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2021-08-31
Tosh, Deepak, Galindo, Oscar, Kreinovich, Vladik, Kosheleva, Olga.  2020.  Towards Security of Cyber-Physical Systems using Quantum Computing Algorithms. 2020 IEEE 15th International Conference of System of Systems Engineering (SoSE). :313—320.
For cyber-physical systems (CPS), ensuring process and data security is critically important since the corresponding infrastructure needs to have high operational efficiency with no downtime. There are many techniques available that make communications in CPS environments secure - such as enabling traffic encryption between sensors and the computers processing the sensor's data, incorporating message authentication codes to achieve integrity, etc. However, most of these techniques are dependent on some form of symmetric or asymmetric cryptographic algorithms like AES and RSA. These algorithms are under threat because of the emerging quantum computing paradigm: with quantum computing, these encryption algorithms can be potentially broken. It is therefore desirable to explore the use of quantum cryptography - which cannot be broken by quantum computing - for securing the classical communications infrastructure deployed in CPS. In this paper, we discuss possible consequences of this option. We also explain how quantum computers can help even more: namely, they can be used to maximize the system's security where scalability is never a constraint, and to ensure we are not wasting time cycles on communicating and processing irrelevant information.
2021-03-15
Nieto-Chaupis, H..  2020.  Hyper Secure Cognitive Radio Communications in an Internet of Space Things Network Based on the BB84 Protocol. 2020 Intermountain Engineering, Technology and Computing (IETC). :1–5.
Once constellation of satellites are working in a collaborative manner, the security of their messages would have to be highly secure from all angles of scenarios by which the praxis of eavesdropping constitutes a constant thread for the instability of the different tasks and missions. In this paper we employ the Bennet-Brassard commonly known as the BB84 protocol in conjunction to the technique of Cognitive Radio applied to the Internet of Space Things to build a prospective technology to guarantee the communications among geocentric orbital satellites. The simulations have yielded that for a constellation of 5 satellites, the probability of successful of completion the communication might be of order of 75% ±5%.
2021-02-08
Wang, H., Yao, G., Wang, B..  2020.  A Quantum Concurrent Signature Scheme Based on the Quantum Finite Automata Signature Scheme. 2020 IEEE 14th International Conference on Anti-counterfeiting, Security, and Identification (ASID). :125–129.
When using digital signatures, we need to deal with the problem of fairness of information exchange. To solve this problem, Chen, etc. introduced a new conception which is named concurrent signatures in Eurocrypt'04. Using concurrent signatures scheme, two entities in the scheme can generate two ambiguous signatures until one of the entities releases additional information which is called keystone. After the keystone is released, the two ambiguous signatures will be bound to their real signers at the same time. In order to provide a method to solve the fairness problem of quantum digital signatures, we propose a new quantum concurrent signature scheme. The scheme we proposed does not use a trusted third party in a quantum computing environment, and has such advantages as no need to conduct complex quantum operations and easy to implement by a quantum circuit. Quantum concurrent signature improves the theory of quantum cryptography, and it also provides broad prospects for the specific applications of quantum cryptography.
2020-11-20
Lardier, W., Varo, Q., Yan, J..  2019.  Quantum-Sim: An Open-Source Co-Simulation Platform for Quantum Key Distribution-Based Smart Grid Communications. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm). :1—6.
Grid modernization efforts with the latest information and communication technologies will significantly benefit smart grids in the coming years. More optical fibre communications between consumers and the control center will promise better demand response and customer engagement, yet the increasing attack surface and man-in-the-middle (MITM) threats can result in security and privacy challenges. Among the studies for more secure smart grid communications, quantum key distribution protocols (QKD) have emerged as a promising option. To bridge the theoretical advantages of quantum communication to its practical utilization, however, comprehensive investigations have to be conducted with realistic cyber-physical smart grid structures and scenarios. To facilitate research in this direction, this paper proposes an open-source, research-oriented co-simulation platform that orchestrates cyber and power simulators under the MOSAIK framework. The proposed platform allows flexible and realistic power flow-based co-simulation of quantum communications and electrical grids, where different cyber and power topologies, QKD protocols, and attack threats can be investigated. Using quantum-based communication under MITM attacks, the paper presented detailed case studies to demonstrate how the platform enables quick setup of a lowvoltage distribution grid, implementation of different protocols and cryptosystems, as well as evaluations of both communication efficiency and security against MITM attacks. The platform has been made available online to empower researchers in the modelling of quantum-based cyber-physical systems, pilot studies on quantum communications in smart grid, as well as improved attack resilience against malicious intruders.
2020-10-06
Bellini, Emanuele, Caullery, Florian, Gaborit, Philippe, Manzano, Marc, Mateu, Victor.  2019.  Improved Veron Identification and Signature Schemes in the Rank Metric. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT). :1872—1876.

It is notably challenging to design an efficient and secure signature scheme based on error-correcting codes. An approach to build such signature schemes is to derive it from an identification protocol through the Fiat-Shamir transform. All such protocols based on codes must be run several rounds, since each run of the protocol allows a cheating probability of either 2/3 or 1/2. The resulting signature size is proportional to the number of rounds, thus making the 1/2 cheating probability version more attractive. We present a signature scheme based on double circulant codes in the rank metric, derived from an identification protocol with cheating probability of 2/3. We reduced this probability to almost 1/2 to obtain the smallest signature among code-based signature schemes based on the Fiat-Shamir paradigm, around 22 KBytes for 128 bit security level. Furthermore, among all code-based signature schemes, our proposal has the lowest value of signature plus public key size, and the smallest secret and public key sizes. We provide a security proof in the Random Oracle Model, implementation performances, and a comparison with the parameters of similar signature schemes.

2020-07-20
Marakis, Evangelos, van Harten, Wouter, Uppu, Ravitej, Vos, Willem L., Pinkse, Pepijn W. H..  2017.  Reproducibility of artificial multiple scattering media. 2017 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe European Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/Europe-EQEC). :1–1.
Summary form only given. Authentication of people or objects using physical keys is insecure against secret duplication. Physical unclonable functions (PUF) are special physical keys that are assumed to be unclonable due to the large number of degrees of freedom in their manufacturing [1]. Opaque scattering media, such as white paint and teeth, comprise of millions of nanoparticles in a random arrangement. Under coherent light illumination, the multiple scattering from these nanoparticles gives rise to a complex interference resulting in a speckle pattern. The speckle pattern is seemingly random but highly sensitive to the exact position and size of the nanoparticles in the given piece of opaque scattering medium [2], thereby realizing an ideal optical PUF. These optical PUFs enabled applications such as quantum-secure authentication (QSA) and communication [3, 4].
2020-07-16
Gariano, John, Djordjevic, Ivan B..  2019.  Covert Communications-Based Information Reconciliation for Quantum Key Distribution Protocols. 2019 21st International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON). :1—5.

The rate at which a secure key can be generated in a quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol is limited by the channel loss and the quantum bit-error rate (QBER). Increases to the QBER can stem from detector noise, channel noise, or the presence of an eavesdropper, Eve. Eve is capable of obtaining information of the unsecure key by performing an attack on the quantum channel or by listening to all discussion performed via a noiseless public channel. Conventionally a QKD protocol will perform the information reconciliation over the authenticated public channel, revealing the parity bits used to correct for any quantum bit errors. In this invited paper, the possibility of limiting the information revealed to Eve during the information reconciliation is considered. Using a covert communication channel for the transmission of the parity bits, secure key rates are possible at much higher QBERs. This is demonstrated through the simulation of a polarization based QKD system implementing the BB84 protocol, showing significant improvement of the SKRs over the conventional QKD protocols.

2020-06-22
Kuznetsov, Alexandr, Kiian, Anastasiia, Pushkar'ov, Andriy, Mialkovskyi, Danylo, Smirnov, Oleksii, Kuznetsova, Tetiana.  2019.  Code-Based Schemes for Post-Quantum Digital Signatures. 2019 10th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems: Technology and Applications (IDAACS). 2:707–712.
The paper deals with the design and principles of functioning of code-based schemes for formation and verification of electronic digital signature. Comparative studies of the effectiveness of the known CFS scheme and the proposed scheme have been carried out, as well as their possibilities, disadvantages and prospects for use in the post-quantum period.
Noel, Moses Dogonyaro, Waziri, Onomza Victor, Abdulhamid, Muhammad Shafii, Ojeniyi, Adebayo Joseph.  2019.  Stateful Hash-based Digital Signature Schemes for Bitcoin Cryptocurrency. 2019 15th International Conference on Electronics, Computer and Computation (ICECCO). :1–6.
Modern computing devices use classical algorithms such as Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA) and Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) for their security. The securities of these algorithms relied on the problem and difficulty of integer factorization and also calculating the Discrete Logarithm Problems. With the introduction of quantum computers, recent research is focusing on developing alternative algorithms which are supposed to withstand attacks from quantum computers. One of such alternatives is the Hash-based Digital Signature Schemes. Chosen hash-based signature schemes over classical algorithms is because their security is on the hash function used and that they are metaheuristic in nature. This research work presents basic analysis and the background understanding of Stateful Hash-based Signature Schemes, particularly the Lamport One-Time Signature Scheme, Winternitz One-Time Signature Scheme, and the Merkle Signature Scheme. The three schemes selected are stateful, hence has common features and are few-time hash-based signature schemes. The selected Stateful Hash-based Digital Signature Schemes were analyzed based on their respective key generation, signature generation, signature verification, and their security levels. Practical working examples were given for better understanding. With the analyses, Merkle Signature Scheme proves to be the best candidate to be used in the Bitcoin Proof of Work protocol because of its security and its advantage of signing many messages.
2020-06-12
Latif, M. Kamran, Jacinto, H S., Daoud, Luka, Rafla, Nader.  2018.  Optimization of a Quantum-Secure Sponge-Based Hash Message Authentication Protocol. 2018 IEEE 61st International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS). :984—987.

Hash message authentication is a fundamental building block of many networking security protocols such as SSL, TLS, FTP, and even HTTPS. The sponge-based SHA-3 hashing algorithm is the most recently developed hashing function as a result of a NIST competition to find a new hashing standard after SHA-1 and SHA-2 were found to have collisions, and thus were considered broken. We used Xilinx High-Level Synthesis to develop an optimized and pipelined version of the post-quantum-secure SHA-3 hash message authentication code (HMAC) which is capable of computing a HMAC every 280 clock-cycles with an overall throughput of 604 Mbps. We cover the general security of sponge functions in both a classical and quantum computing standpoint for hash functions, and offer a general architecture for HMAC computation when sponge functions are used.

2020-06-02
Krawec, Walter O..  2019.  Multi-Mediated Semi-Quantum Key Distribution. 2019 IEEE Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps). :1—6.

A semi-quantum key distribution (SQKD) protocol allows two users A and B to establish a shared secret key that is secure against an all-powerful adversary E even when one of the users (e.g., B) is semi-quantum or classical in nature while the other is fully-quantum. A mediated SQKD protocol allows two semi-quantum users to establish a key with the help of an adversarial quantum server. We introduce the concept of a multi-mediated SQKD protocol where two (or more) adversarial quantum servers are used. We construct a new protocol in this model and show how it can withstand high levels of quantum noise, though at a cost to efficiency. We perform an information theoretic security analysis and, along the way, prove a general security result applicable to arbitrary MM-SQKD protocols. Finally, a comparison is made to previous (S)QKD protocols.

Gagliano, Allison, Krawec, Walter O., Iqbal, Hasan.  2019.  From Classical to Semi-Quantum Secure Communication. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT). :1707—1711.

In this work we introduce a novel QKD protocol capable of smoothly transitioning, via a user-tuneable parameter, from classical to semi-quantum in order to help understand the effect of quantum communication resources on secure key distribution. We perform an information theoretic security analysis of this protocol to determine what level of "quantumness" is sufficient to achieve security, and we discover some rather interesting properties of this protocol along the way.

Coiteux-Roy, Xavier, Wolf, Stefan.  2019.  Proving Erasure. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT). :832—836.

It seems impossible to certify that a remote hosting service does not leak its users' data - or does quantum mechanics make it possible? We investigate if a server hosting data can information-theoretically prove its definite deletion using a "BB84-like" protocol. To do so, we first rigorously introduce an alternative to privacy by encryption: privacy delegation. We then apply this novel concept to provable deletion and remote data storage. For both tasks, we present a protocol, sketch its partial security, and display its vulnerability to eavesdropping attacks targeting only a few bits.

2020-05-08
Niemiec, Marcin, Mehic, Miralem, Voznak, Miroslav.  2018.  Security Verification of Artificial Neural Networks Used to Error Correction in Quantum Cryptography. 2018 26th Telecommunications Forum (℡FOR). :1—4.

Error correction in quantum cryptography based on artificial neural networks is a new and promising solution. In this paper the security verification of this method is discussed and results of many simulations with different parameters are presented. The test scenarios assumed partially synchronized neural networks, typical for error rates in quantum cryptography. The results were also compared with scenarios based on the neural networks with random chosen weights to show the difficulty of passive attacks.

2020-03-30
Heigl, Michael, Schramm, Martin, Fiala, Dalibor.  2019.  A Lightweight Quantum-Safe Security Concept for Wireless Sensor Network Communication. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PerCom Workshops). :906–911.

The ubiquitous internetworking of devices in all areas of life is boosted by various trends for instance the Internet of Things. Promising technologies that can be used for such future environments come from Wireless Sensor Networks. It ensures connectivity between distributed, tiny and simple sensor nodes as well as sensor nodes and base stations in order to monitor physical or environmental conditions such as vibrations, temperature or motion. Security plays an increasingly important role in the coming decades in which attacking strategies are becoming more and more sophisticated. Contemporary cryptographic mechanisms face a great threat from quantum computers in the near future and together with Intrusion Detection Systems are hardly applicable on sensors due to strict resource constraints. Thus, in this work a future-proof lightweight and resource-aware security concept for sensor networks with a processing stage permeated filtering mechanism is proposed. A special focus in the concepts evaluation lies on the novel Magic Number filter to mitigate a special kind of Denial-of-Service attack performed on CC1350 LaunchPad ARM Cortex-M3 microcontroller boards.

Vasiliu, Yevhen, Limar, Igor, Gancarczyk, Tomasz, Karpinski, Mikolaj.  2019.  New Quantum Secret Sharing Protocol Using Entangled Qutrits. 2019 10th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems: Technology and Applications (IDAACS). 1:324–329.
A new quantum secret sharing protocol based on the ping-pong protocol of quantum secure direct communication is proposed. The pairs of entangled qutrits are used in protocol, which allows an increase in the information capacity compared with protocols based on entangled qubits. The detection of channel eavesdropping used in the protocol is being implemented in random moments of time, thereby it is possible do not use the significant amount of quantum memory. The security of the proposed protocol to attacks is considered. A method for additional amplification of the security to an eavesdropping attack in communication channels for the developed protocol is proposed.
Hu, Zhengbing, Vasiliu, Yevhen, Smirnov, Oleksii, Sydorenko, Viktoriia, Polishchuk, Yuliia.  2019.  Abstract Model of Eavesdropper and Overview on Attacks in Quantum Cryptography Systems. 2019 10th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems: Technology and Applications (IDAACS). 1:399–405.
In today's world, it's almost impossible to find a sphere of human life in which information technologies would not be used. On the one hand, it simplifies human life - virtually everyone carries a mini-computer in his pocket and it allows to perform many operations, that took a lot of time, in minutes. In addition, IT has simplified and promptly developed areas such as medicine, banking, document circulation, military, and many other infrastructures of the state. Nevertheless, even today, privacy remains a major problem in many information transactions. One of the most important directions for ensuring the information confidentiality in open communication networks has been and remains its protection by cryptographic methods. Although it is known that traditional cryptography methods give reasons to doubt in their reliability, quantum cryptography has proven itself as a more reliable information security technology. As far is it quite new direction there is no sufficiently complete classification of attacks on quantum cryptography methods, in view of this new extended classification of attacks on quantum protocols and quantum cryptosystems is proposed in this work. Classification takes into account the newest attacks (which use devices loopholes) on quantum key distribution equipment. These attacks have been named \textbackslashtextless; \textbackslashtextless; quantum hacking\textbackslashtextgreater\textbackslashtextgreater. Such classification may be useful for choosing commercially available quantum key distribution system. Also abstract model of eavesdropper in quantum systems was created and it allows to determine a set of various nature measures that need to be further implemented to provide reliable security with the help of specific quantum systems.
Brito, J. P., López, D. R., Aguado, A., Abellán, C., López, V., Pastor-Perales, A., la Iglesia, F. de, Martín, V..  2019.  Quantum Services Architecture in Softwarized Infrastructures. 2019 21st International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON). :1–4.
Quantum computing is posing new threats on our security infrastructure. This has triggered a new research field on quantum-safe methods, and those that rely on the application of quantum principles are commonly referred as quantum cryptography. The most mature development in the field of quantum cryptography is called Quantum Key Distribution (QKD). QKD is a key exchange primitive that can replace existing mechanisms that can become obsolete in the near future. Although QKD has reached a high level of maturity, there is still a long path for a mass market implementation. QKD shall overcome issues such as miniaturization, network integration and the reduction of production costs to make the technology affordable. In this direction, we foresee that QKD systems will evolve following the same path as other networking technologies, where systems will run on specific network cards, integrable in commodity chassis. This work describes part of our activity in the EU H2020 project CiViQ in which quantum technologies, as QKD systems or quantum random number generators (QRNG), will become a single network element that we define as Quantum Switch. This allows for quantum resources (keys or random numbers) to be provided as a service, while the different components are integrated to cooperate for providing the most random and secure bit streams. Furthermore, with the purpose of making our proposal closer to current networking technology, this work also proposes an abstraction logic for making our Quantum Switch suitable to become part of software-defined networking (SDN) architectures. The model fits in the architecture of the SDN quantum node architecture, that is being under standardization by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute. It permits to operate an entire quantum network using a logically centralized SDN controller, and quantum switches to generate and to forward key material and random numbers across the entire network. This scheme, demonstrated for the first time at the Madrid Quantum Network, will allow for a faster and seamless integration of quantum technologies in the telecommunications infrastructure.
Diamanti, Eleni.  2019.  Demonstrating Quantum Advantage in Security and Efficiency with Practical Photonic Systems. 2019 21st International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON). :1–2.
We discuss the current landscape in quantum communication and cryptography, and focus in particular on recent photonic implementations, using encoding in discrete or continuous properties of light, of central quantum network protocols, enabling secret key distribution, verification of entangled resources and transactions of quantum money, with maximal security guarantees. We also describe current challenges in this field and our efforts towards the miniaturization of the developed photonic systems, their integration into telecommunication network infrastructures, including with satellite links, as well as the practical demonstration of novel protocols featuring a quantum advantage in communication efficiency for a wide range of useful tasks in a network environment. These advances enrich the resources and applications of the emerging quantum networks that will play a central role in the context of future quantum-safe communications.
2020-03-16
Ablaev, Farid, Andrianov, Sergey, Soloviev, Aleksey.  2019.  Quantum Electronic Generator of Random Numbers for Information Security in Automatic Control Systems. 2019 International Russian Automation Conference (RusAutoCon). :1–5.

The problems of random numbers application to the information security of data, communication lines, computer units and automated driving systems are considered. The possibilities for making up quantum generators of random numbers and existing solutions for acquiring of sufficiently random sequences are analyzed. The authors found out the method for the creation of quantum generators on the basis of semiconductor electronic components. The electron-quantum generator based on electrons tunneling is experimentally demonstrated. It is shown that it is able to create random sequences of high security level and satisfying known NIST statistical tests (P-Value\textbackslashtextgreater0.9). The generator created can be used for formation of both closed and open cryptographic keys in computer systems and other platforms and has great potential for realization of random walks and probabilistic computing on the basis of neural nets and other IT problems.

2020-03-09
Cao, Yuan, Zhao, Yongli, Li, Jun, Lin, Rui, Zhang, Jie, Chen, Jiajia.  2019.  Reinforcement Learning Based Multi-Tenant Secret-Key Assignment for Quantum Key Distribution Networks. 2019 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC). :1–3.
We propose a reinforcement learning based online multi-tenant secret-key assignment algorithm for quantum key distribution networks, capable of reducing tenant-request blocking probability more than half compared to the benchmark heuristics.
2020-03-04
AL-Mubayedh, Dhoha, AL-Khalis, Mashael, AL-Azman, Ghadeer, AL-Abdali, Manal, Al Fosail, Malak, Nagy, Naya.  2019.  Quantum Cryptography on IBM QX. 2019 2nd International Conference on Computer Applications Information Security (ICCAIS). :1–6.

Due to the importance of securing electronic transactions, many cryptographic protocols have been employed, that mainly depend on distributed keys between the intended parties. In classical computers, the security of these protocols depends on the mathematical complexity of the encoding functions and on the length of the key. However, the existing classical algorithms 100% breakable with enough computational power, which can be provided by quantum machines. Moving to quantum computation, the field of security shifts into a new area of cryptographic solutions which is now the field of quantum cryptography. The era of quantum computers is at its beginning. There are few practical implementations and evaluations of quantum protocols. Therefore, the paper defines a well-known quantum key distribution protocol which is BB84 then provides a practical implementation of it on IBM QX software. The practical implementations showed that there were differences between BB84 theoretical expected results and the practical implementation results. Due to this, the paper provides a statistical analysis of the experiments by comparing the standard deviation of the results. Using the BB84 protocol the existence of a third-party eavesdropper can be detected. Thus, calculations of the probability of detecting/not detecting a third-party eavesdropping have been provided. These values are again compared to the theoretical expectation. The calculations showed that with the greater number of qubits, the percentage of detecting eavesdropper will be higher.

2020-01-27
Takahashi, Ririka, Tanizawa, Yoshimichi, Dixon, Alexander.  2019.  A High-Speed Key Management Method for Quantum Key Distribution Network. 2019 Eleventh International Conference on Ubiquitous and Future Networks (ICUFN). :437–442.

Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) is a technique for sharing encryption keys between two adjacent nodes. It provides unconditional secure communication based on the laws of physics. From the viewpoint of network research, QKD is considered to be a component for providing secure communication in network systems. A QKD network enables each node to exchange encryption keys with arbitrary nodes. However previous research did not focus on the processing speed of the key management method essential for a QKD network. This paper focuses on the key management method assuming a high-speed QKD system for which we clarify the design, propose a high-speed method, and evaluate the throughput. The proposed method consists of four modules: (1) local key manager handling the keys generated by QKD, (2) one-time pad tunnel manager establishing the transparent encryption link, (3) global key manager generating the keys for application communication, and (4) web API providing keys to the application. The proposed method was implemented in software and evaluated by emulating QKD key generation and application key consumption. The evaluation result reveals that it is capable of handling the encryption keys at a speed of 414 Mb/s, 185 Mb/s, 85 Mb/s and 971 Mb/s, for local key manager, one-time pad tunnel manager, global key manager and web API, respectively. These are sufficient for integration with a high-speed QKD system. Furthermore, the method allows the high-speed QKD system consisting of two nodes to expand corresponding to the size of the QKD network without losing the speed advantage.

2020-01-07
Aparna, H., Bhoomija, Faustina, Devi, R. Santhiya, Thenmozhi, K., Amirtharajan, Rengarajan, Praveenkumar, Padmapriya.  2019.  Image Encryption Based on Quantum-Assisted DNA Coded System. 2019 International Conference on Computer Communication and Informatics (ICCCI). :1-4.

Information security is winding up noticeably more vital in information stockpiling and transmission. Images are generally utilised for various purposes. As a result, the protection of image from the unauthorised client is critical. Established encryption techniques are not ready to give a secure framework. To defeat this, image encryption is finished through DNA encoding which is additionally included with confused 1D and 2D logistic maps. The key communication is done through the quantum channel using the BB84 protocol. To recover the encrypted image DNA decoding is performed. Since DNA encryption is invertible, decoding can be effectively done through DNA subtraction. It decreases the complexity and furthermore gives more strength when contrasted with traditional encryption plans. The enhanced strength of the framework is measured utilising measurements like NPCR, UACI, Correlation and Entropy.

Akiwate, Bahubali, Parthiban, Latha.  2018.  A Dynamic DNA for Key-Based Cryptography. 2018 International Conference on Computational Techniques, Electronics and Mechanical Systems (CTEMS). :223-227.

A dynamic DNA for key-based Cryptography that encrypt and decrypt plain text characters, text file, image file and audio file using DNA sequences. Cryptography is always taken as the secure way while transforming the confidential information over the network such as LAN, Internet. But over the time, the traditional cryptographic approaches are been replaced with more effective cryptographic systems such as Quantum Cryptography, Biometric Cryptography, Geographical Cryptography and DNA Cryptography. This approach accepts the DNA sequences as the input to generate the key that going to provide two stages of data security.