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Feng, Xiaohua, Feng, Yunzhong, Dawam, Edward Swarlat.  2020.  Artificial Intelligence Cyber Security Strategy. 2020 IEEE Intl Conf on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, Intl Conf on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, Intl Conf on Cloud and Big Data Computing, Intl Conf on Cyber Science and Technology Congress (DASC/PiCom/CBDCom/CyberSciTech). :328—333.
Nowadays, STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) have never been treated so seriously before. Artificial Intelligence (AI) has played an important role currently in STEM. Under the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic crisis, coronavirus disease across over the world we are living in. Every government seek advices from scientist before making their strategic plan. Most of countries collect data from hospitals (and care home and so on in the society), carried out data analysis, using formula to make some AI models, to predict the potential development patterns, in order to make their government strategy. AI security become essential. If a security attack make the pattern wrong, the model is not a true prediction, that could result in thousands life loss. The potential consequence of this non-accurate forecast would be even worse. Therefore, take security into account during the forecast AI modelling, step-by-step data governance, will be significant. Cyber security should be applied during this kind of prediction process using AI deep learning technology and so on. Some in-depth discussion will follow.AI security impact is a principle concern in the world. It is also significant for both nature science and social science researchers to consider in the future. In particular, because many services are running on online devices, security defenses are essential. The results should have properly data governance with security. AI security strategy should be up to the top priority to influence governments and their citizens in the world. AI security will help governments' strategy makers to work reasonably balancing between technologies, socially and politics. In this paper, strategy related challenges of AI and Security will be discussed, along with suggestions AI cyber security and politics trade-off consideration from an initial planning stage to its near future further development.
Coulter, Rory, Zhang, Jun, Pan, Lei, Xiang, Yang.  2020.  Unmasking Windows Advanced Persistent Threat Execution. 2020 IEEE 19th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom). :268—276.

The advanced persistent threat (APT) landscape has been studied without quantifiable data, for which indicators of compromise (IoC) may be uniformly analyzed, replicated, or used to support security mechanisms. This work culminates extensive academic and industry APT analysis, not as an incremental step in existing approaches to APT detection, but as a new benchmark of APT related opportunity. We collect 15,259 APT IoC hashes, retrieving subsequent sandbox execution logs across 41 different file types. This work forms an initial focus on Windows-based threat detection. We present a novel Windows APT executable (APT-EXE) dataset, made available to the research community. Manual and statistical analysis of the APT-EXE dataset is conducted, along with supporting feature analysis. We draw upon repeat and common APT paths access, file types, and operations within the APT-EXE dataset to generalize APT execution footprints. A baseline case analysis successfully identifies a majority of 117 of 152 live APT samples from campaigns across 2018 and 2019.

Lee, Jae-Myeong, Hong, Sugwon.  2020.  Host-Oriented Approach to Cyber Security for the SCADA Systems. 2020 6th IEEE Congress on Information Science and Technology (CiSt). :151—155.
Recent cyberattacks targeting Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)/Industrial Control System(ICS) exploit weaknesses of host system software environment and take over the control of host processes in the host of the station network. We analyze the attack path of these attacks, which features how the attack hijacks the host in the network and compromises the operations of field device controllers. The paper proposes a host-based protection method, which can prevent malware penetration into the process memory by code injection attacks. The method consists of two protection schemes. One is to prevent file-based code injection such as DLL injection. The other is to prevent fileless code injection. The method traces changes in memory regions and determine whether the newly allocated memory is written with malicious codes. For this method, we show how a machine learning method can be adopted.
Chaudhry, Y. S., Sharma, U., Rana, A..  2020.  Enhancing Security Measures of AI Applications. 2020 8th International Conference on Reliability, Infocom Technologies and Optimization (Trends and Future Directions) (ICRITO). :713—716.

Artificial Intelligence also often referred to as machine learning is being labelled to as the future has been into light since more than a decade. Artificial Intelligence designated by the acronym AI has a vast scope of development and the developers have been working on with it constantly. AI is being associated with the existing objects in the world as well as with the ones that are about to arrive to improve them and make them more reliable. AI as it states in its name is intelligence, intelligence shown by the machines to work similar to humans and work on achieving the goals they are being provided with. Another application of AI could be to provide defenses against the present cyber threats, vehicle overrides etc. Also, AI might be intelligence but, in the end, it's still a bunch of codes, hence it is prone to be corrupted or misused by the world. To prevent the misuse of the technologies, it is necessary to deploy them with a sustainable defensive system as well. Obviously, there is going to be a default defense system but it is prone to be corrupted by the hackers or malfunctioning of the intelligence in certain scenarios which can result disastrous especially in case of Robotics. A proposal referred to as the “Guard Masking” has been offered in the following paper, to provide an alternative for securing Artificial Intelligence.

Mishra, A., Yadav, P..  2020.  Anomaly-based IDS to Detect Attack Using Various Artificial Intelligence Machine Learning Algorithms: A Review. 2nd International Conference on Data, Engineering and Applications (IDEA). :1—7.
Cyber-attacks are becoming more complex & increasing tasks in accurate intrusion detection (ID). Failure to avoid intrusion can reduce the reliability of security services, for example, integrity, Privacy & availability of data. The rapid proliferation of computer networks (CNs) has reformed the perception of network security. Easily accessible circumstances affect computer networks from many threats by hackers. Threats to a network are many & hypothetically devastating. Researchers have recognized an Intrusion Detection System (IDS) up to identifying attacks into a wide variety of environments. Several approaches to intrusion detection, usually identified as Signature-based Intrusion Detection Systems (SIDS) & Anomaly-based Intrusion Detection Systems (AIDS), were proposed in the literature to address computer safety hazards. This survey paper grants a review of current IDS, complete analysis of prominent new works & generally utilized dataset to evaluation determinations. It also introduces avoidance techniques utilized by attackers to avoid detection. This paper delivers a description of AIDS for attack detection. IDS is an applied research area in artificial intelligence (AI) that uses multiple machine learning algorithms.
Colbaugh, R., Glass, K., Bauer, T..  2013.  Dynamic information-theoretic measures for security informatics. 2013 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics. :45–49.
Many important security informatics problems require consideration of dynamical phenomena for their solution; examples include predicting the behavior of individuals in social networks and distinguishing malicious and innocent computer network activities based on activity traces. While information theory offers powerful tools for analyzing dynamical processes, to date the application of information-theoretic methods in security domains has focused on static analyses (e.g., cryptography, natural language processing). This paper leverages information-theoretic concepts and measures to quantify the similarity of pairs of stochastic dynamical systems, and shows that this capability can be used to solve important problems which arise in security applications. We begin by presenting a concise review of the information theory required for our development, and then address two challenging tasks: 1.) characterizing the way influence propagates through social networks, and 2.) distinguishing malware from legitimate software based on the instruction sequences of the disassembled programs. In each application, case studies involving real-world datasets demonstrate that the proposed techniques outperform standard methods.
Bogdan-Iulian, C., Vasilică-Gabriel, S., Alexandru, M. D., Nicolae, G., Andrei, V..  2020.  Improved Secure Internet of Things System using Web Services and Low Power Single-board Computers. 2020 International Conference on e-Health and Bioengineering (EHB). :1—5.

Internet of Things (IoT) systems are becoming widely used, which makes them to be a high-value target for both hackers and crackers. From gaining access to sensitive information to using them as bots for complex attacks, the variety of advantages after exploiting different security vulnerabilities makes the security of IoT devices to be one of the most challenging desideratum for cyber security experts. In this paper, we will propose a new IoT system, designed to ensure five data principles: confidentiality, integrity, availability, authentication and authorization. The innovative aspects are both the usage of a web-based communication and a custom dynamic data request structure.

Gressl, L., Krisper, M., Steger, C., Neffe, U..  2020.  Towards Security Attack and Risk Assessment during Early System Design. 2020 International Conference on Cyber Security and Protection of Digital Services (Cyber Security). :1—8.

The advent of the Internet of Things (IoT) and Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) enabled a new class of smart and interactive devices. With their continuous connectivity and their access to valuable information in both the digital and physical world, they are attractive targets for security attackers. Hence, with their integration into both the industry and consumer devices, they added a new surface for cybersecurity attacks. These potential threats call for special care of security vulnerabilities during the design of IoT devices and CPS. The design of secure systems is a complex task, especially if they must adhere to other constraints, such as performance, power consumption, and others. A range of design space exploration tools have been proposed in academics, which aim to support system designers in their task of finding the optimal selection of hardware components and task mappings. Said tools offer a limited way of modeling attack scenarios as constraints for a system under design. The framework proposed in this paper aims at closing this gap, offering system designers a way to consider security attacks and security risks during the early design phase. It offers designers to model security constraints from the view of potential attackers, assessing the probability of successful security attacks and security risk. The framework's feasibility and performance is demonstrated by revisiting a potential system design of an industry partner.

Dai, Q., Shi, L..  2020.  A Game-Theoretic Analysis of Cyber Attack-Mitigation in Centralized Feeder Automation System. 2020 IEEE Power Energy Society General Meeting (PESGM). :1–5.
The intelligent electronic devices widely deployed across the distribution network are inevitably making the feeder automation (FA) system more vulnerable to cyber-attacks, which would lead to disastrous socio-economic impacts. This paper proposes a three-stage game-theoretic framework that the defender allocates limited security resources to minimize the economic impacts on FA system while the attacker deploys limited attack resources to maximize the corresponding impacts. Meanwhile, the probability of successful attack is calculated based on the Bayesian attack graph, and a fault-tolerant location technique for centralized FA system is elaborately considered during analysis. The proposed game-theoretic framework is converted into a two-level zero-sum game model and solved by the particle swarm optimization (PSO) combined with a generalized reduced gradient algorithm. Finally, the proposed model is validated on distribution network for RBTS bus 2.
Kushal, T. R. B., Gao, Z., Wang, J., Illindala, M. S..  2020.  Causal Chain of Time Delay Attack on Synchronous Generator Control. 2020 IEEE Power Energy Society General Meeting (PESGM). :1—5.

Wide integration of information and communication technology (ICT) in modern power grids has brought many benefits as well as the risk of cyber attacks. A critical step towards defending grid cyber security is to understand the cyber-physical causal chain, which describes the progression of intrusion in cyber-space leading to the formation of consequences on the physical power grid. In this paper, we develop an attack vector for a time delay attack at load frequency control in the power grid. Distinct from existing works, which are separately focused on cyber intrusion, grid response, or testbed validation, the proposed attack vector for the first time provides a full cyber-physical causal chain. It targets specific vulnerabilities in the protocols, performs a denial-of-service (DoS) attack, induces the delays in control loop, and destabilizes grid frequency. The proposed attack vector is proved in theory, presented as an attack tree, and validated in an experimental environment. The results will provide valuable insights to develop security measures and robust controls against time delay attacks.

Murali, R., Velayutham, C. S..  2020.  A Conceptual Direction on Automatically Evolving Computer Malware using Genetic and Evolutionary Algorithms. 2020 International Conference on Inventive Computation Technologies (ICICT). :226—229.

The widespread use of computing devices and the heavy dependence on the internet has evolved the cyberspace to a cyber world - something comparable to an artificial world. This paper focuses on one of the major problems of the cyber world - cyber security or more specifically computer malware. We show that computer malware is a perfect example of an artificial ecosystem with a co-evolutionary predator-prey framework. We attempt to merge the two domains of biologically inspired computing and computer malware. Under the aegis of proactive defense, this paper discusses the possibilities, challenges and opportunities in fusing evolutionary computing techniques with malware creation.

Oosthoek, K., Doerr, C..  2020.  From Hodl to Heist: Analysis of Cyber Security Threats to Bitcoin Exchanges. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain and Cryptocurrency (ICBC). :1—9.

Bitcoin is gaining traction as an alternative store of value. Its market capitalization transcends all other cryptocurrencies in the market. But its high monetary value also makes it an attractive target to cyber criminal actors. Hacking campaigns usually target the weakest points in an ecosystem. In Bitcoin, these are currently the exchange platforms. As each exchange breach potentially decreases Bitcoin's market value by billions, it is a threat not only to direct victims, but to everyone owning Bitcoin. Based on an extensive analysis of 36 breaches of Bitcoin exchanges, we show the attack patterns used to exploit Bitcoin exchange platforms using an industry standard for reporting intelligence on cyber security breaches. Based on this we are able to provide an overview of the most common attack vectors, showing that all except three hacks were possible due to relatively lax security. We also show that while the security regimen of Bitcoin exchanges is not on par with other financial service providers, the use of stolen credentials, which does not require any hacking, is decreasing. We also show that the amount of BTC taken during a breach is decreasing, as well as the exchanges that terminate after being breached. With exchanges being targeted by nation-state hacking groups, security needs to be a first concern.

Kuppa, A., Le-Khac, N.-A..  2020.  Black Box Attacks on Explainable Artificial Intelligence(XAI) methods in Cyber Security. 2020 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN). :1–8.

Cybersecurity community is slowly leveraging Machine Learning (ML) to combat ever evolving threats. One of the biggest drivers for successful adoption of these models is how well domain experts and users are able to understand and trust their functionality. As these black-box models are being employed to make important predictions, the demand for transparency and explainability is increasing from the stakeholders.Explanations supporting the output of ML models are crucial in cyber security, where experts require far more information from the model than a simple binary output for their analysis. Recent approaches in the literature have focused on three different areas: (a) creating and improving explainability methods which help users better understand the internal workings of ML models and their outputs; (b) attacks on interpreters in white box setting; (c) defining the exact properties and metrics of the explanations generated by models. However, they have not covered, the security properties and threat models relevant to cybersecurity domain, and attacks on explainable models in black box settings.In this paper, we bridge this gap by proposing a taxonomy for Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) methods, covering various security properties and threat models relevant to cyber security domain. We design a novel black box attack for analyzing the consistency, correctness and confidence security properties of gradient based XAI methods. We validate our proposed system on 3 security-relevant data-sets and models, and demonstrate that the method achieves attacker's goal of misleading both the classifier and explanation report and, only explainability method without affecting the classifier output. Our evaluation of the proposed approach shows promising results and can help in designing secure and robust XAI methods.

Liu, J., Xiao, K., Luo, L., Li, Y., Chen, L..  2020.  An intrusion detection system integrating network-level intrusion detection and host-level intrusion detection. 2020 IEEE 20th International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security (QRS). :122—129.
With the rapid development of Internet, the issue of cyber security has increasingly gained more attention. An intrusion Detection System (IDS) is an effective technique to defend cyber-attacks and reduce security losses. However, the challenge of IDS lies in the diversity of cyber-attackers and the frequently-changing data requiring a flexible and efficient solution. To address this problem, machine learning approaches are being applied in the IDS field. In this paper, we propose an efficient scalable neural-network-based hybrid IDS framework with the combination of Host-level IDS (HIDS) and Network-level IDS (NIDS). We applied the autoencoders (AE) to NIDS and designed HIDS using word embedding and convolutional neural network. To evaluate the IDS, many experiments are performed on the public datasets NSL-KDD and ADFA. It can detect many attacks and reduce the security risk with high efficiency and excellent scalability.
Lansley, M., Kapetanakis, S., Polatidis, N..  2020.  SEADer++ v2: Detecting Social Engineering Attacks using Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning. 2020 International Conference on INnovations in Intelligent SysTems and Applications (INISTA). :1–6.
Social engineering attacks are well known attacks in the cyberspace and relatively easy to try and implement because no technical knowledge is required. In various online environments such as business domains where customers talk through a chat service with employees or in social networks potential hackers can try to manipulate other people by employing social attacks against them to gain information that will benefit them in future attacks. Thus, we have used a number of natural language processing steps and a machine learning algorithm to identify potential attacks. The proposed method has been tested on a semi-synthetic dataset and it is shown to be both practical and effective.
Başkaya, D., Samet, R..  2020.  DDoS Attacks Detection by Using Machine Learning Methods on Online Systems. 2020 5th International Conference on Computer Science and Engineering (UBMK). :52—57.
DDoS attacks impose serious threats to many large or small organizations; therefore DDoS attacks have to be detected as soon as possible. In this study, a methodology to detect DDoS attacks is proposed and implemented on online systems. In the scope of the proposed methodology, Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP), Random Forest (RF), K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), C-Support Vector Machine (SVC) machine learning methods are used with scaling and feature reduction preprocessing methods and then effects of preprocesses on detection accuracy rates of HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) flood, TCP SYN (Transport Control Protocol Synchronize) flood, UDP (User Datagram Protocol) flood and ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) flood DDoS attacks are analyzed. Obtained results showed that DDoS attacks can be detected with high accuracy of 99.2%.
Purohit, S., Calyam, P., Wang, S., Yempalla, R., Varghese, J..  2020.  DefenseChain: Consortium Blockchain for Cyber Threat Intelligence Sharing and Defense. 2020 2nd Conference on Blockchain Research Applications for Innovative Networks and Services (BRAINS). :112—119.
Cloud-hosted applications are prone to targeted attacks such as DDoS, advanced persistent threats, cryptojacking which threaten service availability. Recently, methods for threat information sharing and defense require co-operation and trust between multiple domains/entities. There is a need for mechanisms that establish distributed trust to allow for such a collective defense. In this paper, we present a novel threat intelligence sharing and defense system, namely “DefenseChain”, to allow organizations to have incentive-based and trustworthy co-operation to mitigate the impact of cyber attacks. Our solution approach features a consortium Blockchain platform to obtain threat data and select suitable peers to help with attack detection and mitigation. We propose an economic model for creation and sustenance of the consortium with peers through a reputation estimation scheme that uses `Quality of Detection' and `Quality of Mitigation' metrics. Our evaluation experiments with DefenseChain implementation are performed on an Open Cloud testbed with Hyperledger Composer and in a simulation environment. Our results show that the DefenseChain system overall performs better than state-of-the-art decision making schemes in choosing the most appropriate detector and mitigator peers. In addition, we show that our DefenseChain achieves better performance trade-offs in terms of metrics such as detection time, mitigation time and attack reoccurence rate. Lastly, our validation results demonstrate that our DefenseChain can effectively identify rational/irrational service providers.
Gillen, R. E., Anderson, L. A., Craig, C., Johnson, J., Columbia, A., Anderson, R., Craig, A., Scott, S. L..  2020.  Design and Implementation of Full-Scale Industrial Control System Test Bed for Assessing Cyber-Security Defenses. 2020 IEEE 21st International Symposium on "A World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks" (WoWMoM). :341—346.
In response to the increasing awareness of the Ethernet-based threat surface of industrial control systems (ICS), both the research and commercial communities are responding with ICS-specific security solutions. Unfortunately, many of the properties of ICS environments that contribute to the extent of this threat surface (e.g. age of devices, inability or unwillingness to patch, criticality of the system) similarly prevent the proper testing and evaluation of these security solutions. Production environments are often too fragile to introduce unvetted technology and most organizations lack test environments that are sufficiently consistent with production to yield actionable results. Cost and space requirements prevent the creation of mirrored physical environments leading many to look towards simulation or virtualization. Examples in literature provide various approaches to building ICS test beds, though most of these suffer from a lack of realism due to contrived scenarios, synthetic data and other compromises. In this paper, we provide a design methodology for building highly realistic ICS test beds for validating cybersecurity defenses. We then apply that methodology to the design and building of a specific test bed and describe the results and experimental use cases.
Nakadai, N., Iseki, T., Hayashi, M..  2020.  Improving the Security Strength of Iseki’s Fully Homomorphic Encryption. 2020 35th International Technical Conference on Circuits/Systems, Computers and Communications (ITC-CSCC). :299–304.
This paper proposes a method that offers much higher security for Iseki's fully homomorphic encryption (FHE), a recently proposed secure computation scheme. The key idea is re-encrypting already encrypted data. This second encryption is executed using new common keys, whereby two or more encryptions offer much stronger security.
Rashid, A., Siddique, M. J., Ahmed, S. M..  2020.  Machine and Deep Learning Based Comparative Analysis Using Hybrid Approaches for Intrusion Detection System. 2020 3rd International Conference on Advancements in Computational Sciences (ICACS). :1—9.

Intrusion detection is one of the most prominent and challenging problem faced by cybersecurity organizations. Intrusion Detection System (IDS) plays a vital role in identifying network security threats. It protects the network for vulnerable source code, viruses, worms and unauthorized intruders for many intranet/internet applications. Despite many open source APIs and tools for intrusion detection, there are still many network security problems exist. These problems are handled through the proper pre-processing, normalization, feature selection and ranking on benchmark dataset attributes prior to the enforcement of self-learning-based classification algorithms. In this paper, we have performed a comprehensive comparative analysis of the benchmark datasets NSL-KDD and CIDDS-001. For getting optimal results, we have used the hybrid feature selection and ranking methods before applying self-learning (Machine / Deep Learning) classification algorithmic approaches such as SVM, Naïve Bayes, k-NN, Neural Networks, DNN and DAE. We have analyzed the performance of IDS through some prominent performance indicator metrics such as Accuracy, Precision, Recall and F1-Score. The experimental results show that k-NN, SVM, NN and DNN classifiers perform approx. 100% accuracy regarding performance evaluation metrics on the NSL-KDD dataset whereas k-NN and Naïve Bayes classifiers perform approx. 99% accuracy on the CIDDS-001 dataset.

Sandoval, S., Thulasiraman, P..  2019.  Cyber Security Assessment of the Robot Operating System 2 for Aerial Networks. 2019 IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon). :1—8.

The Robot Operating System (ROS) is a widely adopted standard robotic middleware. However, its preliminary design is devoid of any network security features. Military grade unmanned systems must be guarded against network threats. ROS 2 is built upon the Data Distribution Service (DDS) standard and is designed to provide solutions to identified ROS 1 security vulnerabilities by incorporating authentication, encryption, and process profile features, which rely on public key infrastructure. The Department of Defense is looking to use ROS 2 for its military-centric robotics platform. This paper seeks to demonstrate that ROS 2 and its DDS security architecture can serve as a functional platform for use in military grade unmanned systems, particularly in unmanned Naval aerial swarms. In this paper, we focus on the viability of ROS 2 to safeguard communications between swarms and a ground control station (GCS). We test ROS 2's ability to mitigate and withstand certain cyber threats, specifically that of rogue nodes injecting unauthorized data and accessing services that will disable parts of the UAV swarm. We use the Gazebo robotics simulator to target individual UAVs to ascertain the effectiveness of our attack vectors under specific conditions. We demonstrate the effectiveness of ROS 2 in mitigating the chosen attack vectors but observed a measurable operational delay within our simulations.

Wang, X., Herwono, I., Cerbo, F. D., Kearney, P., Shackleton, M..  2018.  Enabling Cyber Security Data Sharing for Large-scale Enterprises Using Managed Security Services. 2018 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1—7.
Large enterprises and organizations from both private and public sectors typically outsource a platform solution, as part of the Managed Security Services (MSSs), from 3rd party providers (MSSPs) to monitor and analyze their data containing cyber security information. Sharing such data among these large entities is believed to improve their effectiveness and efficiency at tackling cybercrimes, via improved analytics and insights. However, MSS platform customers currently are not able or not willing to share data among themselves because of multiple reasons, including privacy and confidentiality concerns, even when they are using the same MSS platform. Therefore any proposed mechanism or technique to address such a challenge need to ensure that sharing is achieved in a secure and controlled way. In this paper, we propose a new architecture and use case driven designs to enable confidential, flexible and collaborative data sharing among such organizations using the same MSS platform. MSS platform is a complex environment where different stakeholders, including authorized MSSP personnel and customers' own users, have access to the same platform but with different types of rights and tasks. Hence we make every effort to improve the usability of the platform supporting sharing while keeping the existing rights and tasks intact. As an innovative and pioneering attempt to address the challenge of data sharing in the MSS platform, we hope to encourage further work to follow so that confidential and collaborative sharing eventually happens among MSS platform customers.
Goyal, Y., Sharma, A..  2019.  A Semantic Machine Learning Approach for Cyber Security Monitoring. 2019 3rd International Conference on Computing Methodologies and Communication (ICCMC). :439—442.
Security refers to precautions designed to shield the availability and integrity of information exchanged among the digital global community. Information safety measure typically protects the virtual facts from unauthorized sources to get a right of entry to, disclosure, manipulation, alteration or destruction on both hardware and software technologies. According to an evaluation through experts operating in the place of information safety, some of the new cyber-attacks are keep on emerging in all the business processes. As a stop result of the analyses done, it's been determined that although the level of risk is not excessive in maximum of the attacks, it's far a severe risk for important data and the severity of those attacks is prolonged. Prior safety structures has been established to monitor various cyber-threats, predominantly using a gadget processed data or alerts for showing each deterministic and stochastic styles. The principal finding for deterministic patterns in cyber- attacks is that they're neither unbiased nor random over the years. Consequently, the quantity of assaults in the past helps to monitor the range of destiny attacks. The deterministic styles can often be leveraged to generate moderately correct monitoring.
Wheelus, C., Bou-Harb, E., Zhu, X..  2018.  Tackling Class Imbalance in Cyber Security Datasets. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration (IRI). :229–232.
It is clear that cyber-attacks are a danger that must be addressed with great resolve, as they threaten the information infrastructure upon which we all depend. Many studies have been published expressing varying levels of success with machine learning approaches to combating cyber-attacks, but many modern studies still focus on training and evaluating with very outdated datasets containing old attacks that are no longer a threat, and also lack data on new attacks. Recent datasets like UNSW-NB15 and SANTA have been produced to address this problem. Even so, these modern datasets suffer from class imbalance, which reduces the efficacy of predictive models trained using these datasets. Herein we evaluate several pre-processing methods for addressing the class imbalance problem; using several of the most popular machine learning algorithms and a variant of UNSW-NB15 based upon the attributes from the SANTA dataset.
Rahman, S., Aburub, H., Mekonnen, Y., Sarwat, A. I..  2018.  A Study of EV BMS Cyber Security Based on Neural Network SOC Prediction. 2018 IEEE/PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition (T D). :1—5.

Recent changes to greenhouse gas emission policies are catalyzing the electric vehicle (EV) market making it readily accessible to consumers. While there are challenges that arise with dense deployment of EVs, one of the major future concerns is cyber security threat. In this paper, cyber security threats in the form of tampering with EV battery's State of Charge (SOC) was explored. A Back Propagation (BP) Neural Network (NN) was trained and tested based on experimental data to estimate SOC of battery under normal operation and cyber-attack scenarios. NeuralWare software was used to run scenarios. Different statistic metrics of the predicted values were compared against the actual values of the specific battery tested to measure the stability and accuracy of the proposed BP network under different operating conditions. The results showed that BP NN was able to capture and detect the false entries due to a cyber-attack on its network.