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2021-03-09
Fiade, A., Triadi, A. Yudha, Sulhi, A., Masruroh, S. Ummi, Handayani, V., Suseno, H. Bayu.  2020.  Performance Analysis of Black Hole Attack and Flooding Attack AODV Routing Protocol on VANET (Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network). 2020 8th International Conference on Cyber and IT Service Management (CITSM). :1–5.
Wireless technology is widely used today and is growing rapidly. One of the wireless technologies is VANET where the network can communicate with vehicles (V2V) which can prevent accidents on the road. Energy is also a problem in VANET so it needs to be used efficiently. The presence of malicious nodes or nodes can eliminate and disrupt the process of data communication. The routing protocol used in this study is AODV. The purpose of this study is to analyze the comparison of blackhole attack and flooding attack against energy-efficient AODV on VANET. This research uses simulation methods and several supporting programs such as OpenStreetMap, SUMO, NS2, NAM, and AWK to test the AODV routing protocol. Quality of service (QOS) parameters used in this study are throughput, packet loss, and end to end delay. Energy parameters are also used to examine the energy efficiency used. This study uses the number of variations of nodes consisting of 20 nodes, 40 nodes, 60 nodes, and different network conditions, namely normal network conditions, network conditions with black hole attacks, and network conditions with flooding attacks. The results obtained can be concluded that the highest value of throughput when network conditions are normal, the greatest value of packet loss when there is a black hole attack, the highest end to end delay value and the largest remaining energy when there is a flooding attack.
2020-12-28
Murugan, S., Jeyakarthic, M..  2020.  An Energy Efficient Security Aware Clustering approach using Fuzzy Logic for Mobile Adhoc Networks. 2020 Fourth International Conference on Computing Methodologies and Communication (ICCMC). :551—555.

Security awareness and energy efficiency are two crucial optimization issues present in MANET where the network topology gets adequately changed and is not predictable which affects the lifetime of the MANET. They are extensively analyzed to improvise the lifetime of the MANET. This paper concentrates on the design of an energy-efficient security-aware fuzzy-based clustering (SFLC) technique to make the network secure and energy-efficient. The selection of cluster heads (CHD) process using fuzzy logic (FL) involves the trust factor as an important input variable. Once the CHDs are elected successfully, clusters will be constructed and start to communication with one another as well as the base station (BS). The presented SFLC model is simulated using NS2 and the performance is validated in terms of energy, lifetime and computation time.

2020-05-26
V S, Deepthi, S, Vagdevi.  2018.  Behaviour Analysis and Detection of Blackhole Attacker Node under Reactive Routing Protocol in MANETs. 2018 International Conference on Networking, Embedded and Wireless Systems (ICNEWS). :1–5.
Mobile Adhoc networks are wireless adhoc networks that have property of self organizing, less infrastructure, multi hoping, which are designed to work under low power vulnerable environment. Due to its very unique characteristics, there is much chances of threat of malicious nodes within the network. Blackhole attack is a menace in MANETs which redirects all traffic to itself and drops it. This paper’s objective is to analyze the effects of blackhole attack under reactive routing protocol such as Adhoc on Demand Distance Vector routing (AODV). The performance of this protocol is assessed to find the vulnerability of attack and also compared the impact of attack on both AODV, AODV with blackhole and proposed AODV protocols. The analysis is done by simulated using NS- 2.35 and QoS parameters such as Throughput, PDR, and Average Energy Consumed are measured further.
2020-03-02
Ko, Eunbi, M, Delphin Raj K, Yum, Sun-Ho, Shin, Soo-Young, Namgung, Jung-Il, Park, Soo-Hyun.  2019.  Selection Mechanism for Underwater Multi-Media Communication. 2019 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC). :130–132.
As the ocean covers 70% of the Earth's surface, it becomes inevitable to develop or extend underwater applications. Compared to Visible Light medium, Acoustic medium has been widely used to transmit the data from source to destination in underwater communication. Data transmission, however, has the limitation such as propagation delay, reliability, power constraints, etc. Although underwater MAC protocols have been developed to overcome these challenges, there are still some drawbacks due to the harsh underwater environment. Therefore, the selection mechanism for underwater multi-media communication is proposed inside Medium Access Control (MAC) layer. In this paper, the main focus is to select the appropriate medium based on the distance between nodes and transmission power. The result of performance evaluation shows that this multimedia approach can complement the existing underwater single medium communication. As a result, underwater multimedia mechanism increases the reliability and energy efficiency in data transmission.
2019-12-09
Rani, Rinki, Kumar, Sushil, Dohare, Upasana.  2019.  Trust Evaluation for Light Weight Security in Sensor Enabled Internet of Things: Game Theory Oriented Approach. IEEE Internet of Things Journal. 6:8421–8432.
In sensor-enabled Internet of Things (IoT), nodes are deployed in an open and remote environment, therefore, are vulnerable to a variety of attacks. Recently, trust-based schemes have played a pivotal role in addressing nodes' misbehavior attacks in IoT. However, the existing trust-based schemes apply network wide dissemination of the control packets that consume excessive energy in the quest of trust evaluation, which ultimately weakens the network lifetime. In this context, this paper presents an energy efficient trust evaluation (EETE) scheme that makes use of hierarchical trust evaluation model to alleviate the malicious effects of illegitimate sensor nodes and restricts network wide dissemination of trust requests to reduce the energy consumption in clustered-sensor enabled IoT. The proposed EETE scheme incorporates three dilemma game models to reduce additional needless transmissions while balancing the trust throughout the network. Specially: 1) a cluster formation game that promotes the nodes to be cluster head (CH) or cluster member to avoid the extraneous cluster; 2) an optimal cluster formation dilemma game to affirm the minimum number of trust recommendations for maintaining the balance of the trust in a cluster; and 3) an activity-based trust dilemma game to compute the Nash equilibrium that represents the best strategy for a CH to launch its anomaly detection technique which helps in mitigation of malicious activity. Simulation results show that the proposed EETE scheme outperforms the current trust evaluation schemes in terms of detection rate, energy efficiency and trust evaluation time for clustered-sensor enabled IoT.
2018-02-15
Jia, Ruoxi, Dong, Roy, Sastry, S. Shankar, Spanos, Costas J..  2017.  Privacy-enhanced Architecture for Occupancy-based HVAC Control. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Cyber-Physical Systems. :177–186.

Large-scale sensing and actuation infrastructures have allowed buildings to achieve significant energy savings; at the same time, these technologies introduce significant privacy risks that must be addressed. In this paper, we present a framework for modeling the trade-off between improved control performance and increased privacy risks due to occupancy sensing. More specifically, we consider occupancy-based HVAC control as the control objective and the location traces of individual occupants as the private variables. Previous studies have shown that individual location information can be inferred from occupancy measurements. To ensure privacy, we design an architecture that distorts the occupancy data in order to hide individual occupant location information while maintaining HVAC performance. Using mutual information between the individual's location trace and the reported occupancy measurement as a privacy metric, we are able to optimally design a scheme to minimize privacy risk subject to a control performance guarantee. We evaluate our framework using real-world occupancy data: first, we verify that our privacy metric accurately assesses the adversary's ability to infer private variables from the distorted sensor measurements; then, we show that control performance is maintained through simulations of building operations using these distorted occupancy readings.

2017-12-20
Kim, M., Cho, H..  2017.  Secure Data Collection in Spatially Clustered Wireless Sensor Networks. 2017 25th International Conference on Systems Engineering (ICSEng). :268–276.
A wireless sensor network (WSN) can provide a low cost and flexible solution to sensing and monitoring for large distributed applications. To save energy and prolong the network lifetime, the WSN is often partitioned into a set of spatial clusters. Each cluster includes sensor nodes with similar sensing data, and only a few sensor nodes (samplers) report their sensing data to a base node. Then the base node may predict the missed data of non-samplers using the spatial correlation between sensor nodes. The problem is that the WSN is vulnerable to internal security threat such as node compromise. If the samplers are compromised and report incorrect data intentionally, then the WSN should be contaminated rapidly due to the process of data prediction at the base node. In this paper, we propose three algorithms to detect compromised samplers for secure data collection in the WSN. The proposed algorithms leverage the unique property of spatial clustering to alleviate the overhead of compromised node detection. Experiment results indicate that the proposed algorithms can identify compromised samplers with a high accuracy and low energy consumption when as many as 50% sensor nodes are misbehaving.
2017-10-18
Uemura, Toshiaki, Kashiwabara, Yuta, Kawanuma, Daiki, Tomii, Takashi.  2016.  Accuracy Evaluation by GPS Data Correction for the EV Energy Consumption Database. Adjunct Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Computing Networking and Services. :213–218.
Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to be applicable to smart grids because they have large-capacity batteries. It is important that smart grid users be able to estimate surplus battery energy and/or surplus capacity in advance of deploying EVs. We constructed a database, the Energy COnsumption LOG (ECOLOG) Database System, to store vehicle daily logs acquired by smartphones placed in vehicles. The electrical energy consumption is estimated from GPS coordinate data using an EV energy-consumption model. This research specifically examines commuting with a vehicle used for same route every day. We corrected GPS coordinate data by map matching, and input the data to the EV energy consumption model. We regard the remaining battery capacity data acquired by the EV CAN as correct data. Then we evaluate the accuracy of driving energy consumption logs as estimated using the corrected GPS coordinate data.
2017-05-18
Tan, Li, Chen, Zizhong, Song, Shuaiwen Leon.  2015.  Scalable Energy Efficiency with Resilience for High Performance Computing Systems: A Quantitative Methodology. ACM Trans. Archit. Code Optim.. 12:35:1–35:27.

Ever-growing performance of supercomputers nowadays brings demanding requirements of energy efficiency and resilience, due to rapidly expanding size and duration in use of the large-scale computing systems. Many application/architecture-dependent parameters that determine energy efficiency and resilience individually have causal effects with each other, which directly affect the trade-offs among performance, energy efficiency and resilience at scale. To enable high-efficiency management for large-scale High-Performance Computing (HPC) systems nowadays, quantitatively understanding the entangled effects among performance, energy efficiency, and resilience is thus required. While previous work focuses on exploring energy-saving and resilience-enhancing opportunities separately, little has been done to theoretically and empirically investigate the interplay between energy efficiency and resilience at scale. In this article, by extending the Amdahl’s Law and the Karp-Flatt Metric, taking resilience into consideration, we quantitatively model the integrated energy efficiency in terms of performance per Watt and showcase the trade-offs among typical HPC parameters, such as number of cores, frequency/voltage, and failure rates. Experimental results for a wide spectrum of HPC benchmarks on two HPC systems show that the proposed models are accurate in extrapolating resilience-aware performance and energy efficiency, and capable of capturing the interplay among various energy-saving and resilience factors. Moreover, the models can help find the optimal HPC configuration for the highest integrated energy efficiency, in the presence of failures and applied resilience techniques.

2016-11-18
2016-11-17
Zbigniew Kalbarczyk, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.  2015.  Resilience of Cyber Physical Systems and Technologies.

Presented at a tutorial at the Symposium and Bootcamp on the Science of Security (HotSoS 2015), April 2015.

2016-11-15
Hui Lin, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Homa Alemzadeh, IBM TJ Watson, Daniel Chen, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champagin, Zbigniew Kalbarczyk, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Ravishankar K. Iyer, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.  2016.  Safety-critical Cyber-physical Attacks: Analysis, Detection, and Mitigation. Symposium and Bootcamp for the Science of Security (HotSoS 2016).

Today's cyber-physical systems (CPSs) can have very different characteristics in terms of control algorithms, configurations, underlying infrastructure, communication protocols, and real-time requirements. Despite these variations, they all face the threat of malicious attacks that exploit the vulnerabilities in the cyber domain as footholds to introduce safety violations in the physical processes. In this paper, we focus on a class of attacks that impact the physical processes without introducing anomalies in the cyber domain. We present the common challenges in detecting this type of attacks in the contexts of two very different CPSs (i.e., power grids and surgical robots). In addition, we present a general principle for detecting such cyber-physical attacks, which combine the knowledge of both cyber and physical domains to estimate the adverse consequences of malicious activities in a timely manner.

2015-05-05
Hussain, A., Faber, T., Braden, R., Benzel, T., Yardley, T., Jones, J., Nicol, D.M., Sanders, W.H., Edgar, T.W., Carroll, T.E. et al..  2014.  Enabling Collaborative Research for Security and Resiliency of Energy Cyber Physical Systems. Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems (DCOSS), 2014 IEEE International Conference on. :358-360.

The University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign (Illinois), Pacific Northwest National Labs (PNNL), and the University of Southern California Information Sciences Institute (USC-ISI) consortium is working toward providing tools and expertise to enable collaborative research to improve security and resiliency of cyber physical systems. In this extended abstract we discuss the challenges and the solution space. We demonstrate the feasibility of some of the proposed components through a wide-area situational awareness experiment for the power grid across the three sites.