Visible to the public Biblio

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Gururaj, P..  2020.  Identity management using permissioned blockchain. 2020 International Conference on Mainstreaming Block Chain Implementation (ICOMBI). :1—3.

Authenticating a person's identity has always been a challenge. While attempts are being made by government agencies to address this challenge, the citizens are being exposed to a new age problem of Identity management. The sharing of photocopies of identity cards in order to prove our identity is a common sight. From score-card to Aadhar-card, the details of our identity has reached many unauthorized hands during the years. In India the identity thefts accounts for 77% [1] of the fraud cases, and the threats are trending. Programs like e-Residency by Estonia[2], Bitnation using Ethereum[3] are being devised for an efficient Identity Management. Even the US Home Land Security is funding a research with an objective of “Design information security and privacy concepts on the Blockchain to support identity management capabilities that increase security and productivity while decreasing costs and security risks for the Homeland Security Enterprise (HSE).” [4] This paper will discuss the challenges specific to India around Identity Management, and the possible solution that the Distributed ledger, hashing algorithms and smart contracts can offer. The logic of hashing the personal data, and controlling the distribution of identity using public-private keys with Blockchain technology will be discussed in this paper.

Mukhametov, D. R..  2020.  Self-organization of Network Communities via Blockchain Technology: Reputation Systems and Limits of Digital Democracy. 2020 Systems of Signal Synchronization, Generating and Processing in Telecommunications (SYNCHROINFO). :1—7.

The article is devoted to the analysis of the use of blockchain technology for self-organization of network communities. Network communities are characterized by the key role of trust in personal interactions, the need for repeated interactions, strong and weak ties within the network, social learning as the mechanism of self-organization. Therefore, in network communities reputation is the central component of social action, assessment of the situation, and formation of the expectations. The current proliferation of virtual network communities requires the development of appropriate technical infrastructure in the form of reputation systems - programs that provide calculation of network members reputation and organization of their cooperation and interaction. Traditional reputation systems have vulnerabilities in the field of information security and prevention of abusive behavior of agents. Overcoming these restrictions is possible through integration of reputation systems and blockchain technology that allows to increase transparency of reputation assessment system and prevent attempts of manipulation the system and social engineering. At the same time, the most promising is the use of blockchain-oracles to ensure communication between the algorithms of blockchain-based reputation system and the external information environment. The popularization of blockchain technology and its implementation in various spheres of social management, production control, economic exchange actualizes the problems of using digital technologies in political processes and their impact on the formation of digital authoritarianism, digital democracy and digital anarchism. The paper emphasizes that blockchain technology and reputation systems can equally benefit both the resources of government control and tools of democratization and public accountability to civil society or even practices of avoiding government. Therefore, it is important to take into account the problems of political institutionalization, path dependence and the creation of differentiated incentives as well as the technological aspects.

Santos, W., Sousa, G., Prata, P., Ferrão, M. E..  2020.  Data Anonymization: K-anonymity Sensitivity Analysis. 2020 15th Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies (CISTI). :1—6.

These days the digitization process is everywhere, spreading also across central governments and local authorities. It is hoped that, using open government data for scientific research purposes, the public good and social justice might be enhanced. Taking into account the European General Data Protection Regulation recently adopted, the big challenge in Portugal and other European countries, is how to provide the right balance between personal data privacy and data value for research. This work presents a sensitivity study of data anonymization procedure applied to a real open government data available from the Brazilian higher education evaluation system. The ARX k-anonymization algorithm, with and without generalization of some research value variables, was performed. The analysis of the amount of data / information lost and the risk of re-identification suggest that the anonymization process may lead to the under-representation of minorities and sociodemographic disadvantaged groups. It will enable scientists to improve the balance among risk, data usability, and contributions for the public good policies and practices.

Kalaiyarasi, G., Balaji, K., Narmadha, T., Naveen, V..  2020.  E-Voting System In Smart Phone Using Mobile Application. 2020 6th International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communication Systems (ICACCS). :1466—1469.

The development in the web technologies given growth to the new application that will make the voting process very easy and proficient. The E-voting helps in providing convenient, capture and count the votes in an election. This project provides the description about e-voting using an Android platform. The proposed e-voting system helps the user to cast the vote without visiting the polling booth. The application provides authentication measures in order to avoid fraud voters using the OTP. Once the voting process is finished the results will be available within a fraction of seconds. All the casted vote count is encrypted using AES256 algorithm and stored in the database in order to avoid any outbreaks and revelation of results by third person other than the administrator.

Yang, H., Huang, L., Luo, C., Yu, Q..  2020.  Research on Intelligent Security Protection of Privacy Data in Government Cyberspace. 2020 IEEE 5th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Big Data Analytics (ICCCBDA). :284—288.

Based on the analysis of the difficulties and pain points of privacy protection in the opening and sharing of government data, this paper proposes a new method for intelligent discovery and protection of structured and unstructured privacy data. Based on the improvement of the existing government data masking process, this method introduces the technologies of NLP and machine learning, studies the intelligent discovery of sensitive data, the automatic recommendation of masking algorithm and the full automatic execution following the improved masking process. In addition, the dynamic masking and static masking prototype with text and database as data source are designed and implemented with agent-based intelligent masking middleware. The results show that the recognition range and protection efficiency of government privacy data, especially government unstructured text have been significantly improved.

Liu, Liping, Piao, Chunhui, Jiang, Xuehong, Zheng, Lijuan.  2018.  Research on Governmental Data Sharing Based on Local Differential Privacy Approach. 2018 IEEE 15th International Conference on e-Business Engineering (ICEBE). :39—45.

With the construction and implementation of the government information resources sharing mechanism, the protection of citizens' privacy has become a vital issue for government departments and the public. This paper discusses the risk of citizens' privacy disclosure related to data sharing among government departments, and analyzes the current major privacy protection models for data sharing. Aiming at the issues of low efficiency and low reliability in existing e-government applications, a statistical data sharing framework among governmental departments based on local differential privacy and blockchain is established, and its applicability and advantages are illustrated through example analysis. The characteristics of the private blockchain enhance the security, credibility and responsiveness of information sharing between departments. Local differential privacy provides better usability and security for sharing statistics. It not only keeps statistics available, but also protects the privacy of citizens.

Babenko, Liudmila, Pisarev, Ilya.  2018.  Security Analysis of the Electronic Voting Protocol Based on Blind Intermediaries Using the SPIN Verifier. 2018 International Conference on Cyber-Enabled Distributed Computing and Knowledge Discovery (CyberC). :43—435.

Cryptographic protocols are the basis for the security of any protected system, including the electronic voting system. One of the most effective ways to analyze protocol security is to use verifiers. In this paper, the formal verifier SPIN was used to analyze the security of the cryptographic protocol for e-voting, which is based on model checking using linear temporal logic (LTL). The cryptographic protocol of electronic voting is described. The main structural units of the Promela language used for simulation in the SPIN verifier are described. The model of the electronic voting protocol in the language Promela is given. The interacting parties, transferred data, the order of the messages transmitted between the parties are described. Security of the cryptographic protocol using the SPIN tool is verified. The simulation of the protocol with active intruder using the man in the middle attack (MITM) to substitute data is made. In the simulation results it is established that the protocol correctly handles the case of an active attack on the parties' authentication.

Kő, Andrea, Molnár, Tamás, Mátyus, Bálint.  2018.  A User-centred Design Approach for Mobile- Government Systems for the Elderly. 2018 12th International Conference on Software, Knowledge, Information Management Applications (SKIMA). :1—7.

This paper aims to discover the characteristics of acceptance of mobile government systems by elderly. Several initiatives and projects offer various governmental services for them, like information sharing, alerting and mHealth services. All of them carry important benefits for this user group, but these can only be utilized if the user acceptance is at a certain level. This is a requirement in order for the users to perceive the services as a benefit and not as hindrance. The key aspects for high acceptance are usability and user-friendliness, which will lead to successful-government systems designed for the target group. We have applied a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods including an m-Government prototype to explore the key acceptance factors. Research approach utilizes the IGUAN framework, which is a user-driven method. We collected and analysed data guided by IGUAN framework about the acceptance of e-government services by elderly. The target group was recruited from Germany and Hungary. Our findings draw the attention to perceived security and perceived usability of an application; these are decisive factors for this target group.

Pandes, Tiffany Lyn O., Omorog, Challiz D., Medrano, Regino B..  2018.  LeMTrac: Legislative Management and Tracking System. :1—6.

{Information and Communications Technology (ICT) have rationalized government services into a more efficient and transparent government. However, a large part of the government services remained constant in the manual process due to the high cost of ICT. The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of e-governance and ICT in the legislative management of municipalities in the Philippines. This study adopted the phases of Princeton Project Management Methodology (PPMM) as the approach in the development of LeMTrac. This paper utilized the developmental- quantitative research design involving two (2) sets of respondents, which are the end-users and IT experts. Majority of the respondents perceived that the system as "highly acceptable" with an average Likert score of 4.72 for the ISO 9126 Software quality metric Usability. The findings also reveal that the integration of LeMTrac within the Sangguniang Bayan (SB) Office in the Municipal Local Government Units (LGU) of Nabua and Bula, Camarines Sur provided better accessibility, security, and management of documents.

Sayed Javed, Ahmad.  2018.  Total e-Governance: Pros Cons. 2018 International Conference on Computational Science and Computational Intelligence (CSCI). :245—249.

"Good Governance" - may it be corporate or governmental, is a badly needed focus area in the world today where the companies and governments are struggling to survive the political and economical turmoil around the globe. All governments around the world have a tendency of expanding the size of their government, but eventually they would be forced to think reducing the size by incorporating information technology as a way to provide services to the citizens effectively and efficiently. Hence our attempt is to offer a complete solution from birth of a citizen till death encompassing all the necessary services related to the well being of a person living in a society. Our research and analysis would explore the pros and cons of using IT as a solution to our problems and ways to implement them for a best outcome in e-Governance occasionally comparing with the present scenario when relevant.

Al-Nemrat, Ameer.  2018.  Identity theft on e-government/e-governance digital forensics. 2018 International Symposium on Programming and Systems (ISPS). :1—1.

In the context of the rapid technological progress, the cyber-threats become a serious challenge that requires immediate and continuous action. As cybercrime poses a permanent and increasing threat, governments, corporate and individual users of the cyber-space are constantly struggling to ensure an acceptable level of security over their assets. Maliciousness on the cyber-space spans identity theft, fraud, and system intrusions. This is due to the benefits of cyberspace-low entry barriers, user anonymity, and spatial and temporal separation between users, make it a fertile field for deception and fraud. Numerous, supervised and unsupervised, techniques have been proposed and used to identify fraudulent transactions and activities that deviate from regular patterns of behaviour. For instance, neural networks and genetic algorithms were used to detect credit card fraud in a dataset covering 13 months and 50 million credit card transactions. Unsupervised methods, such as clustering analysis, have been used to identify financial fraud or to filter fake online product reviews and ratings on e-commerce websites. Blockchain technology has demonstrated its feasibility and relevance in e-commerce. Its use is now being extended to new areas, related to electronic government. The technology appears to be the most appropriate in areas that require storage and processing of large amounts of protected data. The question is what can blockchain technology do and not do to fight malicious online activity?

AlEnezi, Ali, AlMeraj, Zainab, Manuel, Paul.  2018.  Challenges of IoT Based Smart-Government Development. 2018 IEEE Green Technologies Conference (GreenTech). :155—160.

Smart governments are known as extensions of e-governments both built on the Internet of Things (IoT). In this paper, we classify smart governments into two types (1) new generation and (2) extended smart-government. We then put forth a framework for smart governments implementation and discuss the major challenges in its implementation showing security as the most prominent challenge in USA, mindscaping in Kuwait and investment in India.

Leon, Diego, Mayorga, Franklin, Vargas, Javier, Toasa, Renato, Guevara, David.  2018.  Using of an anonymous communication in e-government services: In the prevention of passive attacks on a network. 2018 13th Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies (CISTI). :1—4.

Nowadays citizens live in a world where communication technologies offer opportunities for new interactions between people and society. Clearly, e-government is changing the way citizens relate to their government, moving the interaction of physical environment and management towards digital participation. Therefore, it is necessary for e-government to have procedures in place to prevent and lessen the negative impact of an attack or intrusion by third parties. In this research work, he focuses on the implementation of anonymous communication in a proof of concept application called “Delta”, whose function is to allow auctions and offers of products, thus marking the basis for future implementations in e-government services.

Gaio Rito, Cátia Sofia, Beatriz Piedade, Maria, Eugénio Lucas, Eugénio.  2019.  E-Government - Qualified Digital Signature Case Study. 2019 14th Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies (CISTI). :1—6.

This paper presents a case study on the use and implementation of the Qualified Digital Signature. Problematics such as the degree of use, security and authenticity of Qualified Digital Signature and the publication and dissemination of documents signed in digital format are analyzed. In order to support the case study, a methodology was adopted that included interviews with municipalities that are part of the Intermunicipal Community of the region of Leiria and a computer application was developed that allowed to analyze the documents available in the institutional websites of the municipalities, the ones that were digitally signed. The results show that institutional websites are already providing documentation with Qualified Digital Signature and that the level of trust and authenticity regarding their use is considered to be mostly very positive.

Supriyanto, Aji, Diartono, Dwi Agus, Hartono, Budi, Februariyanti, Herny.  2019.  Inclusive Security Models To Building E-Government Trust. 2019 3rd International Conference on Informatics and Computational Sciences (ICICoS). :1—6.

The low attention to security and privacy causes some problems on data and information that can lead to a lack of public trust in e-Gov service. Security threats are not only included in technical issues but also non-technical issues and therefore, it needs the implementation of inclusive security. The application of inclusive security to e-Gov needs to develop a model involving security and privacy requirements as a trusted security solution. The method used is the elicitation of security and privacy requirements in a security perspective. Identification is carried out on security and privacy properties, then security and privacy relationships are determined. The next step is developing the design of an inclusive security model on e-Gov. The last step is doing an analysis of e-Gov service activities and the role of inclusive security. The results of this study identified security and privacy requirements for building inclusive security. Identification of security requirements involves properties such as confidentiality (C), integrity (I), availability (A). Meanwhile, privacy requirement involves authentication (Au), authorization (Az), and Non-repudiation (Nr) properties. Furthermore, an inclusive security design model on e-Gov requires trust of internet (ToI) and trust of government (ToG) as an e-Gov service provider. Access control is needed to provide solutions to e-Gov service activities.

Wang, Xiaozhen.  2019.  Study on E-government Information Security in the Era of Big Data. 2019 IEEE 4th Advanced Information Technology, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (IAEAC). 1:2492—2496.

The government in the era of big data requires safer infrastructure, information storage and data application. As a result, security threats will be the bottleneck for e-government development. Based on the e-government hierarchy model, this thesis focuses on such information security threats as human effects, network technology defects and management deficiency facing the e-government system in the era of big data. On this basis, three solutions are put forward to improve e-government information security system. Firstly, enhance information security awareness and improve network technology of information management departments in the government; secondly, conduct proper information encryption by ensuring information confidentiality and identity authentication; thirdly, implement strict information management through isolation between intranet and extranet and united planning of e-government information management.

Alkhwaldi, Abeer, Kamala, Mumtaz, Qahwaji, Rami.  2019.  Security Perceptions in Cloud-Based e-Govemment Services:. 2019 IEEE 12th International Conference on Global Security, Safety and Sustainability (ICGS3). :1—9.

Security is one of the main and continual challenges that restrict government stakeholders (e.g. citizens) engagement with the cloud services. This paper has as its objective the discovery of the security perceptions of cloud-based e-government services from the citizens' and IT-staff perspectives. It investigates the factors that influence the citizen's perception of security. Little efforts have been done by previous literature to investigate and analyze the integration between citizens' concerns regarding the perceived security and those of IT -staff, the current study highlights this issue. This work provides an empirical study to understand citizens' priorities, needs and expectations regarding the perceived security of cloud-based e-government services which are a novel e-government initiative in Jordan, also enriches the existing security perceptions literature by introducing new insights. An interpretive-qualitative approach was adopted, as it helps to understand the participants' perceptions in the research natural setting.

Bayaga, Anass, Ophoff, Jacques.  2019.  Determinants of E-Government Use in Developing Countries: The Influence of Privacy and Security Concerns. 2019 Conference on Next Generation Computing Applications (NextComp). :1—7.

There has been growing concern about privacy and security risks towards electronic-government (e-government) services adoption. Though there are positive results of e- government, there are still other contestable challenges that hamper success of e-government services. While many of the challenges have received considerable attention, there is still little to no firm research on others such as privacy and security risks, effects of infrastructure both in urban and rural settings. Other concerns that have received little consideration are how for instance; e-government serves as a function of perceived usefulness, ease of use, perceived benefit, as well as cultural dimensions and demographic constructs in South Africa. Guided by technology acceptance model, privacy calculus, Hofstede cultural theory and institutional logic theory, the current research sought to examine determinants of e- government use in developing countries. Anchored upon the aforementioned theories and background, the current study proposed three recommendations as potential value chain, derived from e-government service in response to citizens (end- user) support, government and community of stakeholders.

Zhang, Yiwei, Deng, Sanhong, Zhang, Yue, Kong, Jia.  2019.  Research on Government Information Sharing Model Using Blockchain Technology. 2019 10th International Conference on Information Technology in Medicine and Education (ITME). :726—729.

Research Purpose: The distributed, traceable and security of blockchain technology are applicable to the construction of new government information resource models, which could eliminate the barn effect and trust in government information sharing, as well as promoting the transformation of government affairs from management to service, it is also of great significance to the sharing of government information and construction of service-oriented e-government. Propose Methods: By analyzing the current problems of government information sharing, combined with literature research, this paper proposes the theoretical framework and advantages of blockchain technology applied to government information management and sharing, expounds the blockchain-based solution, it also constructs a government information sharing model based on blockchain, and gives implementation strategies at the technical and management levels. Results and Conclusion: The government information sharing model based on the blockchain solution and the transparency of government information can be used as a research framework for information interaction analysis between the government and users. It can also promote the construction and development of information sharing for Chinese government, as well as providing unified information sharing solution at the departmental and regional levels for e-government.

Shayganmehr, Masoud, Montazer, Gholam Ali.  2019.  Identifying Indexes Affecting the Quality of E-Government Websites. 2019 5th International Conference on Web Research (ICWR). :167—171.

With the development of new technologies in the world, governments have tendency to make a communications with people and business with the help of such technologies. Electronic government (e-government) is defined as utilizing information technologies such as electronic networks, Internet and mobile phones by organizations and state institutions in order to making wide communication between citizens, business and different state institutions. Development of e-government starts with making website in order to share information with users and is considered as the main infrastructure for further development. Website assessment is considered as a way for improving service quality. Different international researches have introduced various indexes for website assessment, they only see some dimensions of website in their research. In this paper, the most important indexes for website quality assessment based on accurate review of previous studies are "Web design", "navigation", services", "maintenance and Support", "Citizens Participation", "Information Quality", "Privacy and Security", "Responsiveness", "Usability". Considering mentioned indexes in designing the website facilitates user interaction with the e-government websites.

Cho, Sang Hyun, Oh, Sae Yong, Rou, Ho Gun, Gim, Gwang Yong.  2019.  A Study on The Factors Affecting The Continuous Use of E-Government Services - Focused on Privacy and Security Concerns-. 2019 20th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD). :351—361.

In this study, we conducted a survey of those who have used E-Government Services (civil servants, employees of public institutions, and the public) to empirically identify the factors affecting the continuous use intention E-Government Services, and conducted an empirical analysis using SPSS and Smart PLS with 284 valid samples except for dual, error and poor answers. Based on the success model of the information system (IS access model), we set independent variables which were divided into quality factors (service quality, system quality, information quality) and risk factors (personal information and security), and perceived ease of use and reliability, which are the main variables based on the technology acceptance model (TAM) that best describes the parameter group, were established as useful parameters. In addition, we design the research model by setting user satisfaction and the continuous use intention as dependent variables, conducted the study about how affecting factors influence to the acceptance factors through 14 hypotheses.The study found that 12 from 14 hypotheses were adopted and 2 were rejected. Looking at the results derived, it was analyzed that, firstly, 3 quality factors all affect perceived ease of use in relation to the quality of service, system quality, information quality which are perceived ease of use of E-Government Services. Second, in relation to the quality of service quality, system quality, information quality and perceived usefulness which are the quality factors of E-Government Services, the quality of service and information quality affect perceived usefulness, but system quality does not affect perceived usefulness. Third, it was analyzed that both factors influence reliability in the relationship between Privacy and security and trust which are risk factors. Fourth, the relationship between perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness has shown that perceived ease of use does not affect perceived usefulness. Finally, the relationship between user value factors (perceptual usability, perceived usefulness and trust) and user satisfaction and the continuous use intention was analyzed that user value factors affect user satisfaction while user satisfaction affects the continuous use intention. This study can be meaningful in that it theoretically presented the factors influencing the continued acceptance of e-government services through precedent research, presented the variables and measurement items verified through the empirical analysis process, and verified the causal relationship between the variables. The e-government service can contribute to the implementation of e-government in line with the era of the 4th Industrial Revolution by using it as a reference to the establishment of policies to improve the quality of people's lives and provide convenient services to the people.

Al-Haj, Ali, Farfoura, Mahmoud.  2019.  Providing Security for E-Government Document Images Using Digital Watermarking in the Frequency Domain. 2019 5th International Conference on Information Management (ICIM). :77—81.

Many countries around the world have realized the benefits of the e-government platform in peoples' daily life, and accordingly have already made partial implementations of the key e-government processes. However, before full implementation of all potential services can be made, governments demand the deployment of effective information security measures to ensure secrecy and privacy of their citizens. In this paper, a robust watermarking algorithm is proposed to provide copyright protection for e-government document images. The proposed algorithm utilizes two transforms: the Discrete Wavelet Transformation (DWT) and the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed e-government document images watermarking algorithm performs considerably well compared to existing relevant algorithms.

Kasma, Vira Septiyana, Sutikno, Sarwono, Surendro, Kridanto.  2019.  Design of e-Government Security Governance System Using COBIT 2019 : (Trial Implementation in Badan XYZ). 2019 International Conference on ICT for Smart Society (ICISS). 7:1—6.

e-Government is needed to actualize clean, effective, transparent and accountable governance as well as quality and reliable public services. The implementation of e-Government is currently constrained because there is no derivative regulation, one of which is the regulation for e-Government Security. To answer this need, this study aims to provide input on performance management and governance systems for e-Government Security with the hope that the control design for e-Government Security can be met. The results of this study are the e-Government Security Governance System taken from 28 core models of COBIT 2019. The 28 core models were taken using CSF and risk. Furthermore, performance management for this governance system consists of capability and maturity levels which is an extension of the evaluation process in the e-Government Evaluation Guidelines issued by the Ministry of PAN & RB. The evaluation of the design carried out by determining the current condition of capability and maturity level in Badan XYZ. The result of the evaluation shows that the design possible to be implemented and needed.

Park, Y.S., Choi, C.S., Jang, C., Shin, D.G., Cho, G.C., Kim, Hwa Soo.  2019.  Development of Incident Response Tool for Cyber Security Training Based on Virtualization and Cloud. 2019 International Workshop on Big Data and Information Security (IWBIS). :115—118.

We developed a virtualization-based infringement incident response tool for cyber security training system using Cloud. This tool was developed by applying the concept of attack and defense which is the basic of military war game modeling and simulation. The main purpose of this software is to cultivate cyber security experts capable of coping with various situations to minimize the damage in the shortest time when an infringement incident occurred. This tool acquired the invaluable certificate from Korean government agency. This tool shall provide CBT type remote education such as scenario based infringement incident response training, hacking defense practice, and vulnerability measure practice. The tool works in Linux, Window operating system environments, and uses Korean e-government framework and secure coding to construct a situation similar to the actual information system. In the near future, Internet and devices connected to the Internet will be greatly enlarged, and cyber security threats will be diverse and widespread. It is expected that various kinds of hacking will be attempted in an advanced types using artificial intelligence technology. Therefore, we are working on applying the artificial intelligence technology to the current infringement incident response tool to cope with these evolving threats.

Ikhsan, Mukhammad Gufron, Ramli, Kalamullah.  2019.  Measuring the Information Security Awareness Level of Government Employees Through Phishing Assessment. 2019 34th International Technical Conference on Circuits/Systems, Computers and Communications (ITC-CSCC). :1—4.

As an important institutional element, government information security is not only related to technical issues but also to human resources. Various types of information security instruments in an institution cannot provide maximum protection as long as employees still have a low level of information security awareness. This study aims to measure the level of information security awareness of government employees through case studies at the Directorate General of ABC (DG ABC) in Indonesia. This study used two methods, behavior approach through phishing simulation and knowledge approach through a questionnaire on a Likert scale. The simulation results were analyzed on a percentage scale and compared to the results of the questionnaire to determine the level of employees' information security awareness and determine which method was the best. Results show a significant relationship between the simulation results and the questionnaire results. Among the employees who opened the email, 69% clicked on the link that led to the camouflage page and through the questionnaire, it was found that the information security awareness level of DG ABC employees was at the level of 79.32% which was the lower limit of the GOOD category.