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2022-05-05
Gupt, Krishn Kumar, Kshirsagar, Meghana, Sullivan, Joseph P., Ryan, Conor.  2021.  Automatic Test Case Generation for Prime Field Elliptic Curve Cryptographic Circuits. 2021 IEEE 17th International Colloquium on Signal Processing Its Applications (CSPA). :121—126.
Elliptic curve is a major area of research due to its application in elliptic curve cryptography. Due to their small key sizes, they offer the twofold advantage of reduced storage and transmission requirements. This also results in faster execution times. The authors propose an architecture to automatically generate test cases, for verification of elliptic curve operational circuits, based on user-defined prime field and the parameters used in the circuit to be tested. The ECC test case generations are based on the Galois field arithmetic operations which were the subject of previous work by the authors. One of the strengths of elliptic curve mathematics is its simplicity, which involves just three points (P, Q, and R), which pass through a line on the curve. The test cases generate points for a user-defined prime field which sequentially selects the input vector points (P and/or Q), to calculate the resultant output vector (R) easily. The testbench proposed here targets field programmable gate array (FPGAs) platforms and experimental results for ECC test case generation on different prime fields are presented, while ModelSim is used to validate the correctness of the ECC operations.
2021-11-08
Aitchison, Callum, Buckle, Roman, Ch'ng, Alvin, Clarke, Christian, Malley, Jacob, Halak, Basel.  2020.  On the Integration of Physically Unclonable Functions into ARM TrustZone Security Technology. 2020 European Conference on Circuit Theory and Design (ECCTD). :1–4.
As Internet of Things (IoT) devices are increasingly used in industry and become further integrated into our daily lives the security of such devices is of paramount concern. Ensuring that the large amount of information that these devices collect is protected and only accessible to authenticated users is a critical requirement of the industry. One potentially inexpensive way to improve device security utilises a Physically Unclonable Function (PUF) to generate a unique random response per device. This random response can be generated in such a way that it can be regenerated reliably and repeatably allowing the response to be considered a signature for each device. This signature could then be used for authentication or key generation purposes, improving trust in IoT devices. The advantage of a PUF based system is that the response does not need to be stored in nonvolatile memory as it is regenerated on demand, hardening the system against physical attacks. With SoC FPGAs being inexpensive and widely available there is potential for their use in both industrial and consumer applications as an additional layer of hardware security. In this paper we investigate and implement a Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) based around a PUF solely implemented in the FPGA fabric on a Xilinx Zynq-7000 SoC FPGA. The PUF response is used to seed a generic entropy maximisation function or Pseudorandom Number Generator (PRNG) with a system controller capable of encrypting data to be useful only to the device. This system interacts with a software platform running in the ARM TrustZone on the ARM Cortex core in the SoC, which handles requests between user programs and the FPGA. The proposed PUF-based security module can generate unique random keys able to pass all NIST tests and protects against physical attacks on buses and nonvolatile memories. These improvements are achieved at a cost of fewer than half the resources on the Zynq-7000 SoC FPGA.
2021-09-30
Kelly, Martin S., Mayes, Keith.  2020.  High Precision Laser Fault Injection Using Low-Cost Components.. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Hardware Oriented Security and Trust (HOST). :219–228.
This paper demonstrates that it is possible to execute sophisticated and powerful fault injection attacks on microcontrollers using low-cost equipment and readily available components. Earlier work had implied that powerful lasers and high grade optics frequently used to execute such attacks were being underutilized and that attacks were equally effective when using low-power settings and imprecise focus. This work has exploited these earlier findings to develop a low-cost laser workstation capable of generating multiple discrete faults with timing accuracy capable of targeting consecutive instruction cycles. We have shown that the capabilities of this new device exceed those of the expensive laboratory equipment typically used in related work. We describe a simplified fault model to categorize the effects of induced errors on running code and use it, along with the new device, to reevaluate the efficacy of different defensive coding techniques. This has enabled us to demonstrate an efficient hybrid defense that outperforms the individual defenses on our chosen target. This approach enables device programmers to select an appropriate compromise between the extremes of undefended code and unusable overdefended code, to do so specifically for their chosen device and without the need for prohibitively expensive equipment. This work has particular relevance in the burgeoning IoT world where many small companies with limited budgets are deploying low-cost microprocessors in ever more security sensitive roles.
2021-09-01
Kumar, Keshav, Ramkumar, K.R., Kaur, Amanpreet.  2020.  A Design Implementation and Comparative Analysis of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Algorithm on FPGA. 2020 8th International Conference on Reliability, Infocom Technologies and Optimization (Trends and Future Directions) (ICRITO). :182—185.
As the technology is getting advanced continuously the problem for the security of data is also increasing. The hackers are equipped with new advanced tools and techniques to break any security system. Therefore people are getting more concern about data security. The data security is achieved by either software or hardware implementations. In this work Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) device is used for hardware implementation since these devices are less complex, more flexible and provide more efficiency. This work focuses on the hardware execution of one of the security algorithms that is the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm. The AES algorithm is executed on Vivado 2014.2 ISE Design Suite and the results are observed on 28 nanometers (nm) Artix-7 FPGA. This work discusses the design implementation of the AES algorithm and the resources consumed in implementing the AES design on Artix-7 FPGA. The resources which are consumed are as follows-Slice Register (SR), Look-Up Tables (LUTs), Input/Output (I/O) and Global Buffer (BUFG).
2021-08-18
Tsavos, Marios, Sklavos, Nicolas, Alexiou, George Ph..  2020.  Lightweight Security Data Streaming, Based on Reconfigurable Logic, for FPGA Platform. 2020 23rd Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design (DSD). :277—280.
Alongside the rapid expansion of Internet of Things (IoT), and network evolution (5G, 6G technologies), comes the need for security of higher level and less hardware demanding modules. New cryptographic systems are developed, in order to satisfy the special needs of security, that have emerged in modern applications. In this paper, a novel lightweight data streaming system, is proposed, which operates in alternative modes. Each one of them, performs efficiently as one of three in total, stream ciphering modules. The operation of the proposed system, is based on reconfigurable logic. It aims at a lower hardware utilization and good performance, at the same time. In addition, in order to have a fair and detailed comparison, a second one design is also integrated and introduced. This one proposes a conventional architecture, consisting of the same three stream ciphering modes, implemented on the same device, as separate operation modules. The FPGA synthesis results prove that the proposed reconfigurable design achieves to minimize the area resources, from 18% to 30%, compared to the conventional one, while maintaining high performance values, for the supported modes.
Pandey, Jai Gopal, Laddha, Ayush, Samaddar, Sashwat Deb.  2020.  A Lightweight VLSI Architecture for RECTANGLE Cipher and its Implementation on an FPGA. 2020 24th International Symposium on VLSI Design and Test (VDAT). :1—6.
Block ciphers are one of the most fundamental building blocks for information and network security. In recent years, the need for lightweight ciphers has dramatically been increased due to their wide use in low-cost cryptosystems, wireless networks and resource-constrained embedded devices including RFIDs, sensor nodes, smart cards etc. In this paper, an efficient lightweight architecture for RECTANGLE block cipher has been proposed. The architecture is suitable for extremely hardware-constrained environments and multiple platforms due to its support of bit-slice technique. The proposed architecture has been synthesized and implemented on Xilinx Virtex-5 xc5vlx110t-1ff1136 field programmable gate array (FPGA) device. Implementation results have been presented and compared with the existing architectures and have shown commensurable performance. Also, an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) implementation of the architecture is done on SCL 180 nm CMOS technology where it consumes 2362 gate equivalent (GE).
Oda, Maya, Ueno, Rei, Inoue, Akiko, Minematsu, Kazuhiko, Homma, Naofumi.  2020.  PMAC++: Incremental MAC Scheme Adaptable to Lightweight Block Ciphers. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS). :1—4.
This paper presents a new incremental parallelizable message authentication code (MAC) scheme adaptable to lightweight block ciphers for memory integrity verification. The highlight of the proposed scheme is to achieve both incremental update capability and sufficient security bound with lightweight block ciphers, which is a novel feature. We extend the conventional parallelizable MAC to realize the incremental update capability while keeping the original security bound. We prove that a comparable security bound can be obtained even if this change is incorporated. We also present a hardware architecture for the proposed MAC scheme with lightweight block ciphers and demonstrate the effectiveness through FPGA implementation. The evaluation results indicate that the proposed MAC hardware achieves 3.4 times improvement in the latency-area product for the tag update compared with the conventional MAC.
2021-07-27
Reviriego, Pedro, Rottenstreich, Ori.  2020.  Pollution Attacks on Counting Bloom Filters for Black Box Adversaries. 2020 16th International Conference on Network and Service Management (CNSM). :1–7.
The wide adoption of Bloom filters makes their security an important issue to be addressed. For example, an attacker can increase their error rate through polluting and eventually saturating the filter by inserting elements that set to one a large number of positions in the filter. This is known as a pollution attack and requires that the attacker knows the hash functions used to construct the filter. Such information is not available in many practical settings and in addition a simple protection can be achieved through using a random salt in the hash functions. The same pollution attacks can also be done to counting Bloom filters that in addition to insertions and lookups support removals. This paper considers pollution attacks on counting Bloom filters. We describe two novel pollution attacks that do not require any knowledge of the counting Bloom filter implementation details and evaluate them. These methods show that a counting Bloom filter is vulnerable to pollution attacks even when the attacker has only access to the filter as a black box to perform insertions, removals, and lookups.
2021-06-28
Kumar Saha, Sujan, Bobda, Christophe.  2020.  FPGA Accelerated Embedded System Security Through Hardware Isolation. 2020 Asian Hardware Oriented Security and Trust Symposium (AsianHOST). :1–6.
Modern embedded systems include on-chip FPGA along with processors to meet the high computation demand by providing flexibility to users to add custom hardware accelerators. Any confidential or sensitive information may be processed by those custom accelerators or hardware Intellectual Properties (IPs). Existing accelerator usage models in embedded systems do not prevent illegal access to the IPs, which can be a severe security breach. In this paper, we present a hardware-software co-design approach for secured FPGA accelerated embedded system design. Our proposed security framework inherits Mandatory Access Control (MAC) based authentication policies running at software down to hardware accelerators in FPGA. It ensures secured processing of confidential data in the hardware to prevent software originated attacks at hardware IPs and information leaks. We have implemented a prototype of our proposed framework, which shows that it can be easily integrated while designing an embedded system with custom accelerator IPs. The experimental results show that the proposed framework establishes secured hardware execution with a negligible amount of area and performance overhead.
Latha Ch., Mary, Bazil Raj, A.A., Abhikshit, L..  2020.  Design and Implementation of a Secure Physical Unclonable Function In FPGA. 2020 Second International Conference on Inventive Research in Computing Applications (ICIRCA). :1083–1089.
A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is a digital Integrated Circuit made up of interconnected functional blocks, which can be programmed by the end-user to perform required logic functions. As FPGAs are re-programmable, partially re-configurable and have lowertime to market, FPGA has become a vital component in the field of electronics. FPGAs are undergoing many security issues as the adversaries are trying to make profits by replicating the original design, without any investment. The major security issues are cloning, counterfeiting, reverse engineering, Physical tampering, and insertion of malicious components, etc. So, there is a need for security of FPGAs. A Secret key must be embedded in an IC, to provide identification and authentication to it. Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) can provide these secret keys, by using the physical properties of the chip. These physical properties are not reproducible even by the manufacturer. Hence the responses produced by the PUF are unique for every individual chip. The method of generating unique binary signatures helps in cryptographic key generation, digital rights management, Intellectual Property (IP) protection, IC counterfeit prevention, and device authentication. The PUFs are very promising in signature generation in the field of hardware security. In this paper, the secret binary responses is generated with the help of a delay based Ring Oscillator PUF, which does not use a clock circuit in its architecture.
2021-06-01
Englund, Håkan, Lindskog, Niklas.  2020.  Secure acceleration on cloud-based FPGAs – FPGA enclaves. 2020 IEEE International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium Workshops (IPDPSW). :119—122.
FPGAs are becoming a common sight in cloud environments and new usage paradigms, such as FPGA-as-a-Service, have emerged. This development poses a challenge to traditional FPGA security models, as these are assuming trust between the user and the hardware owner. Currently, the user cannot keep bitstream nor data protected from the hardware owner in an FPGA-as-a-service setting. This paper proposes a security model where the chip manufacturer takes the role of root-of-trust to remedy these security problems. We suggest that the chip manufacturer creates a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI), used for user bitstream protection and data encryption, on each device. The chip manufacturer, rather than the hardware owner, also controls certain security-related peripherals. This allows the user to take control over a predefined part of the programmable logic and set up a protected enclave area. Hence, all user data can be provided in encrypted form and only be revealed inside the enclave area. In addition, our model enables secure and concurrent multi-tenant usage of remote FPGAs. To also consider the needs of the hardware owner, our solution includes bitstream certification and affirming that uploaded bitstreams have been vetted against maliciousness.
2021-05-25
Karimov, Madjit, Tashev, Komil, Rustamova, Sanobar.  2020.  Application of the Aho-Corasick algorithm to create a network intrusion detection system. 2020 International Conference on Information Science and Communications Technologies (ICISCT). :1—5.
One of the main goals of studying pattern matching techniques is their significant role in real-world applications, such as the intrusion detection systems branch. The purpose of the network attack detection systems NIDS is to protect the infocommunication network from unauthorized access. This article provides an analysis of the exact match and fuzzy matching methods, and discusses a new implementation of the classic Aho-Korasik pattern matching algorithm at the hardware level. The proposed approach to the implementation of the Aho-Korasik algorithm can make it possible to ensure the efficient use of resources, such as memory and energy.
2021-05-13
Luo, Yukui, Gongye, Cheng, Ren, Shaolei, Fei, Yunsi, Xu, Xiaolin.  2020.  Stealthy-Shutdown: Practical Remote Power Attacks in Multi - Tenant FPGAs. 2020 IEEE 38th International Conference on Computer Design (ICCD). :545–552.
With the deployment of artificial intelligent (AI) algorithms in a large variety of applications, there creates an increasing need for high-performance computing capabilities. As a result, different hardware platforms have been utilized for acceleration purposes. Among these hardware-based accelerators, the field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) have gained a lot of attention due to their re-programmable characteristics, which provide customized control logic and computing operators. For example, FPGAs have recently been adopted for on-demand cloud services by the leading cloud providers like Amazon and Microsoft, providing acceleration for various compute-intensive tasks. While the co-residency of multiple tenants on a cloud FPGA chip increases the efficiency of resource utilization, it also creates unique attack surfaces that are under-explored. In this paper, we exploit the vulnerability associated with the shared power distribution network on cloud FPGAs. We present a stealthy power attack that can be remotely launched by a malicious tenant, shutting down the entire chip and resulting in denial-of-service for other co-located benign tenants. Specifically, we propose stealthy-shutdown: a well-timed power attack that can be implemented in two steps: (1) an attacker monitors the realtime FPGA power-consumption detected by ring-oscillator-based voltage sensors, and (2) when capturing high power-consuming moments, i.e., the power consumption by other tenants is above a certain threshold, she/he injects a well-timed power load to shut down the FPGA system. Note that in the proposed attack strategy, the power load injected by the attacker only accounts for a small portion of the overall power consumption; therefore, such attack strategy remains stealthy to the cloud FPGA operator. We successfully implement and validate the proposed attack on three FPGA evaluation kits with running real-world applications. The proposed attack results in a stealthy-shutdown, demonstrating severe security concerns of co-tenancy on cloud FPGAs. We also offer two countermeasures that can mitigate such power attacks.
2021-03-29
Brazhnikov, S..  2020.  A Hardware Implementation of the SHA2 Hash Algorithms Using CMOS 28nm Technology. 2020 IEEE Conference of Russian Young Researchers in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (EIConRus). :1784–1786.
This article presents a hardware implementation review of a popular family of hash algorithms: Secure Hash Algorithm 2 (SHA2). It presents various schematic solutions and their assessments for 28 nm CMOS technology. Using this paper we can estimate the expected performance of the hardware hash accelerator based on the IC.
2021-03-22
Hikawa, H..  2020.  Nested Pipeline Hardware Self-Organizing Map for High Dimensional Vectors. 2020 27th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (ICECS). :1–4.
This paper proposes a hardware Self-Organizing Map (SOM) for high dimensional vectors. The proposed SOM is based on nested architecture with pipeline processing. Due to homogeneous modular structure, the nested architecture provides high expandability. The original nested SOM was designed to handle low-dimensional vectors with fully parallel computation, and it yielded very high performance. In this paper, the architecture is extended to handle much higher dimensional vectors by using sequential computation, which requires multiple clocks to process a single vector. To increase the performance, the proposed architecture employs pipeline computation, in which search of winner neuron and weight vector update are carried out simultaneously. Operable clock frequency for the system was 60 MHz, and its throughput reached 15012 million connection updates per second (MCUPS).
2021-03-15
Silitonga, A., Gassoumi, H., Becker, J..  2020.  MiteS: Software-based Microarchitectural Attacks and Countermeasures in networked AP SoC Platforms. 2020 IEEE 14th International Conference on Anti-counterfeiting, Security, and Identification (ASID). :65—71.

The impact of microarchitectural attacks in Personal Computers (PCs) can be further adapted to and observed in internetworked All Programmable System-on-Chip (AP SoC) platforms. This effort involves the access control or execution of Intellectual Property cores in the FPGA of an AP SoC Victim internetworked with an AP SoC Attacker via Internet Protocol (IP). Three conceptions of attacks were implemented: buffer overflow attack at the stack, return-oriented programming attack, and command-injection-based attack for dynamic reconfiguration in the FPGA. Indeed, a specific preventive countermeasure for each attack is proposed. The functionality of the countermeasures mainly comprises adapted words addition (stack protection) for the first and second attacks and multiple encryption for the third attack. In conclusion, the recommended countermeasures are realizable to counteract the implemented attacks.

Khuchit, U., Wu, L., Zhang, X., Yin, Y., Batsukh, A., Mongolyn, B., Chinbat, M..  2020.  Hardware Design of Polynomial Multiplication for Byte-Level Ring-LWE Based Cryptosystem. 2020 IEEE 14th International Conference on Anti-counterfeiting, Security, and Identification (ASID). :86–89.
An ideal lattice is defined over a ring learning with errors (Ring-LWE) problem. Polynomial multiplication over the ring is the most computational and time-consuming block in lattice-based cryptography. This paper presents the first hardware design of the polynomial multiplication for LAC, one of the Round-2 candidates of the NIST PQC Standardization Process, which has byte-level modulus p=251. The proposed architecture supports polynomial multiplications for different degree n (n=512/1024/2048). For designing the scheme, we used the Vivado HLS compiler, a high-level synthesis based hardware design methodology, which is able to optimize software algorithms into actual hardware products. The design of the scheme takes 274/280/291 FFs and 204/217/208 LUTs on the Xilinx Artix-7 family FPGA, requested by NIST PQC competition for hardware implementation. Multiplication core uses only 1/1/2 pieces of 18Kb BRAMs, 1/1/1 DSPs, and 90/94/95 slices on the board. Our timing result achieved in an alternative degree n with 5.052/4.3985/5.133ns.
2021-03-09
elazm, L. A. Abou, Ibrahim, S., Egila, M. G., Shawkey, H., Elsaid, M. K. H., El-Shafai, W., El-Samie, F. E. Abd.  2020.  Hardware Implementation of Cancellable Biometric Systems. 2020 Fourth International Conference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC). :1145–1152.

The use of biometrics in security applications may be vulnerable to several challenges of hacking. Thus, the emergence of cancellable biometrics becomes a suitable solution to this problem. This paper presents a one-way cancellable biometric transform that depends on 3D chaotic maps for face and fingerprint encryption. It aims to avoid cloning of original biometrics and allow the templates used by each user in different applications to be variable. The permutations achieved with the chaotic maps guarantee high security of the biometric templates, especially with the 3D implementation of the encryption algorithm. In addition, the paper presents a hardware implementation for this framework. The proposed algorithm also achieves good performance in the presence of low and moderate levels of noise. An experimental version of the proposed cancellable biometric system has been applied on FPGA model. The obtained results achieve a powerful performance of the proposed cancellable biometric system.

2021-02-15
Karthikeyan, S. Paramasivam, El-Razouk, H..  2020.  Horizontal Correlation Analysis of Elliptic Curve Diffie Hellman. 2020 3rd International Conference on Information and Computer Technologies (ICICT). :511–519.
The world is facing a new revolutionary technology transition, Internet of things (IoT). IoT systems requires secure connectivity of distributed entities, including in-field sensors. For such external devices, Side Channel Analysis poses a potential threat as it does not require complete knowledge about the crypto algorithm. In this work, we perform Horizontal Correlation Power Analysis (HCPA) which is a type of Side Channel Analysis (SCA) over the Elliptic Curve Diffie Hellman (ECDH) key exchange protocol. ChipWhisperer (CW) by NewAE Technologies is an open source toolchain which is utilized to perform the HCPA by using CW toolchain. To best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to implemented ECDH on Artix-7 FPGA for HCPA. We compare our correlation results with the results from AES -128 bits provided by CW. Our point of attack is the Double and Add algorithm which is used to perform Scalar multiplication in ECC. We obtain a maximum correlation of 7% for the key guess using the HCPA. We also discuss about the possible cause for lower correlation and few potentials ways to improve it. In Addition to HCPA we also perform Simple Power Analysis (SPA) (visual) for ECDH, to guess the trailing zeros in the 128-bit secret key for different power traces.
Klann, D., Aftowicz, M., Kabin, I., Dyka, Z., Langendoerfer, P..  2020.  Integration and Implementation of four different Elliptic Curves in a single high-speed Design considering SCA. 2020 15th Design Technology of Integrated Systems in Nanoscale Era (DTIS). :1–2.
Modern communication systems rely heavily on cryptography to ensure authenticity, confidentiality and integrity of exchanged messages. Elliptic Curve Cryptography 1 (ECC) is one of the common used standard methods for encrypting and signing messages. In this paper we present our implementation of a design supporting four different NIST Elliptic Curves. The design supports two B-curves (B-233, B-283) and two P-curves (P-224, P-256). The implemented designs are sharing the following hardware components bus, multiplier, alu and registers. By implementing the 4 curves in a single design and reusing some resources we reduced the area 20 by 14% compared to a design without resource sharing. Compared to a pure software solution running on an Arm Cortex A9 operating at 1GHz, our design ported to a FPGA is 1.2 to 6 times faster.
Rahman, M. S., Hossain, M. S..  2020.  Highly Area-Efficient Implementation of Modular Multiplication for Elliptic Curve Cryptography. 2020 IEEE Region 10 Symposium (TENSYMP). :1078–1081.
The core operation of public-key cryptosystem e.g. elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) is the modular multiplication. It is the heavy computational block and the most costly cryptographic operation. Area-Efficient hardware architecture of 256-bit modified interleaved modular multiplication (IMM) is represented in this research. The novelty of this work is the device area minimization with keeping computational time as minimum as possible i.e., 2.09 μs for ECC with Koblitz Curve. In this research, IMM is implemented using a fewer number of resources such as 421 slices, 514 FF pairs, 522 registers, 1770 LUTs, and 1463 LUT-FF pairs. This hardware implementation provides a maximum frequency of 122.883 MHz and area-time (AT) product 0.879 and throughput rate 122.49 Mbps on Virtex-7 FPGA technology which is better than the other related recent works. The proposed design saves approximately 61.75% to 93.16% slice LUTs, 95.76% to 133.69% LUT-FF pairs, and 103.8% to 168.65% occupied slices on the Virtex-7 FPGA for the 256-bit prime field. This proposed hardware implementation design also keeps less AT product which is the most crucial parameter for ECC operation. To our best knowledge, this design provides better performance than the recently available designs for IMM for ECC operation.
2021-02-10
Giechaskiel, I., Rasmussen, K. B., Szefer, J..  2020.  C3APSULe: Cross-FPGA Covert-Channel Attacks through Power Supply Unit Leakage. 2020 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). :1728—1741.
Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are versatile, reconfigurable integrated circuits that can be used as hardware accelerators to process highly-sensitive data. Leaking this data and associated cryptographic keys, however, can undermine a system's security. To prevent potentially unintentional interactions that could break separation of privilege between different data center tenants, FPGAs in cloud environments are currently dedicated on a per-user basis. Nevertheless, while the FPGAs themselves are not shared among different users, other parts of the data center infrastructure are. This paper specifically shows for the first time that powering FPGAs, CPUs, and GPUs through the same power supply unit (PSU) can be exploited in FPGA-to-FPGA, CPU-to-FPGA, and GPU-to-FPGA covert channels between independent boards. These covert channels can operate remotely, without the need for physical access to, or modifications of, the boards. To demonstrate the attacks, this paper uses a novel combination of "sensing" and "stressing" ring oscillators as receivers on the sink FPGA. Further, ring oscillators are used as transmitters on the source FPGA. The transmitting and receiving circuits are used to determine the presence of the leakage on off-the-shelf Xilinx boards containing Artix 7 and Kintex 7 FPGA chips. Experiments are conducted with PSUs by two vendors, as well as CPUs and GPUs of different generations. Moreover, different sizes and types of ring oscillators are also tested. In addition, this work discusses potential countermeasures to mitigate the impact of the cross-board leakage. The results of this paper highlight the dangers of shared power supply units in local and cloud FPGAs, and therefore a fundamental need to re-think FPGA security for shared infrastructures.
2021-01-22
Bouteghrine, B., Rabiai, M., Tanougast, C., Sadoudi, S..  2019.  FPGA Implementation of Internet Key Exchange Based on Chaotic Cryptosystem. 2019 10th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems: Technology and Applications (IDAACS). 1:384–387.

In network communication domain, one of the most widely used protocol for encrypting data and securing communications is the IPSec protocol. The design of this protocol is based on two main phases which are: exchanging keys phase and transferring data phase. In this paper we focus on enhancing the exchanging keys phase which is included in the security association (SA), using a chaotic cryptosystem. Initially IPSec is based on the Internet Key Exchange (IKE) protocol for establishing the SA. Actually IKE protocol is in charge for negotiating the connection and for authenticating both nodes. However; using IKE gives rise to a major problem related to security attack such as the Man in the Middle Attack. In this paper, we propose a chaotic cryptosystem solution to generate SA file for the connected nodes of the network. By solving a 4-Dimension chaotic system, a SA file that includes 128-bit keys will be established. The proposed solution is implemented and tested using FPGA boards.

Ramos, E. de Almeida, Filho, J. C. B., Reis, R..  2019.  Cryptography by Synchronization of Hopfield Neural Networks that Simulate Chaotic Signals Generated by the Human Body. 2019 17th IEEE International New Circuits and Systems Conference (NEWCAS). :1–4.

In this work, an asymmetric cryptography method for information security was developed, inspired by the fact that the human body generates chaotic signals, and these signals can be used to create sequences of random numbers. Encryption circuit was implemented in a Reconfigurable Hardware (FPGA). To encode and decode an image, the chaotic synchronization between two dynamic systems, such as Hopfield neural networks (HNNs), was used to simulate chaotic signals. The notion of Homotopy, an argument of topological nature, was used for the synchronization. The results show efficiency when compared to state of the art, in terms of image correlation, histogram analysis and hardware implementation.

2021-01-18
Barbareschi, M., Barone, S., Mazzeo, A., Mazzocca, N..  2019.  Efficient Reed-Muller Implementation for Fuzzy Extractor Schemes. 2019 14th International Conference on Design Technology of Integrated Systems In Nanoscale Era (DTIS). :1–2.
Nowadays, physical tampering and counterfeiting of electronic devices are still an important security problem and have a great impact on large-scale and distributed applications, such as Internet-of-Things. Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) have the potential to be a fundamental means to guarantee intrinsic hardware security, since they promise immunity against most of known attack models. However, inner nature of PUF circuits hinders a wider adoption since responses turn out to be noisy and not stable during time. To overcome this issue, most of PUF implementations require a fuzzy extraction scheme, able to recover responses stability by exploiting error correction codes (ECCs). In this paper, we propose a Reed-Muller (RM) ECC design, meant to be embedded into a fuzzy extractor, that can be efficiently configured in terms of area/delay constraints in order to get reliable responses from PUFs. We provide implementation details and experimental evidences of area/delay efficiency through syntheses on medium-range FPGA device.