# Biblio

DNA cryptography becomes a burgeoning new area of study along with the fast-developing of DNA computing and modern cryptography. Point-doubling, point-addition and point-multiplication are three fundamental point-operations to construct encryption protocols in some cryptosystem over mathematical curves such as elliptic curves and conic curves. This paper proposes a DNA computing model to calculate point-doubling in conic curves cryptosystem over finite held GF(2n). By decomposing and rearranging the computing steps of point-doubling, the assembly process could be fulfilled by using 8 different types of computation tiles performing different functions with 1097 encoding ways. This model could also figure out point-multiplication if its coefficient is 2k. The assembly time complexity is 2kn+n-k-1, and the space complexity is k2n2+kn2-k2n.

In Ad hoc networks the main purpose is communication without infrastructure and there are many implementations already done on that. There is little effort done for security to prevent threats in ad hoc networks (like MANETs). It is already proven that; there is no any centralized mechanism for defence against threats, such as a firewall, an intrusion detection system, or a proxy in ad hoc networks. Ad hoc networks are very convenient due to its features like self-maintenance, self-organizing and providing wireless communication. In Ad hoc networks there is no fixed infrastructure in which every node works like simply a router which stores and forwards packet to final destination. Due to these dynamic topology features, Ad hoc networks are anywhere, anytime. Therefore, it is necessary to make a secure mechanism for the ad hoc components so that with flexibility they have that security also. This paper shows the secure and flexible implementation about to protect any ad hoc networks. This proposed system design is perfect solution to provide security with flexibility by providing a hybrid system which combines ECC and MAES to detect and prevent Ad hoc network attacks using Intrusion detection system. The complete proposed system designed on NS 2.35 software using Ubuntu (Linux) OS.

Digital signatures are replacing paper-based work to make life easier for customers and employees in various industries. We rigorously use RSA and Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) for public key cryptographic algorithms. Nowadays ECDSA (Elliptical Curve Digital Signature Algorithm) gaining more popularity than the RSA algorithm because of the better performance of ECDSA over RSA. The main advantage of ECC over RSA is ECC provides the same level of security with less key size and overhead than RSA. This paper focuses on a brief review of the performance of ECDSA and RSA in various aspects like time, security and power. This review tells us about why ECC has become the latest trend in the present cryptographic scenario.

In this time of ubiquitous computing and the evolution of the Internet of Things (IoT), the deployment and development of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is becoming more extensive. Proving the simultaneous presence of a group of RFID tagged objects is a practical need in many application areas within the IoT domain. Security, privacy, and efficiency are central issues when designing such a grouping-proof protocol. This work is motivated by our serial-dependent and Sundaresan et al.'s grouping-proof protocols. In this paper, we propose a light, improved offline protocol: parallel-dependency grouping-proof protocol (PDGPP). The protocol focuses on security, privacy, and efficiency. PDGPP tackles the challenges of including robust privacy mechanisms and accommodates missing tags. It is scalable and complies with EPC C1G2.

Dependency on cloud computing are increasing day by day due to its beneficial aspects. As day by day we are relying on cloud computing, the securities issues are coming up. There are lots of security protocols but now-a-days those protocol are not secured enough to provide a high security. One of those protocols which were once highly secured, is Kerberos authentication protocol. With the advancement of technology, Kerberos authentication protocol is no longer as secured as it was before. Many authors have thought about the improvement of Kerberos authentication protocol and consequently they have proposed different types of protocol models by using a renowned public key cryptography named RSA cryptography. Though RSA cryptography is good to some extent but this cryptography has some flaws that make this cryptography less secured as well as less efficient. In this paper, we are combining Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) as well as Threshold Cryptography to create a new version of Kerberos authentication protocol. Our proposed model will provide secure transaction of data which will not only be hard to break but also increase memory efficiency, cost efficiency, and reduce the burden of computation.

Cloud Computing is an important term of modern technology. The usefulness of Cloud is increasing day by day and simultaneously more and more security problems are arising as well. Two of the major threats of Cloud are improper authentication and multi-tenancy. According to the specialists both pros and cons belong to multi-tenancy. There are security protocols available but it is difficult to claim these protocols are perfect and ensure complete protection. The purpose of this paper is to propose an integrated model to ensure better Cloud security for Authentication and multi-tenancy. Multi-tenancy means sharing of resources and virtualization among clients. Since multi-tenancy allows multiple users to access same resources simultaneously, there is high probability of accessing confidential data without proper privileges. Our model includes Kerberos authentication protocol to enhance authentication security. During our research on Kerberos we have found some flaws in terms of encryption method which have been mentioned in couple of IEEE conference papers. Pondering about this complication we have elected Elliptic Curve Cryptography. On the other hand, to attenuate arose risks due to multi-tenancy we are proposing a Resource Allocation Manager Unit, a Control Database and Resource Allocation Map. This part of the model will perpetuate resource allocation for the users.

The paper deals with the implementation aspects of the bilinear pairing operation over an elliptic curve on constrained devices, such as smart cards, embedded devices, smart meters and similar devices. Although cryptographic constructions, such as group signatures, anonymous credentials or identity-based encryption schemes, often rely on the pairing operation, the implementation of such schemes into practical applications is not straightforward, in fact, it may become very difficult. In this paper, we show that the implementation is difficult not only due to the high computational complexity, but also due to the lack of cryptographic libraries and programming interfaces. In particular, we show how difficult it is to implement pairing-based schemes on constrained devices and show the performance of various libraries on different platforms. Furthermore, we show the performance estimates of fundamental cryptographic constructions, the group signatures. The purpose of this paper is to reduce the gap between the cryptographic designers and developers and give performance results that can be used for the estimation of the implementability and performance of novel, upcoming schemes.

In this paper, we consider ways of organizing group authentication, as well as the features of constructing the isogeny of elliptic curves. The work includes the study of isogeny graphs and their application in postquantum systems. A hierarchical group authentication scheme has been developed using transformations based on the search for isogeny of elliptic curves.

Blum-Blum-Shub (BBS) is a less complex pseudorandom number generator (PRNG) that requires very large modulus and a squaring operation for the generation of each bit, which makes it computationally heavy and slow. On the other hand, the concept of elliptic curve (EC) point operations has been extended to PRNGs that prove to have good randomness properties and reduced latency, but exhibit dependence on the secrecy of point P. Given these pros and cons, this paper proposes a new BBS-ECPRNG approach such that the modulus is the product of two elliptic curve points, both primes of length, and the number of bits extracted per iteration is by binary fraction. We evaluate the algorithm performance by generating 1000 distinct sequences of 106bits each. The results were analyzed based on the overall performance of the sequences using the NIST standard statistical test suite. The average performance of the sequences was observed to be above the minimum confidence level of 99.7 percent and successfully passed all the statistical properties of randomness tests.

This paper presents an efficient arithmetic in extension field based on Cyclic Vector Multiplication Algorithm that reduces calculation costs over cubic extension for elliptic curve pairing cryptography. In addition, we evaluate the calculation costs compared to Karatsuba-based method.

We survey elliptic curve implementations from several vantage points. We perform internet-wide scans for TLS on a large number of ports, as well as SSH and IPsec to measure elliptic curve support and implementation behaviors, and collect passive measurements of client curve support for TLS. We also perform active measurements to estimate server vulnerability to known attacks against elliptic curve implementations, including support for weak curves, invalid curve attacks, and curve twist attacks. We estimate that 1.53% of HTTPS hosts, 0.04% of SSH hosts, and 4.04% of IKEv2 hosts that support elliptic curves do not perform curve validity checks as specified in elliptic curve standards. We describe how such vulnerabilities could be used to construct an elliptic curve parameter downgrade attack called CurveSwap for TLS, and observe that there do not appear to be combinations of weak behaviors we examined enabling a feasible CurveSwap attack in the wild. We also analyze source code for elliptic curve implementations, and find that a number of libraries fail to perform point validation for JSON Web Encryption, and find a flaw in the Java and NSS multiplication algorithms.

In this paper, the literature survey of different algorithms for generating encryption keys using fingerprints is presented. The focus is on fingerprint features called minutiae points where fingerprint ridges end or bifurcate. Minutiae points require less memory and are processed faster than other fingerprint features. In addition, presented is the proposed efficient method for cryptographic key generation using finger-codes. The results show that the length of the key, computing time and the memory it requires is efficient for use as a biometric key or even as a password during verification and authentication.

The use of real-time video streaming is increasing day-by-day, and its security has become a serious issue now. Video encryption is a challenging task because of its large frame size. Video encryption can be done with symmetric key as well as asymmetric key encryption. Among different asymmetric key encryption technique, ECC performs better than other algorithms like RSA in terms of smaller key size and faster encryption and decryption operation. In this work, we have analyzed the performance of 18 different ECC curves and suggested some suitable curves for real-time video encryption.

Cryptography is a widespread technique that maintains information security over insecure networks. The symmetric encryption scheme provides a good security, but the key exchange is difficult on the other hand, in the asymmetric encryption scheme, key management is easier, but it does not offer the same degree of security compared to symmetric scheme. A hybrid cryptosystem merges the easiness of the asymmetric schemes key distribution and the high security of symmetric schemes. In the proposed hybrid cryptosystem, Serpent algorithm is used as a data encapsulation scheme and Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) is used as a key encapsulation scheme to achieve key generation and distribution within an insecure channel. This modification is done to tackle the issue of key management for Serpent algorithm, so it can be securely used in multimedia protection.

Due to the rapid development of internet in our daily life, protecting privacy has become a focus of attention. To create privacy-preserving database and prevent illegal user access the database, oblivious transfer with access control (OTAC) was proposed, which is a cryptographic primitive that extends from oblivious transfer (OT). It allows a user to anonymously query a database where each message is protected by an access control policy and only if the user' s attribute satisfy that access control policy can obtain it. In this paper, we propose a new protocol for OTAC by using elliptic curve cryptography, which is more efficient compared to the existing similar protocols. In our scheme, we also preserves user's anonymity and ensures that the user's attribute is not disclosed to the sender. Additionally, our construction guarantees the user to verify the correctness of messages recovered at the end of each transfer phase.