to classify the electromagnetic trace into four classes, which corresponds to the number of bit and basis combination in the BB84 protocol. We concluded that the plug-and-play QKD system is vulnerable to side-channel attack so that the countermeasure must be considered.

Liu, Y., Yuan, X., Li, M., Zhang, W., Zhao, Q., Zhong, J., Cao, Y., Li, Y., Chen, L., Li, H. et al..  2018.  High Speed Device-Independent Quantum Random Number Generation without Detection Loophole. 2018 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO). :1–2.

We report a an experimental study of device-independent quantum random number generation based on an detection-loophole free Bell test with entangled photons. After considering statistical fluctuations and applying an 80 Gb × 45.6 Mb Toeplitz matrix hashing, we achieve a final random bit rate of 114 bits/s, with a failure probability less than 10-5.

Krawec, Walter O., Markelon, Sam A..  2018.  Genetic Algorithm to Study Practical Quantum Adversaries. Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference. :1270–1277.

In this paper we show how genetic algorithms can be effectively applied to study the security of arbitrary quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols when faced with adversaries limited to current-day technology. We compare two approaches, both of which take into account practical limitations on the quantum power of an adversary (which can be specified by the user). Our system can be used to determine upper-bounds on noise tolerances of novel QKD protocols in this scenario, thus making it a useful tool for researchers. We compare our algorithm's results with current known numerical results, and also evaluate it on newer, more complex, protocols where no results are currently known.

Anitha, R., Vijayalakshmi, B..  2018.  SIMULATION OF QUANTUM ENCODER DECODER WITH FLIP BIT ERROR CORRECTION USING REVERSIBLE QUANTUM GATES. 2018 International Conference on Recent Trends in Electrical, Control and Communication (RTECC). :99–102.

Quantum technology is a new field of physics and engineering. In emerging areas like Quantum Cryptography, Quantum Computing etc, Quantum circuits play a key role. Quantum circuit is a model for Quantum computation, the computation process of Quantum gates are based on reversible logic. Encoder and Decoder are designed using Quantum gates, and synthesized in the QCAD simulator. Quantum error correction (QEC) is essential to protect quantum information from errors due to quantum noise and decoherence. It is also use to achieve fault-tolerant quantum computation that deals with noise on stored information, faulty quantum gates and faulty measurements.

Rahman, M. S., Hossam-E-Haider, M..  2019.  Quantum IoT: A Quantum Approach in IoT Security Maintenance. 2019 International Conference on Robotics,Electrical and Signal Processing Techniques (ICREST). :269–272.

Securing Internet of things is a major concern as it deals with data that are personal, needed to be reliable, can direct and manipulate device decisions in a harmful way. Also regarding data generation process is heterogeneous, data being immense in volume, complex management. Quantum Computing and Internet of Things (IoT) coined as Quantum IoT defines a concept of greater security design which harness the virtue of quantum mechanics laws in Internet of Things (IoT) security management. Also it ensures secured data storage, processing, communication, data dynamics. In this paper, an IoT security infrastructure is introduced which is a hybrid one, with an extra layer, which ensures quantum state. This state prevents any sort of harmful actions from the eavesdroppers in the communication channel and cyber side, by maintaining its state, protecting the key by quantum cryptography BB84 protocol. An adapted version is introduced specific to this IoT scenario. A classical cryptography system `One-Time pad (OTP)' is used in the hybrid management. The novelty of this paper lies with the integration of classical and quantum communication for Internet of Things (IoT) security.

2019-09-11
Wang, L., Wang, D., Gao, J., Huo, C., Bai, H., Yuan, J..  2019.  Research on Multi-Source Data Security Protection of Smart Grid Based on Quantum Key Combination. 2019 IEEE 4th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Big Data Analysis (ICCCBDA). :449–453.

Power communication network is an important infrastructure of power system. For a large number of widely distributed business terminals and communication terminals. The data protection is related to the safe and stable operation of the whole power grid. How to solve the problem that lots of nodes need a large number of keys and avoid the situation that these nodes cannot exchange information safely because of the lack of keys. In order to solve the problem, this paper proposed a segmentation and combination technology based on quantum key to extend the limited key. The basic idea was to obtain a division scheme according to different conditions, and divide a key into several different sub-keys, and then combine these key segments to generate new keys and distribute them to different terminals in the system. Sufficient keys were beneficial to key updating, and could effectively enhance the ability of communication system to resist damage and intrusion. Through the analysis and calculation, the validity of this method in the use of limited quantum keys to achieve the business data secure transmission of a large number of terminal was further verified.

2019-06-17
Cao, Gang, Chen, Chen, Jiang, Min.  2018.  A Scalable and Flexible Multi-User Semi-Quantum Secret Sharing. Proceedings of the 2Nd International Conference on Telecommunications and Communication Engineering. :28–32.

In this letter, we proposed a novel scheme for the realization of scalable and flexible semi-quantum secret sharing between a boss and multiple dynamic agent groups. In our scheme, the boss Alice can not only distribute her secret messages to multiple users, but also can dynamically adjust the number of users and user groups based on the actual situation. Furthermore, security analysis demonstrates that our protocol is secure against both external attack and participant attack. Compared with previous schemes, our protocol is more flexible and practical. In addition, since our protocol involving only single qubit measurement that greatly weakens the hardware requirements of each user.

2019-03-18
Bos, J., Ducas, L., Kiltz, E., Lepoint, T., Lyubashevsky, V., Schanck, J. M., Schwabe, P., Seiler, G., Stehle, D..  2018.  CRYSTALS - Kyber: A CCA-Secure Module-Lattice-Based KEM. 2018 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS P). :353–367.
Rapid advances in quantum computing, together with the announcement by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to define new standards for digitalsignature, encryption, and key-establishment protocols, have created significant interest in post-quantum cryptographic schemes. This paper introduces Kyber (part of CRYSTALS - Cryptographic Suite for Algebraic Lattices - a package submitted to NIST post-quantum standardization effort in November 2017), a portfolio of post-quantum cryptographic primitives built around a key-encapsulation mechanism (KEM), based on hardness assumptions over module lattices. Our KEM is most naturally seen as a successor to the NEWHOPE KEM (Usenix 2016). In particular, the key and ciphertext sizes of our new construction are about half the size, the KEM offers CCA instead of only passive security, the security is based on a more general (and flexible) lattice problem, and our optimized implementation results in essentially the same running time as the aforementioned scheme. We first introduce a CPA-secure public-key encryption scheme, apply a variant of the Fujisaki-Okamoto transform to create a CCA-secure KEM, and eventually construct, in a black-box manner, CCA-secure encryption, key exchange, and authenticated-key-exchange schemes. The security of our primitives is based on the hardness of Module-LWE in the classical and quantum random oracle models, and our concrete parameters conservatively target more than 128 bits of postquantum security.
2019-02-14
Facon, A., Guilley, S., Lec'Hvien, M., Schaub, A., Souissi, Y..  2018.  Detecting Cache-Timing Vulnerabilities in Post-Quantum Cryptography Algorithms. 2018 IEEE 3rd International Verification and Security Workshop (IVSW). :7-12.

When implemented on real systems, cryptographic algorithms are vulnerable to attacks observing their execution behavior, such as cache-timing attacks. Designing protected implementations must be done with knowledge and validation tools as early as possible in the development cycle. In this article we propose a methodology to assess the robustness of the candidates for the NIST post-quantum standardization project to cache-timing attacks. To this end we have developed a dedicated vulnerability research tool. It performs a static analysis with tainting propagation of sensitive variables across the source code and detects leakage patterns. We use it to assess the security of the NIST post-quantum cryptography project submissions. Our results show that more than 80% of the analyzed implementations have at least one potential flaw, and three submissions total more than 1000 reported flaws each. Finally, this comprehensive study of the competitors security allows us to identify the most frequent weaknesses amongst candidates and how they might be fixed.

Arrazola, J. M., Marwah, A., Lovitz, B., Touchette, D., Lutkenhaus, N..  2018.  Cryptographic and Non-Cryptographic Network Applications and Their Optical Implementations. 2018 IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series (SUM). :9-10.
The use of quantum mechanical signals in communication opens up the opportunity to build new communication systems that accomplishes tasks that communication with classical signals structures cannot achieve. Prominent examples are Quantum Key Distribution Protocols, which allows the generation of secret keys without computational assumptions of adversaries. Over the past decade, protocols have been developed that achieve tasks that can also be accomplished with classical signals, but the quantum version of the protocol either uses less resources, or leaks less information between the involved parties. The gap between quantum and classical can be exponential in the input size of the problems. Examples are the comparison of data, the scheduling of appointments and others. Until recently, it was thought that these protocols are of mere conceptual value, but that the quantum advantage could not be realized. We changed that by developing quantum optical versions of these abstract protocols that can run with simple laser pulses, beam-splitters and detectors. [1-3] By now the first protocols have been successfully implemented [4], showing that a quantum advantage can be realized. The next step is to find and realize protocols that have a high practical value.
Dr\u agoi, V., Richmond, T., Bucerzan, D., Legay, A..  2018.  Survey on Cryptanalysis of Code-Based Cryptography: From Theoretical to Physical Attacks. 2018 7th International Conference on Computers Communications and Control (ICCCC). :215-223.
Nowadays public-key cryptography is based on number theory problems, such as computing the discrete logarithm on an elliptic curve or factoring big integers. Even though these problems are considered difficult to solve with the help of a classical computer, they can be solved in polynomial time on a quantum computer. Which is why the research community proposed alternative solutions that are quantum-resistant. The process of finding adequate post-quantum cryptographic schemes has moved to the next level, right after NIST's announcement for post-quantum standardization. One of the oldest quantum-resistant proposition goes back to McEliece in 1978, who proposed a public-key cryptosystem based on coding theory. It benefits of really efficient algorithms as well as a strong mathematical background. Nonetheless, its security has been challenged many times and several variants were cryptanalyzed. However, some versions remain unbroken. In this paper, we propose to give some background on coding theory in order to present some of the main flawless in the protocols. We analyze the existing side-channel attacks and give some recommendations on how to securely implement the most suitable variants. We also detail some structural attacks and potential drawbacks for new variants.
2019-02-08
Gorbenko, I., Kachko, O., Yesina, M., Akolzina, O..  2018.  Post-Quantum Algorithm of Asymmetric Encryption and Its Basic Properties. 2018 IEEE 9th International Conference on Dependable Systems, Services and Technologies (DESSERT). :265-270.

In this work NTRU-like cryptosystem NTRU Prime IIT Ukraine, which is created on the basis of existing cryptographic transformations end-to-end encryption type, is considered. The description of this cryptosystem is given and its analysis is carried out. Also, features of its implementation, comparison of the main characteristics and indicators, as well as the definition of differences from existing NTRU-like cryptographic algorithms are presented. Conclusions are made and recommendations are given.

2018-04-11
Ma, C., Guo, Y., Su, J..  2017.  A Multiple Paths Scheme with Labels for Key Distribution on Quantum Key Distribution Network. 2017 IEEE 2nd Advanced Information Technology, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (IAEAC). :2513–2517.

This paper establishes a probability model of multiple paths scheme of quantum key distribution with public nodes among a set of paths which are used to transmit the key between the source node and the destination node. Then in order to be used in universal net topologies, combining with the key routing in the QKD network, the algorithm of the multiple paths scheme of key distribution we propose includes two major aspects: one is an approach which can confirm the number and the distance of the selection of paths, and the other is the strategy of stochastic paths with labels that can decrease the number of public nodes and avoid the phenomenon that the old scheme may produce loops and often get the nodes apart from the destination node father than current nodes. Finally, the paper demonstrates the rationality of the probability model and strategies about the algorithm.

2018-04-02
Güneysu, T., Oder, T..  2017.  Towards Lightweight Identity-Based Encryption for the Post-Quantum-Secure Internet of Things. 2017 18th International Symposium on Quality Electronic Design (ISQED). :319–324.

Identity-Based Encryption (IBE) was introduced as an elegant concept for secure data exchange due to its simplified key management by specifically addressing the asymmetric key distribution problems in multi-user scenarios. In the context of ad-hoc network connections that are of particular importance in the emerging Internet of Things, the simple key discovery procedures as provided by IBE are very beneficial in many situations. In this work we demonstrate for the first time that IBE has become practical even for a range of embedded devices that are populated with low-cost ARM Cortex-M microcontrollers or reconfigurable hardware components. More precisely, we adopt the IBE scheme proposed by Ducas et al. at ASIACRYPT 2014 based on the RLWE problem for which we provide implementation results for two security levels on the aforementioned embedded platforms. We give evidence that the implementations of the basic scheme are efficient, as for a security level of 80 bits it requires 103 ms and 36 ms for encryption and decryption, respectively, on the smallest ARM Cortex-M0 microcontroller.