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2021-04-09
Chytas, S. P., Maglaras, L., Derhab, A., Stamoulis, G..  2020.  Assessment of Machine Learning Techniques for Building an Efficient IDS. 2020 First International Conference of Smart Systems and Emerging Technologies (SMARTTECH). :165—170.
Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) are the systems that detect and block any potential threats (e.g. DDoS attacks) in the network. In this project, we explore the performance of several machine learning techniques when used as parts of an IDS. We experiment with the CICIDS2017 dataset, one of the biggest and most complete IDS datasets in terms of having a realistic background traffic and incorporating a variety of cyber attacks. The techniques we present are applicable to any IDS dataset and can be used as a basis for deploying a real time IDS in complex environments.
Mishra, A., Yadav, P..  2020.  Anomaly-based IDS to Detect Attack Using Various Artificial Intelligence Machine Learning Algorithms: A Review. 2nd International Conference on Data, Engineering and Applications (IDEA). :1—7.
Cyber-attacks are becoming more complex & increasing tasks in accurate intrusion detection (ID). Failure to avoid intrusion can reduce the reliability of security services, for example, integrity, Privacy & availability of data. The rapid proliferation of computer networks (CNs) has reformed the perception of network security. Easily accessible circumstances affect computer networks from many threats by hackers. Threats to a network are many & hypothetically devastating. Researchers have recognized an Intrusion Detection System (IDS) up to identifying attacks into a wide variety of environments. Several approaches to intrusion detection, usually identified as Signature-based Intrusion Detection Systems (SIDS) & Anomaly-based Intrusion Detection Systems (AIDS), were proposed in the literature to address computer safety hazards. This survey paper grants a review of current IDS, complete analysis of prominent new works & generally utilized dataset to evaluation determinations. It also introduces avoidance techniques utilized by attackers to avoid detection. This paper delivers a description of AIDS for attack detection. IDS is an applied research area in artificial intelligence (AI) that uses multiple machine learning algorithms.
Lin, T., Shi, Y., Shu, N., Cheng, D., Hong, X., Song, J., Gwee, B. H..  2020.  Deep Learning-Based Image Analysis Framework for Hardware Assurance of Digital Integrated Circuits. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA). :1—6.
We propose an Artificial Intelligence (AI)/Deep Learning (DL)-based image analysis framework for hardware assurance of digital integrated circuits (ICs). Our aim is to examine and verify various hardware information from analyzing the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images of an IC. In our proposed framework, we apply DL-based methods at all essential steps of the analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such framework that makes heavy use of DL-based methods at all essential analysis steps. Further, to reduce time and effort required in model re-training, we propose and demonstrate various automated or semi-automated training data preparation methods and demonstrate the effectiveness of using synthetic data to train a model. By applying our proposed framework to analyzing a set of SEM images of a large digital IC, we prove its efficacy. Our DL-based methods are fast, accurate, robust against noise, and can automate tasks that were previously performed mainly manually. Overall, we show that DL-based methods can largely increase the level of automation in hardware assurance of digital ICs and improve its accuracy.
2021-04-08
Zhang, J., Liao, Y., Zhu, X., Wang, H., Ding, J..  2020.  A Deep Learning Approach in the Discrete Cosine Transform Domain to Median Filtering Forensics. IEEE Signal Processing Letters. 27:276—280.
This letter presents a novel median filtering forensics approach, based on a convolutional neural network (CNN) with an adaptive filtering layer (AFL), which is built in the discrete cosine transform (DCT) domain. Using the proposed AFL, the CNN can determine the main frequency range closely related with the operational traces. Then, to automatically learn the multi-scale manipulation features, a multi-scale convolutional block is developed, exploring a new multi-scale feature fusion strategy based on the maxout function. The resultant features are further processed by a convolutional stream with pooling and batch normalization operations, and finally fed into the classification layer with the Softmax function. Experimental results show that our proposed approach is able to accurately detect the median filtering manipulation and outperforms the state-of-the-art schemes, especially in the scenarios of low image resolution and serious compression loss.
Mayer, O., Stamm, M. C..  2020.  Forensic Similarity for Digital Images. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security. 15:1331—1346.
In this paper, we introduce a new digital image forensics approach called forensic similarity, which determines whether two image patches contain the same forensic trace or different forensic traces. One benefit of this approach is that prior knowledge, e.g., training samples, of a forensic trace is not required to make a forensic similarity decision on it in the future. To do this, we propose a two-part deep-learning system composed of a convolutional neural network-based feature extractor and a three-layer neural network, called the similarity network. This system maps the pairs of image patches to a score indicating whether they contain the same or different forensic traces. We evaluated the system accuracy of determining whether two image patches were captured by the same or different camera model and manipulated by the same or a different editing operation and the same or a different manipulation parameter, given a particular editing operation. Experiments demonstrate applicability to a variety of forensic traces and importantly show efficacy on “unknown” forensic traces that were not used to train the system. Experiments also show that the proposed system significantly improves upon prior art, reducing error rates by more than half. Furthermore, we demonstrated the utility of the forensic similarity approach in two practical applications: forgery detection and localization, and database consistency verification.
Rhee, K. H..  2020.  Composition of Visual Feature Vector Pattern for Deep Learning in Image Forensics. IEEE Access. 8:188970—188980.
In image forensics, to determine whether the image is impurely transformed, it extracts and examines the features included in the suspicious image. In general, the features extracted for the detection of forgery images are based on numerical values, so it is somewhat unreasonable to use in the CNN structure for image classification. In this paper, the extraction method of a feature vector is using a least-squares solution. Treat a suspicious image like a matrix and its solution to be coefficients as the feature vector. Get two solutions from two images of the original and its median filter residual (MFR). Subsequently, the two features were formed into a visualized pattern and then fed into CNN deep learning to classify the various transformed images. A new structure of the CNN net layer was also designed by hybrid with the inception module and the residual block to classify visualized feature vector patterns. The performance of the proposed image forensics detection (IFD) scheme was measured with the seven transformed types of image: average filtered (window size: 3 × 3), gaussian filtered (window size: 3 × 3), JPEG compressed (quality factor: 90, 70), median filtered (window size: 3 × 3, 5 × 5), and unaltered. The visualized patterns are fed into the image input layer of the designed CNN hybrid model. Throughout the experiment, the accuracy of median filtering detection was 98% over. Also, the area under the curve (AUC) by sensitivity (TP: true positive rate) and 1-specificity (FP: false positive rate) results of the proposed IFD scheme approached to `1' on the designed CNN hybrid model. Experimental results show high efficiency and performance to classify the various transformed images. Therefore, the grade evaluation of the proposed scheme is “Excellent (A)”.
Verdoliva, L..  2020.  Media Forensics and DeepFakes: An Overview. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing. 14:910—932.
With the rapid progress in recent years, techniques that generate and manipulate multimedia content can now provide a very advanced level of realism. The boundary between real and synthetic media has become very thin. On the one hand, this opens the door to a series of exciting applications in different fields such as creative arts, advertising, film production, and video games. On the other hand, it poses enormous security threats. Software packages freely available on the web allow any individual, without special skills, to create very realistic fake images and videos. These can be used to manipulate public opinion during elections, commit fraud, discredit or blackmail people. Therefore, there is an urgent need for automated tools capable of detecting false multimedia content and avoiding the spread of dangerous false information. This review paper aims to present an analysis of the methods for visual media integrity verification, that is, the detection of manipulated images and videos. Special emphasis will be placed on the emerging phenomenon of deepfakes, fake media created through deep learning tools, and on modern data-driven forensic methods to fight them. The analysis will help highlight the limits of current forensic tools, the most relevant issues, the upcoming challenges, and suggest future directions for research.
Igbe, O., Saadawi, T..  2018.  Insider Threat Detection using an Artificial Immune system Algorithm. 2018 9th IEEE Annual Ubiquitous Computing, Electronics Mobile Communication Conference (UEMCON). :297—302.
Insider threats result from legitimate users abusing their privileges, causing tremendous damage or losses. Malicious insiders can be the main threats to an organization. This paper presents an anomaly detection system for detecting insider threat activities in an organization using an ensemble that consists of negative selection algorithms (NSA). The proposed system classifies a selected user activity into either of two classes: "normal" or "malicious." The effectiveness of our proposed detection system is evaluated using case studies from the computer emergency response team (CERT) synthetic insider threat dataset. Our results show that the proposed method is very effective in detecting insider threats.
Ayub, M. A., Continella, A., Siraj, A..  2020.  An I/O Request Packet (IRP) Driven Effective Ransomware Detection Scheme using Artificial Neural Network. 2020 IEEE 21st International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration for Data Science (IRI). :319–324.
In recent times, there has been a global surge of ransomware attacks targeted at industries of various types and sizes from retail to critical infrastructure. Ransomware researchers are constantly coming across new kinds of ransomware samples every day and discovering novel ransomware families out in the wild. To mitigate this ever-growing menace, academia and industry-based security researchers have been utilizing unique ways to defend against this type of cyber-attacks. I/O Request Packet (IRP), a low-level file system I/O log, is a newly found research paradigm for defense against ransomware that is being explored frequently. As such in this study, to learn granular level, actionable insights of ransomware behavior, we analyze the IRP logs of 272 ransomware samples belonging to 18 different ransomware families captured during individual execution. We further our analysis by building an effective Artificial Neural Network (ANN) structure for successful ransomware detection by learning the underlying patterns of the IRP logs. We evaluate the ANN model with three different experimental settings to prove the effectiveness of our approach. The model demonstrates outstanding performance in terms of accuracy, precision score, recall score, and F1 score, i.e., in the range of 99.7%±0.2%.
Bouzar-Benlabiod, L., Rubin, S. H., Belaidi, K., Haddar, N. E..  2020.  RNN-VED for Reducing False Positive Alerts in Host-based Anomaly Detection Systems. 2020 IEEE 21st International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration for Data Science (IRI). :17–24.
Host-based Intrusion Detection Systems HIDS are often based on anomaly detection. Several studies deal with anomaly detection by analyzing the system-call traces and get good detection rates but also a high rate off alse positives. In this paper, we propose a new anomaly detection approach applied on the system-call traces. The normal behavior learning is done using a Sequence to sequence model based on a Variational Encoder-Decoder (VED) architecture that integrates Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) cells. We exploit the semantics behind the invoking order of system-calls that are then seen as sentences. A preprocessing phase is added to structure and optimize the model input-data representation. After the learning step, a one-class classification is run to categorize the sequences as normal or abnormal. The architecture may be used for predicting abnormal behaviors. The tests are achieved on the ADFA-LD dataset.
2021-03-30
Foroughi, F., Hadipour, H., Shafiee, A. M..  2020.  High-Performance Monitoring Sensors for Home Computer Users Security Profiling. 2020 International Conference on Cyber Situational Awareness, Data Analytics and Assessment (CyberSA). :1—7.

Recognising user's risky behaviours in real-time is an important element of providing appropriate solutions and recommending suitable actions for responding to cybersecurity threats. Employing user modelling and machine learning can make this process automated by requires high-performance intelligent agent to create the user security profile. User profiling is the process of producing a profile of the user from historical information and past details. This research tries to identify the monitoring factors and suggests a novel observation solution to create high-performance sensors to generate the user security profile for a home user concerning the user's privacy. This observer agent helps to create a decision-making model that influences the user's decision following real-time threats or risky behaviours.

Ganfure, G. O., Wu, C.-F., Chang, Y.-H., Shih, W.-K..  2020.  DeepGuard: Deep Generative User-behavior Analytics for Ransomware Detection. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics (ISI). :1—6.

In the last couple of years, the move to cyberspace provides a fertile environment for ransomware criminals like ever before. Notably, since the introduction of WannaCry, numerous ransomware detection solution has been proposed. However, the ransomware incidence report shows that most organizations impacted by ransomware are running state of the art ransomware detection tools. Hence, an alternative solution is an urgent requirement as the existing detection models are not sufficient to spot emerging ransomware treat. With this motivation, our work proposes "DeepGuard," a novel concept of modeling user behavior for ransomware detection. The main idea is to log the file-interaction pattern of typical user activity and pass it through deep generative autoencoder architecture to recreate the input. With sufficient training data, the model can learn how to reconstruct typical user activity (or input) with minimal reconstruction error. Hence, by applying the three-sigma limit rule on the model's output, DeepGuard can distinguish the ransomware activity from the user activity. The experiment result shows that DeepGuard effectively detects a variant class of ransomware with minimal false-positive rates. Overall, modeling the attack detection with user-behavior permits the proposed strategy to have deep visibility of various ransomware families.

Elnour, M., Meskin, N., Khan, K. M..  2020.  Hybrid Attack Detection Framework for Industrial Control Systems using 1D-Convolutional Neural Network and Isolation Forest. 2020 IEEE Conference on Control Technology and Applications (CCTA). :877—884.

Industrial control systems (ICSs) are used in various infrastructures and industrial plants for realizing their control operation and ensuring their safety. Concerns about the cybersecurity of industrial control systems have raised due to the increased number of cyber-attack incidents on critical infrastructures in the light of the advancement in the cyber activity of ICSs. Nevertheless, the operation of the industrial control systems is bind to vital aspects in life, which are safety, economy, and security. This paper presents a semi-supervised, hybrid attack detection approach for industrial control systems by combining Isolation Forest and Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) models. The proposed framework is developed using the normal operational data, and it is composed of a feature extraction model implemented using a One-Dimensional Convolutional Neural Network (1D-CNN) and an isolation forest model for the detection. The two models are trained independently such that the feature extraction model aims to extract useful features from the continuous-time signals that are then used along with the binary actuator signals to train the isolation forest-based detection model. The proposed approach is applied to a down-scaled industrial control system, which is a water treatment plant known as the Secure Water Treatment (SWaT) testbed. The performance of the proposed method is compared with the other works using the same testbed, and it shows an improvement in terms of the detection capability.

Pyatnisky, I. A., Sokolov, A. N..  2020.  Assessment of the Applicability of Autoencoders in the Problem of Detecting Anomalies in the Work of Industrial Control Systems.. 2020 Global Smart Industry Conference (GloSIC). :234—239.

Deep learning methods are increasingly becoming solutions to complex problems, including the search for anomalies. While fully-connected and convolutional neural networks have already found their application in classification problems, their applicability to the problem of detecting anomalies is limited. In this regard, it is proposed to use autoencoders, previously used only in problems of reducing the dimension and removing noise, as a method for detecting anomalies in the industrial control system. A new method based on autoencoders is proposed for detecting anomalies in the operation of industrial control systems (ICS). Several neural networks based on auto-encoders with different architectures were trained, and the effectiveness of each of them in the problem of detecting anomalies in the work of process control systems was evaluated. Auto-encoders can detect the most complex and non-linear dependencies in the data, and as a result, can show the best quality for detecting anomalies. In some cases, auto-encoders require fewer machine resources.

2021-03-29
Guo, Y., Wang, B., Hughes, D., Lewis, M., Sycara, K..  2020.  Designing Context-Sensitive Norm Inverse Reinforcement Learning Framework for Norm-Compliant Autonomous Agents. 2020 29th IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN). :618—625.

Human behaviors are often prohibited, or permitted by social norms. Therefore, if autonomous agents interact with humans, they also need to reason about various legal rules, social and ethical social norms, so they would be trusted and accepted by humans. Inverse Reinforcement Learning (IRL) can be used for the autonomous agents to learn social norm-compliant behavior via expert demonstrations. However, norms are context-sensitive, i.e. different norms get activated in different contexts. For example, the privacy norm is activated for a domestic robot entering a bathroom where a person may be present, whereas it is not activated for the robot entering the kitchen. Representing various contexts in the state space of the robot, as well as getting expert demonstrations under all possible tasks and contexts is extremely challenging. Inspired by recent work on Modularized Normative MDP (MNMDP) and early work on context-sensitive RL, we propose a new IRL framework, Context-Sensitive Norm IRL (CNIRL). CNIRL treats states and contexts separately, and assumes that the expert determines the priority of every possible norm in the environment, where each norm is associated with a distinct reward function. The agent chooses the action to maximize its cumulative rewards. We present the CNIRL model and show that its computational complexity is scalable in the number of norms. We also show via two experimental scenarios that CNIRL can handle problems with changing context spaces.

Zhou, J., Zhang, X., Liu, Y., Lan, X..  2020.  Facial Expression Recognition Using Spatial-Temporal Semantic Graph Network. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP). :1961—1965.

Motions of facial components convey significant information of facial expressions. Although remarkable advancement has been made, the dynamic of facial topology has not been fully exploited. In this paper, a novel facial expression recognition (FER) algorithm called Spatial Temporal Semantic Graph Network (STSGN) is proposed to automatically learn spatial and temporal patterns through end-to-end feature learning from facial topology structure. The proposed algorithm not only has greater discriminative power to capture the dynamic patterns of facial expression and stronger generalization capability to handle different variations but also higher interpretability. Experimental evaluation on two popular datasets, CK+ and Oulu-CASIA, shows that our algorithm achieves more competitive results than other state-of-the-art methods.

Pranav, E., Kamal, S., Chandran, C. Satheesh, Supriya, M. H..  2020.  Facial Emotion Recognition Using Deep Convolutional Neural Network. 2020 6th International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communication Systems (ICACCS). :317—320.

The rapid growth of artificial intelligence has contributed a lot to the technology world. As the traditional algorithms failed to meet the human needs in real time, Machine learning and deep learning algorithms have gained great success in different applications such as classification systems, recommendation systems, pattern recognition etc. Emotion plays a vital role in determining the thoughts, behaviour and feeling of a human. An emotion recognition system can be built by utilizing the benefits of deep learning and different applications such as feedback analysis, face unlocking etc. can be implemented with good accuracy. The main focus of this work is to create a Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN) model that classifies 5 different human facial emotions. The model is trained, tested and validated using the manually collected image dataset.

Jia, C., Li, C. L., Ying, Z..  2020.  Facial expression recognition based on the ensemble learning of CNNs. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Signal Processing, Communications and Computing (ICSPCC). :1—5.

As a part of body language, facial expression is a psychological state that reflects the current emotional state of the person. Recognition of facial expressions can help to understand others and enhance communication with others. We propose a facial expression recognition method based on convolutional neural network ensemble learning in this paper. Our model is composed of three sub-networks, and uses the SVM classifier to Integrate the output of the three networks to get the final result. The recognition accuracy of the model's expression on the FER2013 dataset reached 71.27%. The results show that the method has high test accuracy and short prediction time, and can realize real-time, high-performance facial recognition.

Moti, Z., Hashemi, S., Jahromi, A. N..  2020.  A Deep Learning-based Malware Hunting Technique to Handle Imbalanced Data. 2020 17th International ISC Conference on Information Security and Cryptology (ISCISC). :48–53.
Nowadays, with the increasing use of computers and the Internet, more people are exposed to cyber-security dangers. According to antivirus companies, malware is one of the most common threats of using the Internet. Therefore, providing a practical solution is critical. Current methods use machine learning approaches to classify malware samples automatically. Despite the success of these approaches, the accuracy and efficiency of these techniques are still inadequate, especially for multiple class classification problems and imbalanced training data sets. To mitigate this problem, we use deep learning-based algorithms for classification and generation of new malware samples. Our model is based on the opcode sequences, which are given to the model without any pre-processing. Besides, we use a novel generative adversarial network to generate new opcode sequences for oversampling minority classes. Also, we propose the model that is a combination of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) to classify malware samples. CNN is used to consider short-term dependency between features; while, LSTM is used to consider longer-term dependence. The experiment results show our method could classify malware to their corresponding family effectively. Our model achieves 98.99% validation accuracy.
Olaimat, M. Al, Lee, D., Kim, Y., Kim, J., Kim, J..  2020.  A Learning-based Data Augmentation for Network Anomaly Detection. 2020 29th International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN). :1–10.
While machine learning technologies have been remarkably advanced over the past several years, one of the fundamental requirements for the success of learning-based approaches would be the availability of high-quality data that thoroughly represent individual classes in a problem space. Unfortunately, it is not uncommon to observe a significant degree of class imbalance with only a few instances for minority classes in many datasets, including network traffic traces highly skewed toward a large number of normal connections while very small in quantity for attack instances. A well-known approach to addressing the class imbalance problem is data augmentation that generates synthetic instances belonging to minority classes. However, traditional statistical techniques may be limited since the extended data through statistical sampling should have the same density as original data instances with a minor degree of variation. This paper takes a learning-based approach to data augmentation to enable effective network anomaly detection. One of the critical challenges for the learning-based approach is the mode collapse problem resulting in a limited diversity of samples, which was also observed from our preliminary experimental result. To this end, we present a novel "Divide-Augment-Combine" (DAC) strategy, which groups the instances based on their characteristics and augments data on a group basis to represent a subset independently using a generative adversarial model. Our experimental results conducted with two recently collected public network datasets (UNSW-NB15 and IDS-2017) show that the proposed technique enhances performances up to 21.5% for identifying network anomalies.
Yilmaz, I., Masum, R., Siraj, A..  2020.  Addressing Imbalanced Data Problem with Generative Adversarial Network For Intrusion Detection. 2020 IEEE 21st International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration for Data Science (IRI). :25–30.

Machine learning techniques help to understand underlying patterns in datasets to develop defense mechanisms against cyber attacks. Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) technique is a machine learning technique used in detecting attack vs. benign data. However, it is difficult to construct any effective model when there are imbalances in the dataset that prevent proper classification of attack samples in data. In this research, we use UGR'16 dataset to conduct data wrangling initially. This technique helps to prepare a test set from the original dataset to train the neural network model effectively. We experimented with a series of inputs of varying sizes (i.e. 10000, 50000, 1 million) to observe the performance of the MLP neural network model with distribution of features over accuracy. Later, we use Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) model that produces samples of different attack labels (e.g. blacklist, anomaly spam, ssh scan) for balancing the dataset. These samples are generated based on data from the UGR'16 dataset. Further experiments with MLP neural network model shows that a balanced attack sample dataset, made possible with GAN, produces more accurate results than an imbalanced one.

Peng, Y., Fu, G., Luo, Y., Hu, J., Li, B., Yan, Q..  2020.  Detecting Adversarial Examples for Network Intrusion Detection System with GAN. 2020 IEEE 11th International Conference on Software Engineering and Service Science (ICSESS). :6–10.
With the increasing scale of network, attacks against network emerge one after another, and security problems become increasingly prominent. Network intrusion detection system is a widely used and effective security means at present. In addition, with the development of machine learning technology, various intelligent intrusion detection algorithms also start to sprout. By flexibly combining these intelligent methods with intrusion detection technology, the comprehensive performance of intrusion detection can be improved, but the vulnerability of machine learning model in the adversarial environment can not be ignored. In this paper, we study the defense problem of network intrusion detection system against adversarial samples. More specifically, we design a defense algorithm for NIDS against adversarial samples by using bidirectional generative adversarial network. The generator learns the data distribution of normal samples during training, which is an implicit model reflecting the normal data distribution. After training, the adversarial sample detection module calculates the reconstruction error and the discriminator matching error of sample. Then, the adversarial samples are removed, which improves the robustness and accuracy of NIDS in the adversarial environment.
Gupta, S., Buduru, A. B., Kumaraguru, P..  2020.  imdpGAN: Generating Private and Specific Data with Generative Adversarial Networks. 2020 Second IEEE International Conference on Trust, Privacy and Security in Intelligent Systems and Applications (TPS-ISA). :64–72.
Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) and its variants have shown promising results in generating synthetic data. However, the issues with GANs are: (i) the learning happens around the training samples and the model often ends up remembering them, consequently, compromising the privacy of individual samples - this becomes a major concern when GANs are applied to training data including personally identifiable information, (ii) the randomness in generated data - there is no control over the specificity of generated samples. To address these issues, we propose imdpGAN-an information maximizing differentially private Generative Adversarial Network. It is an end-to-end framework that simultaneously achieves privacy protection and learns latent representations. With experiments on MNIST dataset, we show that imdpGAN preserves the privacy of the individual data point, and learns latent codes to control the specificity of the generated samples. We perform binary classification on digit pairs to show the utility versus privacy trade-off. The classification accuracy decreases as we increase privacy levels in the framework. We also experimentally show that the training process of imdpGAN is stable but experience a 10-fold time increase as compared with other GAN frameworks. Finally, we extend imdpGAN framework to CelebA dataset to show how the privacy and learned representations can be used to control the specificity of the output.
Chauhan, R., Heydari, S. Shah.  2020.  Polymorphic Adversarial DDoS attack on IDS using GAN. 2020 International Symposium on Networks, Computers and Communications (ISNCC). :1–6.
Intrusion Detection systems are important tools in preventing malicious traffic from penetrating into networks and systems. Recently, Intrusion Detection Systems are rapidly enhancing their detection capabilities using machine learning algorithms. However, these algorithms are vulnerable to new unknown types of attacks that can evade machine learning IDS. In particular, they may be vulnerable to attacks based on Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN). GANs have been widely used in domains such as image processing, natural language processing to generate adversarial data of different types such as graphics, videos, texts, etc. We propose a model using GAN to generate adversarial DDoS attacks that can change the attack profile and can be undetected. Our simulation results indicate that by continuous changing of attack profile, defensive systems that use incremental learning will still be vulnerable to new attacks.
Das, T., Eldosouky, A. R., Sengupta, S..  2020.  Think Smart, Play Dumb: Analyzing Deception in Hardware Trojan Detection Using Game Theory. 2020 International Conference on Cyber Security and Protection of Digital Services (Cyber Security). :1–8.
In recent years, integrated circuits (ICs) have become significant for various industries and their security has been given greater priority, specifically in the supply chain. Budgetary constraints have compelled IC designers to offshore manufacturing to third-party companies. When the designer gets the manufactured ICs back, it is imperative to test for potential threats like hardware trojans (HT). In this paper, a novel multi-level game-theoretic framework is introduced to analyze the interactions between a malicious IC manufacturer and the tester. In particular, the game is formulated as a non-cooperative, zero-sum, repeated game using prospect theory (PT) that captures different players' rationalities under uncertainty. The repeated game is separated into a learning stage, in which the defender learns about the attacker's tendencies, and an actual game stage, where this learning is used. Experiments show great incentive for the attacker to deceive the defender about their actual rationality by "playing dumb" in the learning stage (deception). This scenario is captured using hypergame theory to model the attacker's view of the game. The optimal deception rationality of the attacker is analytically derived to maximize utility gain. For the defender, a first-step deception mitigation process is proposed to thwart the effects of deception. Simulation results show that the attacker can profit from the deception as it can successfully insert HTs in the manufactured ICs without being detected.