Visible to the public Biblio

Found 146 results

Filters: Keyword is performance evaluation  [Clear All Filters]
2021-07-08
SAMMOUD, Amal, CHALOUF, Mohamed Aymen, HAMDI, Omessaad, MONTAVONT, Nicolas, Bouallègue, Ammar.  2020.  A secure and lightweight three-factor authentication and key generation scheme for direct communication between healthcare professionals and patient’s WMSN. 2020 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC). :1—6.
One of the main security issues in telecare medecine information systems is the remote user authentication and key agreement between healthcare professionals and patient's medical sensors. Many of the proposed approaches are based on multiple factors (password, token and possibly biometrics). Two-factor authentication protocols do not resist to many possible attacks. As for three-factor authentication schemes, they usually come with high resource consumption. Since medical sensors have limited storage and computational capabilities, ensuring a minimal resources consumption becomes a major concern in this context. In this paper, we propose a secure and lightweight three-factor authentication and key generation scheme for securing communications between healtcare professional and patient's medical sensors. Thanks to formal verification, we prove that this scheme is robust enough against known possible attacks. A comparison with the most relevant related work's schemes shows that our protocol ensures an optimised resource consumption level.
2021-06-28
Imrith, Vashish N., Ranaweera, Pasika, Jugurnauth, Rameshwar A., Liyanage, Madhusanka.  2020.  Dynamic Orchestration of Security Services at Fog Nodes for 5G IoT. ICC 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–6.
Fog Computing is one of the edge computing paradigms that envisages being the proximate processing and storage infrastructure for a multitude of IoT appliances. With its dynamic deployability as a medium level cloud service, fog nodes are enabling heterogeneous service provisioning infrastructure that features scalability, interoperability, and adaptability. Out of the various 5G based services possible with the fog computing platforms, security services are imperative but minimally investigated direct live. Thus, in this research, we are focused on launching security services in a fog node with an architecture capable of provisioning on-demand service requests. As the fog nodes are constrained on resources, our intention is to integrate light-weight virtualization technology such as Docker for forming the service provisioning infrastructure. We managed to launch multiple security instances configured to be Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems (IDPSs) on the fog infrastructure emulated via a Raspberry Pi-4 device. This environment was tested with multiple network flows to validate its feasibility. In our proposed architecture, orchestration strategies performed by the security orchestrator were stated as guidelines for achieving pragmatic, dynamic orchestration with fog in IoT deployments. The results of this research guarantee the possibility of developing an ambient security service model that facilitates IoT devices with enhanced security.
Chen, Yi-Fan, Huang, Ding-Hsiang, Huang, Cheng-Fu, Lin, Yi-Kuei.  2020.  Reliability Evaluation for a Cloud Computer Network with Fog Computing. 2020 IEEE 20th International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion (QRS-C). :682–683.
The most recent and important developments in the field of computer networks are cloud and fog computing. In this study, modern cloud computer networks comprising computers, internet of things (IoT), fog servers, and cloud servers for data transmission, is investigated. A cloud computer networks can be modeled as a network with nodes and arcs, in which each arc represents a transmission line, and each node represents an IoT device, a fog server, or a cloud server. Each transmission line has several possible capacities and is regarded as a multistate. The network is termed a multi-state cloud computer network (MCCN). this study firstly constructs the mathematic model to elucidate the flow relationship among the IoT devices, edge servers, and cloud servers and subsequently develop an algorithm to evaluate the performance of the MCCN by calculating network reliability which is defined as the probability of the data being successfully processed by the MCCN.
2021-06-24
Habib ur Rehman, Muhammad, Mukhtar Dirir, Ahmed, Salah, Khaled, Svetinovic, Davor.  2020.  FairFed: Cross-Device Fair Federated Learning. 2020 IEEE Applied Imagery Pattern Recognition Workshop (AIPR). :1–7.
Federated learning (FL) is the rapidly developing machine learning technique that is used to perform collaborative model training over decentralized datasets. FL enables privacy-preserving model development whereby the datasets are scattered over a large set of data producers (i.e., devices and/or systems). These data producers train the learning models, encapsulate the model updates with differential privacy techniques, and share them to centralized systems for global aggregation. However, these centralized models are always prone to adversarial attacks (such as data-poisoning and model poisoning attacks) due to a large number of data producers. Hence, FL methods need to ensure fairness and high-quality model availability across all the participants in the underlying AI systems. In this paper, we propose a novel FL framework, called FairFed, to meet fairness and high-quality data requirements. The FairFed provides a fairness mechanism to detect adversaries across the devices and datasets in the FL network and reject their model updates. We use a Python-simulated FL framework to enable large-scale training over MNIST dataset. We simulate a cross-device model training settings to detect adversaries in the training network. We used TensorFlow Federated and Python to implement the fairness protocol, the deep neural network, and the outlier detection algorithm. We thoroughly test the proposed FairFed framework with random and uniform data distributions across the training network and compare our initial results with the baseline fairness scheme. Our proposed work shows promising results in terms of model accuracy and loss.
Satam, Shalaka, Satam, Pratik, Hariri, Salim.  2020.  Multi-level Bluetooth Intrusion Detection System. 2020 IEEE/ACS 17th International Conference on Computer Systems and Applications (AICCSA). :1—8.
Large scale deployment of IoT devices has made Bluetooth Protocol (IEEE 802.15.1) the wireless protocol of choice for close-range communications. Devices such as keyboards, smartwatches, headphones, computer mouse, and various wearable connecting devices use Bluetooth network for communication. Moreover, Bluetooth networks are widely used in medical devices like heart monitors, blood glucose monitors, asthma inhalers, and pulse oximeters. Also, Bluetooth has replaced cables for wire-free equipment in a surgical environment. In hospitals, devices communicate with one another, sharing sensitive and critical information over Bluetooth scatter-networks. Thus, it is imperative to secure the Bluetooth networks against attacks like Man in the Middle attack (MITM), eavesdropping attacks, and Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. This paper presents a Multi-Level Bluetooth Intrusion Detection System (ML-BIDS) to detect malicious attacks against Bluetooth devices. In the ML-IDS framework, we perform continuous device identification and authorization in Bluetooth networks following the zero-trust principle [ref]. The ML-BIDS framework includes an anomaly-based intrusion detection system (ABIDS) to detect attacks on the Bluetooth protocol. The ABIDS tracks the normal behavior of the Bluetooth protocol by comparing it with the Bluetooth protocol state machine. Bluetooth frame flows consisting of Bluetooth frames received over 10 seconds are split into n-grams to track the current state of the protocol in the state machine. We evaluated the performance of several machine learning algorithms like C4.5, Adaboost, SVM, Naive Bayes, Jrip, and Bagging to classify normal Bluetooth protocol flows from abnormal Bluetooth protocol flows. The ABIDS detects attacks on Bluetooth protocols with a precision of up to 99.6% and recall up to 99.6%. The ML-BIDS framework also performs whitelisting of the devices on the Bluetooth network to prevent unauthorized devices from connecting to the network. ML-BIDS uses a combination of the Bluetooth Address, mac address, and IP address to uniquely identify a Bluetooth device connecting to the network, and hence ensuring only authorized devices can connect to the Bluetooth network.
2021-06-01
Hatti, Daneshwari I., Sutagundar, Ashok V..  2020.  Trust Induced Resource Provisioning (TIRP) Mechanism in IoT. 2020 4th International Conference on Computer, Communication and Signal Processing (ICCCSP). :1–5.
Due to increased number of devices with limited resources in Internet of Things (IoT) has to serve time sensitive applications including health monitoring, emergency response, industrial applications and smart city etc. This has incurred the problem of solving the provisioning of limited computational resources of the devices to fulfill the requirement with reduced latency. With rapid increase of devices and heterogeneity characteristic the resource provisioning is crucial and leads to conflict of trusting among the devices requests. Trust is essential component in any context for communicating or sharing the resources in the network. The proposed work comprises of trusting and provisioning based on deadline. Trust quantity is measured with concept of game theory and optimal strategy decision among provider and customer and provision resources within deadline to execute the tasks is done by finding Nash equilibrium. Nash equilibrium (NE) is estimated by constructing the payoff matrix with choice of two player strategies. NE is obtained in the proposed work for the Trust- Respond (TR) strategy. The latency aware approach for avoiding resource contention due to limited resources of the edge devices, fog computing leverages the cloud services in a distributed way at the edge of the devices. The communication is established between edge devices-fog-cloud and provision of resources is performed based on scalar chain and Gang Plank theory of management to reduce latency and increase trust quantity. To test the performance of proposed work performance parameter considered are latency and computational time.
2021-05-25
Taha, Mohammad Bany, Chowdhury, Rasel.  2020.  GALB: Load Balancing Algorithm for CP-ABE Encryption Tasks in E-Health Environment. 2020 Fifth International Conference on Research in Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks (ICRCICN). :165–170.
Security of personal data in the e-healthcare has always been challenging issue. The embedded and wearable devices used to collect these personal and critical data of the patients and users are sensitive in nature. Attribute-Based Encryption is believed to provide access control along with data security for distributed data among multiple parties. These resources limited devices do have the capabilities to secure the data while sending to the cloud but instead it increases the overhead and latency of running the encryption algorithm. On the top of if confidentiality is required, which will add more latency. In order to reduce latency and overhead, we propose a new load balancing algorithm that will distribute the data to nearby devices with available resources to encrypt the data and send it to the cloud. In this article, we are proposing a load balancing algorithm for E-Health system called (GALB). Our algorithm is based on Genetic Algorithm (GA). Our algorithm (GALB) distribute the tasks that received to the main gateway between the devices on E-health environment. The distribution strategy is based on the available resources in the devices, the distance between the gateway and the those devices, and the complexity of the task (size) and CP-ABE encryption policy length. In order to evaluate our algorithm performance, we compare the near optimal solution proposed by GALB with the optimal solution proposed by LP.
2021-05-13
Sun, Zhichuang, Feng, Bo, Lu, Long, Jha, Somesh.  2020.  OAT: Attesting Operation Integrity of Embedded Devices. 2020 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). :1433—1449.

Due to the wide adoption of IoT/CPS systems, embedded devices (IoT frontends) become increasingly connected and mission-critical, which in turn has attracted advanced attacks (e.g., control-flow hijacks and data-only attacks). Unfortunately, IoT backends (e.g., remote controllers or in-cloud services) are unable to detect if such attacks have happened while receiving data, service requests, or operation status from IoT devices (remotely deployed embedded devices). As a result, currently, IoT backends are forced to blindly trust the IoT devices that they interact with.To fill this void, we first formulate a new security property for embedded devices, called "Operation Execution Integrity" or OEI. We then design and build a system, OAT, that enables remote OEI attestation for ARM-based bare-metal embedded devices. Our formulation of OEI captures the integrity of both control flow and critical data involved in an operation execution. Therefore, satisfying OEI entails that an operation execution is free of unexpected control and data manipulations, which existing attestation methods cannot check. Our design of OAT strikes a balance between prover's constraints (embedded devices' limited computing power and storage) and verifier's requirements (complete verifiability and forensic assistance). OAT uses a new control-flow measurement scheme, which enables lightweight and space-efficient collection of measurements (97% space reduction from the trace-based approach). OAT performs the remote control-flow verification through abstract execution, which is fast and deterministic. OAT also features lightweight integrity checking for critical data (74% less instrumentation needed than previous work). Our security analysis shows that OAT allows remote verifiers or IoT backends to detect both controlflow hijacks and data-only attacks that affect the execution of operations on IoT devices. In our evaluation using real embedded programs, OAT incurs a runtime overhead of 2.7%.

Dave, Avani, Banerjee, Nilanjan, Patel, Chintan.  2020.  SRACARE: Secure Remote Attestation with Code Authentication and Resilience Engine. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Embedded Software and Systems (ICESS). :1—8.

Recent technological advancements have enabled proliferated use of small embedded and IoT devices for collecting, processing, and transferring the security-critical information and user data. This exponential use has acted as a catalyst in the recent growth of sophisticated attacks such as the replay, man-in-the-middle, and malicious code modification to slink, leak, tweak or exploit the security-critical information in malevolent activities. Therefore, secure communication and software state assurance (at run-time and boot-time) of the device has emerged as open security problems. Furthermore, these devices need to have an appropriate recovery mechanism to bring them back to the known-good operational state. Previous researchers have demonstrated independent methods for attack detection and safeguard. However, the majority of them lack in providing onboard system recovery and secure communication techniques. To bridge this gap, this manuscript proposes SRACARE - a framework that utilizes the custom lightweight, secure communication protocol that performs remote/local attestation, and secure boot with an onboard resilience recovery mechanism to protect the devices from the above-mentioned attacks. The prototype employs an efficient lightweight, low-power 32-bit RISC-V processor, secure communication protocol, code authentication, and resilience engine running on the Artix 7 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) board. This work presents the performance evaluation and state-of-the-art comparison results, which shows promising resilience to attacks and demonstrate the novel protection mechanism with onboard recovery. The framework achieves these with only 8% performance overhead and a very small increase in hardware-software footprint.

Huo, Dongdong, Wang, Yu, Liu, Chao, Li, Mingxuan, Wang, Yazhe, Xu, Zhen.  2020.  LAPE: A Lightweight Attestation of Program Execution Scheme for Bare-Metal Systems. 2020 IEEE 22nd International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications; IEEE 18th International Conference on Smart City; IEEE 6th International Conference on Data Science and Systems (HPCC/SmartCity/DSS). :78—86.

Unlike traditional processors, Internet of Things (IoT) devices are short of resources to incorporate mature protections (e.g. MMU, TrustZone) against modern control-flow attacks. Remote (control-flow) attestation is fast becoming a key instrument in securing such devices as it has proven the effectiveness on not only detecting runtime malware infestation of a remote device, but also saving the computing resources by moving the costly verification process away. However, few control-flow attestation schemes have been able to draw on any systematic research into the software specificity of bare-metal systems, which are widely deployed on resource-constrained IoT devices. To our knowledge, the unique design patterns of the system limit implementations of such expositions. In this paper, we present the design and proof-of-concept implementation of LAPE, a lightweight attestation of program execution scheme that enables detecting control-flow attacks for bare-metal systems without requiring hardware modification. With rudimentary memory protection support found in modern IoT-class microcontrollers, LAPE leverages software instrumentation to compartmentalize the firmware functions into several ”attestation compartments”. It then continuously tracks the control-flow events of each compartment and periodically reports them to the verifier. The PoC of the scheme is incorporated into an LLVM-based compiler to generate the LAPE-enabled firmware. By taking experiments with several real-world IoT firmware, the results show both the efficiency and practicality of LAPE.

Arias, Orlando, Sullivan, Dean, Shan, Haoqi, Jin, Yier.  2020.  LAHEL: Lightweight Attestation Hardening Embedded Devices using Macrocells. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Hardware Oriented Security and Trust (HOST). :305—315.

In recent years, we have seen an advent in software attestation defenses targeting embedded systems which aim to detect tampering with a device's running program. With a persistent threat of an increasingly powerful attacker with physical access to the device, attestation approaches have become more rooted into the device's hardware with some approaches even changing the underlying microarchitecture. These drastic changes to the hardware make the proposed defenses hard to apply to new systems. In this paper, we present and evaluate LAHEL as the means to study the implementation and pitfalls of a hardware-based attestation mechanism. We limit LAHEL to utilize existing technologies without demanding any hardware changes. We implement LAHEL as a hardware IP core which interfaces with the CoreSight Debug Architecture available in modern ARM cores. We show how LAHEL can be integrated to system on chip designs allowing for microcontroller vendors to easily add our defense into their products. We present and test our prototype on a Zynq-7000 SoC, evaluating the security of LAHEL against powerful time-of-check-time-of-use (TOCTOU) attacks, while demonstrating improved performance over existing attestation schemes.

Gomathi, S., Parmar, Nilesh, Devi, Jyoti, Patel, Namrata.  2020.  Detecting Malware Attack on Cloud using Deep Learning Vector Quantization. 2020 12th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks (CICN). :356—361.

In recent times cloud services are used widely and due to which there are so many attacks on the cloud devices. One of the major attacks is DDos (distributed denial-of-service) -attack which mainly targeted the Memcached which is a caching system developed for speeding the websites and the networks through Memcached's database. The DDoS attack tries to destroy the database by creating a flood of internet traffic at the targeted server end. Attackers send the spoofing applications to the vulnerable UDP Memcached server which even manipulate the legitimate identity of the sender. In this work, we have proposed a vector quantization approach based on a supervised deep learning approach to detect the Memcached attack performed by the use of malicious firmware on different types of Cloud attached devices. This vector quantization approach detects the DDoas attack performed by malicious firmware on the different types of cloud devices and this also classifies the applications which are vulnerable to attack based on cloud-The Hackbeased services. The result computed during the testing shows the 98.2 % as legally positive and 0.034% as falsely negative.

Ahmed, Farooq, Li, Xudong, Niu, Yukun, Zhang, Chi, Wei, Lingbo, Gu, Chengjie.  2020.  UniRoam: An Anonymous and Accountable Authentication Scheme for Cross-Domain Access. 2020 International Conference on Networking and Network Applications (NaNA). :198—205.
In recent years, cross-domain roaming through Wi-Fi is ubiquitous, and the number of roaming users has increased dramatically. It is essential to authenticate users belonging to different institutes to ensure network privacy and security. Existing systems, such as eduroam, have centralized and hierarchical structure on indorse accounts that create privacy and security issues. We have proposed UniRoam, a blockchain-based cross-domain authentication scheme that provides accountability and anonymity without any trusted authority. Unlike traditional centralized approaches, UniRoam provides access authentication for its servers and users to provide anonymity and accountability without any privacy leakage issues efficiently. By using the sovrin identifier as an anonymous identity, we integrate our system with Hyperledger and Intel SGX to authenticate users that preserves both anonymity and trust when the user connects to the network. Therefore, UniRoam is highly “faulted-tolerant” to deal with different attacks and provides an effective solution that can be deployed easily in different environments.
2021-05-03
Zhu, Fangzhou, Liu, Liang, Meng, Weizhi, Lv, Ting, Hu, Simin, Ye, Renjun.  2020.  SCAFFISD: A Scalable Framework for Fine-Grained Identification and Security Detection of Wireless Routers. 2020 IEEE 19th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom). :1194–1199.

The security of wireless network devices has received widespread attention, but most existing schemes cannot achieve fine-grained device identification. In practice, the security vulnerabilities of a device are heavily depending on its model and firmware version. Motivated by this issue, we propose a universal, extensible and device-independent framework called SCAFFISD, which can provide fine-grained identification of wireless routers. It can generate access rules to extract effective information from the router admin page automatically and perform quick scans for known device vulnerabilities. Meanwhile, SCAFFISD can identify rogue access points (APs) in combination with existing detection methods, with the purpose of performing a comprehensive security assessment of wireless networks. We implement the prototype of SCAFFISD and verify its effectiveness through security scans of actual products.

2021-04-27
Khalid, O., Senthilananthan, S..  2020.  A review of data analytics techniques for effective management of big data using IoT. 2020 5th International Conference on Innovative Technologies in Intelligent Systems and Industrial Applications (CITISIA). :1—10.
IoT and big data are energetic technology of the world for quite a time, and both of these have become a necessity. On the one side where IoT is used to connect different objectives via the internet, the big data means having a large number of the set of structured, unstructured, and semi-structured data. The device used for processing based on the tools used. These tools help provide meaningful information used for effective management in different domains. Some of the commonly faced issues with the inadequate about the technologies are related to data privacy, insufficient analytical capabilities, and this issue is faced by in different domains related to the big data. Data analytics tools help discover the pattern of data and consumer preferences which is resulting in better decision making for the organizations. The major part of this work is to review different types of data analytics techniques for the effective management of big data using IoT. For the effective management of the ABD solution collection, analysis and control are used as the components. Each of the ingredients is described to find an effective way to manage big data. These components are considered and used in the validation criteria. The solution of effective data management is a stage towards the management of big data in IoT devices which will help the user to understand different types of elements of data management.
2021-04-08
Yang, Z., Li, X., Wei, L., Zhang, C., Gu, C..  2020.  SGX-ICN: A Secure and Privacy-Preserving Information-Centric Networking with SGX Enclaves. 2020 3rd International Conference on Hot Information-Centric Networking (HotICN). :142–147.
As the next-generation network architecture, Information-Centric Networking (ICN) has emerged as a novel paradigm to cope with the increasing demand for content delivery on the Internet. In contrast to the conventional host-centric architectures, ICN focuses on content retrieval based on their name rather than their storage location. However, ICN is vulnerable to various security and privacy attacks due to the inherent attributes of the ICN architectures. For example, a curious ICN node can monitor the network traffic to reveal the sensitive data issued by specific users. Hence, further research on privacy protection for ICN is needed. This paper presents a practical approach to effectively enhancing the security and privacy of ICN by utilizing Intel SGX, a commodity trusted execution environment. The main idea is to leverage secure enclaves residing on ICN nodes to do computations on sensitive data. Performance evaluations on the real-world datasets demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed scheme. Moreover, our scheme outperforms the cryptography based method.
Nasir, N. A., Jeong, S.-H..  2020.  Testbed-based Performance Evaluation of the Information-Centric Network. 2020 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC). :166–169.
Proliferation of the Internet usage is rapidly increasing, and it is necessary to support the performance requirements for multimedia applications, including lower latency, improved security, faster content retrieval, and adjustability to the traffic load. Nevertheless, because the current Internet architecture is a host-oriented one, it often fails to support the necessary demands such as fast content delivery. A promising networking paradigm called Information-Centric Networking (ICN) focuses on the name of the content itself rather than the location of that content. A distinguished alternative to this ICN concept is Content-Centric Networking (CCN) that exploits more of the performance requirements by using in-network caching and outperforms the current Internet in terms of content transfer time, traffic load control, mobility support, and efficient network management. In this paper, instead of using the saturated method of validating a theory by simulation, we present a testbed-based performance evaluation of the ICN network. We used several new functions of the proposed testbed to improve the performance of the basic CCN. In this paper, we also show that the proposed testbed architecture performs better in terms of content delivery time compared to the basic CCN architecture through graphical results.
2021-03-17
Sadu, A., Stevic, M., Wirtz, N., Monti, A..  2020.  A Stochastic Assessment of Attacks based on Continuous-Time Markov Chains. 2020 6th IEEE International Energy Conference (ENERGYCon). :11—16.

With the increasing interdependence of critical infrastructures, the probability of a specific infrastructure to experience a complex cyber-physical attack is increasing. Thus it is important to analyze the risk of an attack and the dynamics of its propagation in order to design and deploy appropriate countermeasures. The attack trees, commonly adopted to this aim, have inherent shortcomings in representing interdependent, concurrent and sequential attacks. To overcome this, the work presented here proposes a stochastic methodology using Petri Nets and Continuous Time Markov Chain (CTMC) to analyze the attacks, considering the individual attack occurrence probabilities and their stochastic propagation times. A procedure to convert a basic attack tree into an equivalent CTMC is presented. The proposed method is applied in a case study to calculate the different attack propagation characteristics. The characteristics are namely, the probability of reaching the root node & sub attack nodes, the mean time to reach the root node and the mean time spent in the sub attack nodes before reaching the root node. Additionally, the method quantifies the effectiveness of specific defenses in reducing the attack risk considering the efficiency of individual defenses.

2021-03-15
Chang, H.-C., Lin, C.-Y., Liao, D.-J., Koo, T.-M..  2020.  The Modbus Protocol Vulnerability Test in Industrial Control Systems. 2020 International Conference on Cyber-Enabled Distributed Computing and Knowledge Discovery (CyberC). :375—378.

Industrial Control Systems (ICSs) are widely used in critical infrastructure around the world to provide services that sustain peoples' livelihoods and economic operations. However, compared with the critical infrastructure, the security of the ICS itself is still insufficient, and there will be a degree of damage, if it is attacked or invaded. In the past, an ICS was designed to operate in a traditional closed network, so the industrial equipment and transmission protocol lacked security verification. In addition, an ICS has high availability requirements, so that its equipment is rarely replaced and upgraded. Although many scholars have proposed the defense mechanism that is applicable to ICS in the past, there is still a lack of tested means to verify these defense technologies. The purpose of this study is to analyze the security of a system using the Modbus transmission protocol in an ICS, to establish a modular security test system based on four types of attacks that have been identified in the past literature, namely, a detection attack, a command injection attack, a response injection attack and a denial of service, to implement the attack results and to display the process in the virtual environment of Conpot and Rapid SCADA, and finally, to adopt the ICS security standards mentioned by previous scholars, namely, confidentiality, integrity and availability, as the performance evaluation criteria of this study.

2021-03-09
Liu, G., Quan, W., Cheng, N., Lu, N., Zhang, H., Shen, X..  2020.  P4NIS: Improving network immunity against eavesdropping with programmable data planes. IEEE INFOCOM 2020 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS). :91—96.

Due to improving computational capacity of supercomputers, transmitting encrypted packets via one single network path is vulnerable to brute-force attacks. The versatile attackers secretly eavesdrop all the packets, classify packets into different streams, performs an exhaustive search for the decryption key, and extract sensitive personal information from the streams. However, new Internet Protocol (IP) brings great opportunities and challenges for preventing eavesdropping attacks. In this paper, we propose a Programming Protocol-independent Packet Processors (P4) based Network Immune Scheme (P4NIS) against the eavesdropping attacks. Specifically, P4NIS is equipped with three lines of defense to improve the network immunity. The first line is promiscuous forwarding by splitting all the traffic packets in different network paths disorderly. Complementally, the second line encrypts transmission port fields of the packets using diverse encryption algorithms. The encryption could distribute traffic packets from one stream into different streams, and disturb eavesdroppers to classify them correctly. Besides, P4NIS inherits the advantages from the existing encryption-based countermeasures which is the third line of defense. Using a paradigm of programmable data planes-P4, we implement P4NIS and evaluate its performances. Experimental results show that P4NIS can increase difficulties of eavesdropping significantly, and increase transmission throughput by 31.7% compared with state-of-the-art mechanisms.

Injadat, M., Moubayed, A., Shami, A..  2020.  Detecting Botnet Attacks in IoT Environments: An Optimized Machine Learning Approach. 2020 32nd International Conference on Microelectronics (ICM). :1—4.

The increased reliance on the Internet and the corresponding surge in connectivity demand has led to a significant growth in Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices. The continued deployment of IoT devices has in turn led to an increase in network attacks due to the larger number of potential attack surfaces as illustrated by the recent reports that IoT malware attacks increased by 215.7% from 10.3 million in 2017 to 32.7 million in 2018. This illustrates the increased vulnerability and susceptibility of IoT devices and networks. Therefore, there is a need for proper effective and efficient attack detection and mitigation techniques in such environments. Machine learning (ML) has emerged as one potential solution due to the abundance of data generated and available for IoT devices and networks. Hence, they have significant potential to be adopted for intrusion detection for IoT environments. To that end, this paper proposes an optimized ML-based framework consisting of a combination of Bayesian optimization Gaussian Process (BO-GP) algorithm and decision tree (DT) classification model to detect attacks on IoT devices in an effective and efficient manner. The performance of the proposed framework is evaluated using the Bot-IoT-2018 dataset. Experimental results show that the proposed optimized framework has a high detection accuracy, precision, recall, and F-score, highlighting its effectiveness and robustness for the detection of botnet attacks in IoT environments.

Hegde, M., Kepnang, G., Mazroei, M. Al, Chavis, J. S., Watkins, L..  2020.  Identification of Botnet Activity in IoT Network Traffic Using Machine Learning. 2020 International Conference on Intelligent Data Science Technologies and Applications (IDSTA). :21—27.

Today our world benefits from Internet of Things (IoT) technology; however, new security problems arise when these IoT devices are introduced into our homes. Because many of these IoT devices have access to the Internet and they have little to no security, they make our smart homes highly vulnerable to compromise. Some of the threats include IoT botnets and generic confidentiality, integrity, and availability (CIA) attacks. Our research explores botnet detection by experimenting with supervised machine learning and deep-learning classifiers. Further, our approach assesses classifier performance on unbalanced datasets that contain benign data, mixed in with small amounts of malicious data. We demonstrate that the classifiers can separate malicious activity from benign activity within a small IoT network dataset. The classifiers can also separate malicious activity from benign activity in increasingly larger datasets. Our experiments have demonstrated incremental improvement in results for (1) accuracy, (2) probability of detection, and (3) probability of false alarm. The best performance results include 99.9% accuracy, 99.8% probability of detection, and 0% probability of false alarm. This paper also demonstrates how the performance of these classifiers increases, as IoT training datasets become larger and larger.

Venkataramana, B., Jadhav, A..  2020.  Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols under Black Hole Attack in Cognitive Radio Mesh Network. 2020 International Conference on Emerging Smart Computing and Informatics (ESCI). :98–102.
Wireless technology is rapidly proliferating. Devices such as Laptops, PDAs and cell-phones gained a lot of importance due to the use of wireless technology. Nowadays there is also a huge demand for spectrum allocation and there is a need to utilize the maximum available spectrum in efficient manner. Cognitive Radio (CR) Network is one such intelligent radio network, designed to utilize the maximum licensed bandwidth to un-licensed users. Cognitive Radio has the capability to understand unused spectrum at a given time at a specific location. This capability helps to minimize the interference to the licensed users and improves the performance of the network. Routing protocol selection is one of the main strategies to design any wireless or wired networks. In Cognitive radio networks the selected routing protocol should be best in terms of establishing an efficient route, addressing challenges in network topology and should be able to reduce bandwidth consumption. Performance analysis of the protocols helps to select the best protocol in the network. Objective of this study is to evaluate performance of various cognitive radio network routing protocols like Spectrum Aware On Demand Routing Protocol (SORP), Spectrum Aware Mesh Routing in Cognitive Radio Networks (SAMER) and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) with and without black hole attack using various performance parameters like Throughput, E2E delay and Packet delivery ratio with the help of NS2 simulator.
Herrera, A. E. Hinojosa, Walshaw, C., Bailey, C..  2020.  Improving Black Box Classification Model Veracity for Electronics Anomaly Detection. 2020 15th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA). :1092–1097.
Data driven classification models are useful to assess quality of manufactured electronics. Because decisions are taken based on the models, their veracity is relevant, covering aspects such as accuracy, transparency and clarity. The proposed BB-Stepwise algorithm aims to improve the classification model transparency and accuracy of black box models. K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) is a black box model which is easy to implement and has achieved good classification performance in different applications. In this paper KNN-Stepwise is illustrated for fault detection of electronics devices. The results achieved shows that the proposed algorithm was able to improve the accuracy, veracity and transparency of KNN models and achieve higher transparency and clarity, and at least similar accuracy than when using Decision Tree models.
2021-03-04
Nugraha, B., Nambiar, A., Bauschert, T..  2020.  Performance Evaluation of Botnet Detection using Deep Learning Techniques. 2020 11th International Conference on Network of the Future (NoF). :141—149.

Botnets are one of the major threats on the Internet. They are used for malicious activities to compromise the basic network security goals, namely Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability. For reliable botnet detection and defense, deep learning-based approaches were recently proposed. In this paper, four different deep learning models, namely Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), hybrid CNN-LSTM, and Multi-layer Perception (MLP) are applied for botnet detection and simulation studies are carried out using the CTU-13 botnet traffic dataset. We use several performance metrics such as accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, precision, and F1 score to evaluate the performance of each model on classifying both known and unknown (zero-day) botnet traffic patterns. The results show that our deep learning models can accurately and reliably detect both known and unknown botnet traffic, and show better performance than other deep learning models.