Visible to the public Biblio

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Ceška, Milan, Havlena, Vojtech, Holík, Lukáš, Korenek, Jan, Lengál, Ondrej, Matoušek, Denis, Matoušek, Jirí, Semric, Jakub, Vojnar, Tomáš.  2019.  Deep Packet Inspection in FPGAs via Approximate Nondeterministic Automata. 2019 IEEE 27th Annual International Symposium on Field-Programmable Custom Computing Machines (FCCM). :109—117.
Deep packet inspection via regular expression (RE) matching is a crucial task of network intrusion detection systems (IDSes), which secure Internet connection against attacks and suspicious network traffic. Monitoring high-speed computer networks (100 Gbps and faster) in a single-box solution demands that the RE matching, traditionally based on finite automata (FAs), is accelerated in hardware. In this paper, we describe a novel FPGA architecture for RE matching that is able to process network traffic beyond 100 Gbps. The key idea is to reduce the required FPGA resources by leveraging approximate nondeterministic FAs (NFAs). The NFAs are compiled into a multi-stage architecture starting with the least precise stage with a high throughput and ending with the most precise stage with a low throughput. To obtain the reduced NFAs, we propose new approximate reduction techniques that take into account the profile of the network traffic. Our experiments showed that using our approach, we were able to perform matching of large sets of REs from SNORT, a popular IDS, on unprecedented network speeds.
León, Raquel, Domínguez, Adrián, Carballo, Pedro P., Núñez, Antonio.  2019.  Deep Packet Inspection Through Virtual Platforms using System-On-Chip FPGAs. 2019 XXXIV Conference on Design of Circuits and Integrated Systems (DCIS). :1—6.
Virtual platforms provide a full hardware/software platform to study device limitations in an early stages of the design flow and to develop software without requiring a physical implementation. This paper describes the development process of a virtual platform for Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) hardware accelerators by using Transaction Level Modeling (TLM). We propose two DPI architectures oriented to System-on-Chip FPGA. The first architecture, CPU-DMA based architecture, is a hybrid CPU/FPGA where the packets are filtered in the software domain. The second architecture, Hardware-IP based architecture, is mainly implemented in the hardware domain. We have created two virtual platforms and performed the simulation, the debugging and the analysis of the hardware/software features, in order to compare results for both architectures.
Kaljic, Enio, Maric, Almir, Njemcevic, Pamela.  2019.  DoS attack mitigation in SDN networks using a deeply programmable packet-switching node based on a hybrid FPGA/CPU data plane architecture. 2019 XXVII International Conference on Information, Communication and Automation Technologies (ICAT). :1–6.
The application of the concept of software-defined networks (SDN) has, on the one hand, led to the simplification and reduction of switches price, and on the other hand, has created a significant number of problems related to the security of the SDN network. In several studies was noted that these problems are related to the lack of flexibility and programmability of the data plane, which is likely first to suffer potential denial-of-service (DoS) attacks. One possible way to overcome this problem is to increase the flexibility of the data plane by increasing the depth of programmability of the packet-switching nodes below the level of flow table management. Therefore, this paper investigates the opportunity of using the architecture of deeply programmable packet-switching nodes (DPPSN) in the implementation of a firewall. Then, an architectural model of the firewall based on a hybrid FPGA/CPU data plane architecture has been proposed and implemented. Realized firewall supports three models of DoS attacks mitigation: DoS traffic filtering on the output interface, DoS traffic filtering on the input interface, and DoS attack redirection to the honeypot. Experimental evaluation of the implemented firewall has shown that DoS traffic filtering at the input interface is the best strategy for DoS attack mitigation, which justified the application of the concept of deep network programmability.
Grochol, David, Sekanina, Lukas.  2018.  Fast Reconfigurable Hash Functions for Network Flow Hashing in FPGAs. 2018 NASA/ESA Conference on Adaptive Hardware and Systems (AHS). :257—263.

Efficient monitoring of high speed computer networks operating with a 100 Gigabit per second (Gbps) data throughput requires a suitable hardware acceleration of its key components. We present a platform capable of automated designing of hash functions suitable for network flow hashing. The platform employs a multi-objective linear genetic programming developed for the hash function design. We evolved high-quality hash functions and implemented them in a field programmable gate array (FPGA). Several evolved hash functions were combined together in order to form a new reconfigurable hash function. The proposed reconfigurable design significantly reduces the area on a chip while the maximum operation frequency remains very close to the fastest hash functions. Properties of evolved hash functions were compared with the state-of-the-art hash functions in terms of the quality of hashing, area and operation frequency in the FPGA.

Ito, Toshitaka, Itotani, Yuri, Wakabayashi, Shin'ichi, Nagayama, Shinobu, Inagi, Masato.  2018.  A Nearest Neighbor Search Engine Using Distance-Based Hashing. 2018 International Conference on Field-Programmable Technology (FPT). :150—157.
This paper proposes an FPGA-based nearest neighbor search engine for high-dimensional data, in which nearest neighbor search is performed based on distance-based hashing. The proposed hardware search engine implements a nearest neighbor search algorithm based on an extension of flexible distance-based hashing (FDH, for short), which finds an exact solution with high probability. The proposed engine is a parallel processing and pipelined circuit so that search results can be obtained in a short execution time. Experimental results show the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed engine.
Abdelhadi, Ameer M.S., Bouganis, Christos-Savvas, Constantinides, George A..  2019.  Accelerated Approximate Nearest Neighbors Search Through Hierarchical Product Quantization. 2019 International Conference on Field-Programmable Technology (ICFPT). :90—98.
A fundamental recurring task in many machine learning applications is the search for the Nearest Neighbor in high dimensional metric spaces. Towards answering queries in large scale problems, state-of-the-art methods employ Approximate Nearest Neighbors (ANN) search, a search that returns the nearest neighbor with high probability, as well as techniques that compress the dataset. Product-Quantization (PQ) based ANN search methods have demonstrated state-of-the-art performance in several problems, including classification, regression and information retrieval. The dataset is encoded into a Cartesian product of multiple low-dimensional codebooks, enabling faster search and higher compression. Being intrinsically parallel, PQ-based ANN search approaches are amendable for hardware acceleration. This paper proposes a novel Hierarchical PQ (HPQ) based ANN search method as well as an FPGA-tailored architecture for its implementation that outperforms current state of the art systems. HPQ gradually refines the search space, reducing the number of data compares and enabling a pipelined search. The mapping of the architecture on a Stratix 10 FPGA device demonstrates over ×250 speedups over current state-of-the-art systems, opening the space for addressing larger datasets and/or improving the query times of current systems.
Balijabudda, Venkata Sreekanth, Thapar, Dhruv, Santikellur, Pranesh, Chakraborty, Rajat Subhra, Chakrabarti, Indrajit.  2019.  Design of a Chaotic Oscillator based Model Building Attack Resistant Arbiter PUF. 2019 Asian Hardware Oriented Security and Trust Symposium (AsianHOST). :1—6.

Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) are vulnerable to various modelling attacks. The chaotic behaviour of oscillating systems can be leveraged to improve their security against these attacks. We have integrated an Arbiter PUF implemented on a FPGA with Chua's oscillator circuit to obtain robust final responses. These responses are tested against conventional Machine Learning and Deep Learning attacks for verifying security of the design. It has been found that such a design is robust with prediction accuracy of nearly 50%. Moreover, the quality of the PUF architecture is evaluated for uniformity and uniqueness metrics and Monte Carlo analysis at varying temperatures is performed for determining reliability.

Xiao-Mei, Liu, Yong, Qian.  2019.  Research on LED lightweight cryptographic algorithm based on RFID tag of Internet of things. 2019 IEEE 8th Joint International Information Technology and Artificial Intelligence Conference (ITAIC). :1717–1720.
In recent years, with the rapid development of Internet of things, RFID tags have been widely used, in due to the chip used in radio frequency identification (RFID) tags is more demanding for resources, which also brings a great threat to the safety performance of cryptographic algorithms in differential power analysis (DPA). For this purpose, it is necessary to study the LED lightweight cryptography algorithm of RFID tags in the Internet of things, so as to explore a lightweight and secure cryptographic algorithm which can be applied to RFID Tags. In this paper, through the combination of Piccolo cryptographic algorithm and the new DPA protection technology threshold, we propose a LED lightweight cryptographic algorithm which can be applied to the RFID tag of the Internet of things. With the help of improve d exhaustive search and Boolean expression reconstruction, the two methods share the implementation of the S -box and the InvS-box, thereby effectively solves the burr threat problem of the S-box and the InvS-box in the sharing implementation process, the security performance of the algorithm is evaluated by the DPA attack of FPGA. The results show that the algorithm can achieve lightweight and security performance at the same time, can effectively meet the light and security requirements of RFID tag chip of Internet of things for cryptographic algorithms.
Takemoto, Shu, Nozaki, Yusuke, Yoshikawa, Masaya.  2019.  Statistical Power Analysis for IoT Device Oriented Encryption with Glitch Canceller. 2019 IEEE 11th International Workshop on Computational Intelligence and Applications (IWCIA). :73–76.

Big data which is collected by IoT devices is utilized in various businesses. For security and privacy, some data must be encrypted. IoT devices for encryption require not only to tamper resistance but also low latency and low power. PRINCE is one of the lowest latency cryptography. A glitch canceller reduces power consumption, although it affects tamper resistance. Therefore, this study evaluates the tamper resistance of dedicated hardware with glitch canceller for PRINCE by statistical power analysis and T-test. The evaluation experiments in this study performed on field-programmable gate array (FPGA), and the results revealed the vulnerability of dedicated hardware implementation with glitch canceller.

Nozaki, Yusuke, Yoshikawa, Masaya.  2019.  Countermeasure of Lightweight Physical Unclonable Function Against Side-Channel Attack. 2019 Cybersecurity and Cyberforensics Conference (CCC). :30–34.

In industrial internet of things, various devices are connected to external internet. For the connected devices, the authentication is very important in the viewpoint of security; therefore, physical unclonable functions (PUFs) have attracted attention as authentication techniques. On the other hand, the risk of modeling attacks on PUFs, which clone the function of PUFs mathematically, is pointed out. Therefore, a resistant-PUF such as a lightweight PUF has been proposed. However, new analytical methods (side-channel attacks: SCAs), which use side-channel information such as power or electromagnetic waves, have been proposed. The countermeasure method has also been proposed; however, an evaluation using actual devices has not been studied. Since PUFs use small production variations, the implementation evaluation is very important. Therefore, this study proposes a SCA countermeasure of the lightweight PUF. The proposed method is based on the previous studies, and maintains power consumption consistency during the generation of response. In experiments using a field programmable gate array, the measured power consumption was constant regardless of output values of the PUF could be confirmed. Then, experimental results showed that the predicted rate of the response was about 50 %, and the proposed method had a tamper resistance against SCAs.

Qiu, Tongsheng, Wang, Xianyi, Tian, Yusen, Du, Qifei, Sun, Yueqiang.  2019.  A System Design of Real-Time Narrowband Rfi Detection And Mitigation for Gnss-R Receiver. IGARSS 2019 - 2019 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium. :5167–5170.

With the rapid development of radio detection and wireless communication, narrowband radio-frequency interference (NB-RFI) is a serious threat for GNSS-R (global navigation satellite systems - reflectometry) receivers. However, interferometric GNSS-R (iGNSS-R) is more prone to the NB-RFIs than conventional GNSS-R (cGNSS-R), due to wider bandwidth and unclean replica. Therefore, there is strong demand of detecting and mitigating NB-RFIs for GNSS-R receivers, especially iGNSS-R receivers. Hence, focusing on working with high sampling rate and simplifying the fixed-point implementation on FPGA, this paper proposes a system design exploiting cascading IIR band-stop filters (BSFs) to suppress NB-RFIs. Furthermore, IIR BSF compared with IIR notch filter (NF) and IIR band-pass filter (BPF) is the merely choice that is able to mitigate both white narrowband interference (WNBI) and continuous wave interference (CWI) well. Finally, validation and evaluation are conducted, and then it is indicated that the system design can detect NB-RFIs and suppress WNBI and CWI effectively, which improves the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the Delay-Doppler map (DDM).

Khalil, Kasem, Eldash, Omar, Kumar, Ashok, Bayoumi, Magdy.  2019.  Self-Healing Approach for Hardware Neural Network Architecture. 2019 IEEE 62nd International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS). :622–625.
Neural Network is used in many applications and guarding its performance against faults is a research challenge. Self-healing neural network is a promising concept for achieving reliability, which is the ability to detect and fix a fault in the system automatically. Most of the current self-healing neural network are based on replication of hardware nodes which causes significant area overhead. The proposed self-healing approach results in a modest area overhead and it is suitable for complex neural network. The proposed method is based on a shared operation and a spare node in each layer which compensates for any faulty node in the layer. Each faulty node will be compensated by its neighbor node, and the neighbor node performs the faulty node as well as its own operations sequentially. In the case the neighbor is faulty, the spare node will compensate for it. The proposed method is implemented using VHDL and the simulation results are obtained using Altira 10 GX FPGA for a different number of nodes. The area overhead is very small for a complex network. The reliability of the proposed method is studied and compared with the traditional neural network.
Zhang, Junjie, Sun, Tianfu.  2019.  Multi-core Heterogeneous Video Processing System Design. 2019 IEEE 13th International Conference on Anti-counterfeiting, Security, and Identification (ASID). :178–182.
In order to accelerate the image processing speed, in this paper, a multi-core heterogeneous computing technology based on the Xilinx Zynq platform is proposed. The proposed technique could accelerate the real-time video image processing system through hardware acceleration. In order to verify the proposed technique, an Otsu binarized hardware-accelerated IP is designed in FPGA and interacts with ARM through the AXI bus. Compared with the existing homogeneous architecture processor computing, the image processing speed of the proposed technique with multi-core heterogeneous acceleration processing is significantly accelerated.
Ramu, Gandu, Mishra, Zeesha, Acharya, B..  2019.  Hardware implementation of Piccolo Encryption Algorithm for constrained RFID application. 2019 9th Annual Information Technology, Electromechanical Engineering and Microelectronics Conference (IEMECON). :85–89.
The deployment of smart devices in IoT applications are increasing with tremendous pace causing severe security concerns, as it trade most of private information. To counter that security issues in low resource applications, lightweight cryptographic algorithms have been introduced in recent past. In this paper we propose efficient hardware architecture of piccolo lightweight algorithm uses 64 bits block size with variable key size of length 80 and 128 bits. This paper introduces novel hardware architecture of piccolo-80, to supports high speed RFID security applications. Different design strategies are there to optimize the hardware metrics trade-off for particular application. The algorithm is implemented on different family of FPGAs with different devices to analyze the performance of design in 4 input LUTs and 6 input LUTs implementations. In addition, the results of hardware design are evaluated and compared with the most relevant lightweight block ciphers, shows the proposed architecture finds its utilization in terms of speed and area optimization from the hardware resources. The increment in throughput with optimized area of this architecture suggests that piccolo can applicable to implement for ultra-lightweight applications also.
Hu, Taifeng, Wu, Liji, Zhang, Xiangmin, Yin, Yanzhao, Yang, Yijun.  2019.  Hardware Trojan Detection Combine with Machine Learning: an SVM-based Detection Approach. 2019 IEEE 13th International Conference on Anti-counterfeiting, Security, and Identification (ASID). :202–206.
With the application of integrated circuits (ICs) appears in all aspects of life, whether an IC is security and reliable has caused increasing worry which is of significant necessity. An attacker can achieve the malicious purpose by adding or removing some modules, so called hardware Trojans (HTs). In this paper, we use side-channel analysis (SCA) and support vector machine (SVM) classifier to determine whether there is a Trojan in the circuit. We use SAKURA-G circuit board with Xilinx SPARTAN-6 to complete our experiment. Results show that the Trojan detection rate is up to 93% and the classification accuracy is up to 91.8475%.
Li, Shu, Tian, Jianwei, Zhu, Hongyu, Tian, Zheng, Qiao, Hong, Li, Xi, Liu, Jie.  2019.  Research in Fast Modular Exponentiation Algorithm Based on FPGA. 2019 11th International Conference on Measuring Technology and Mechatronics Automation (ICMTMA). :79–82.
Modular exponentiation of large number is widely applied in public-key cryptosystem, also the bottleneck in the computation of public-key algorithm. Modular multiplication is the key calculation in modular exponentiation. An improved Montgomery algorithm is utilized to achieve modular multiplication and converted into systolic array to increase the running frequency. A high efficiency fast modular exponentiation structure is developed to bring the best out of the modular multiplication module and enhance the ability of defending timing attacks and power attacks. For 1024-bit key operands, the design can be run at 170MHz and finish a modular exponentiation in 4,402,374 clock cycles.
Guha, Krishnendu, Saha, Debasri, Chakrabarti, Amlan.  2019.  Zero Knowledge Authentication for Reuse of IPs in Reconfigurable Platforms. TENCON 2019 - 2019 IEEE Region 10 Conference (TENCON). :2040–2045.
A key challenge of the embedded era is to ensure trust in reuse of intellectual properties (IPs), which facilitates reduction of design cost and meeting of stringent marketing deadlines. Determining source of the IPs or their authenticity is a key metric to facilitate safe reuse of IPs. Though physical unclonable functions solves this problem for application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) IPs, authentication strategies for reconfigurable IPs (RIPs) or IPs of reconfigurable hardware platforms like field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are still in their infancy. Existing authentication techniques for RIPs that relies on verification of proof of authentication (PoA) mark embedded in the RIP by the RIP producers, leak useful clues about the PoA mark. This results in replication and implantation of the PoA mark in fake RIPs. This not only causes loss to authorized second hand RIP users, but also poses risk to the reputation of the RIP producers. We propose a zero knowledge authentication strategy for safe reusing of RIPs. The PoA of an RIP producer is kept secret and verification is carried out based on traversal times from the initial point to several intermediate points of the embedded PoA when the RIPs configure an FPGA. Such delays are user specific and cannot be replicated as these depend on intrinsic properties of the base semiconductor material of the FPGA, which is unique and never same as that of another FPGA. Experimental results validate our proposed mechanism. High strength even for low overhead ISCAS benchmarks, considered as PoA for experimentation depict the prospects of our proposed methodology.
Thiemann, Benjamin, Feiten, Linus, Raiola, Pascal, Becker, Bernd, Sauer, Matthias.  2019.  On Integrating Lightweight Encryption in Reconfigurable Scan Networks. 2019 IEEE European Test Symposium (ETS). :1–6.

Reconfigurable Scan Networks (RSNs) are a powerful tool for testing and maintenance of embedded systems, since they allow for flexible access to on-chip instrumentation such as built-in self-test and debug modules. RSNs, however, can be also exploited by malicious users as a side-channel in order to gain information about sensitive data or intellectual property and to recover secret keys. Hence, implementing appropriate counter-measures to secure the access to and data integrity of embedded instrumentation is of high importance. In this paper we present a novel hardware and software combined approach to ensure data privacy in IEEE Std 1687 (IJTAG) RSNs. To do so, both a secure IJTAG compliant plug-and-play instrument wrapper and a versatile software toolchain are introduced. The wrapper demonstrates the necessary architectural adaptations required when using a lightweight stream cipher, whereas the software toolchain provides a seamless integration of the testing workflow with stream cipher. The applicability of the method is demonstrated by an FPGA-based implementation. We report on the performance of the developed instrument wrapper, which is empirically shown to have only a small impact on the workflow in terms of hardware overhead, operational costs and test time overhead.

Gay, Maël, Paxian, Tobias, Upadhyaya, Devanshi, Becker, Bernd, Polian, Ilia.  2019.  Hardware-Oriented Algebraic Fault Attack Framework with Multiple Fault Injection Support. 2019 Workshop on Fault Diagnosis and Tolerance in Cryptography (FDTC). :25–32.

The evaluation of fault attacks on security-critical hardware implementations of cryptographic primitives is an important concern. In such regards, we have created a framework for automated construction of fault attacks on hardware realization of ciphers. The framework can be used to quickly evaluate any cipher implementations, including any optimisations. It takes the circuit description of the cipher and the fault model as input. The output of the framework is a set of algebraic equations, such as conjunctive normal form (CNF) clauses, which is then fed to a SAT solver. We consider both attacking an actual implementation of a cipher on an field-programmable gate array (FPGA) platform using a fault injector and the evaluation of an early design of the cipher using idealized fault models. We report the successful application of our hardware-oriented framework to a collection of ciphers, including the advanced encryption standard (AES), and the lightweight block ciphers LED and PRESENT. The corresponding results and a discussion of the impact to different fault models on our framework are shown. Moreover, we report significant improvements compared to similar frameworks, such as speedups or more advanced features. Our framework is the first algebraic fault attack (AFA) tool to evaluate the state-of-the art cipher LED-64, PRESENT and full-scale AES using only hardware-oriented structural cipher descriptions.

Chawla, Nikhil, Singh, Arvind, Rahman, Nael Mizanur, Kar, Monodeep, Mukhopadhyay, Saibal.  2019.  Extracting Side-Channel Leakage from Round Unrolled Implementations of Lightweight Ciphers. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Hardware Oriented Security and Trust (HOST). :31–40.

Energy efficiency and security is a critical requirement for computing at edge nodes. Unrolled architectures for lightweight cryptographic algorithms have been shown to be energy-efficient, providing higher performance while meeting resource constraints. Hardware implementations of unrolled datapaths have also been shown to be resistant to side channel analysis (SCA) attacks due to a reduction in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and an increased complexity in the leakage model. This paper demonstrates optimal leakage models and an improved CFA attack which makes it feasible to extract first-order side-channel leakages from combinational logic in the initial rounds of unrolled datapaths. Several leakage models, targeting initial rounds, are explored and 1-bit hamming weight (HW) based leakage model is shown to be an optimal choice. Additionally, multi-band narrow bandpass filtering techniques in conjunction with correlation frequency analysis (CFA) is demonstrated to improve SNR by up to 4×, attributed to the removal of the misalignment effect in combinational logics and signal isolation. The improved CFA attack is performed on side channel signatures acquired for 7-round unrolled SIMON datapaths, implemented on Sakura-G (XILINX spartan 6, 45nm) based FPGA platform and a 24× reduction in minimum-traces-to-disclose (MTD) for revealing 80% of the key bits is demonstrated with respect to conventional time domain correlation power analysis (CPA). Finally, the proposed method is successfully applied to a fully-unrolled datapath for PRINCE and a parallel round-based datapath for Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm to demonstrate its general applicability.

Elaguech, Amira, Kchaou, Afef, El Hadj Youssef, Wajih, Ben Othman, Kamel, Machhout, Mohsen.  2019.  Performance evaluation of lightweight Block Ciphers in soft-core processor. 2019 19th International Conference on Sciences and Techniques of Automatic Control and Computer Engineering (STA). :101–105.

The Internet of Things (IoT) and RFID devices are essential parts of the new information technology generation. They are mostly characterized by their limited power and computing resources. In order to ensure their security under computing and power constraints, a number of lightweight cryptography algorithms has emerged. This paper outlines the performance analysis of six lightweight blocks crypto ciphers with different structures - LED, PRESENT, HIGHT, LBlock, PICCOLO and TWINE on a LEON3 open source processor. We have implemented these crypto ciphers on the FPGA board using the C language and the LEON3 processor. Analysis of these crypto ciphers is evaluated after considering various benchmark parameters like throughput, execution time, CPU performance, AHB bandwidth, Simulator performance, and speed. These metrics are tested with different key sizes provided by each crypto algorithm.

Venkatesh, K, Pratibha, K, Annadurai, Suganya, Kuppusamy, Lakshmi.  2019.  Reconfigurable Architecture to Speed-up Modular Exponentiation. 2019 International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology (ICCST). :1-6.

Diffie-Hellman and RSA encryption/decryption involve computationally intensive cryptographic operations such as modular exponentiation. Computing modular exponentiation using appropriate pre-computed pairs of bases and exponents was first proposed by Boyko et al. In this paper, we present a reconfigurable architecture for pre-computation methods to compute modular exponentiation and thereby speeding up RSA and Diffie-Hellman like protocols. We choose Diffie-Hellman key pair (a, ga mod p) to illustrate the efficiency of Boyko et al's scheme in hardware architecture that stores pre-computed values ai and corresponding gai in individual block RAM. We use a Pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) to randomly choose ai values that are added and corresponding gai values are multiplied using modular multiplier to arrive at a new pair (a, ga mod p). Further, we present the advantage of using Montgomery and interleaved methods for batch multiplication to optimise time and area. We show that a 1024-bit modular exponentiation can be performed in less than 73$μ$s at a clock rate of 200MHz on a Xilinx Virtex 7 FPGA.

Nozaki, Yusuke, Yoshikawa, Masaya.  2018.  Area Constraint Aware Physical Unclonable Function for Intelligence Module. 2018 3rd International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Applications (ICCIA). :205-209.

Artificial intelligence technology such as neural network (NN) is widely used in intelligence module for Internet of Things (IoT). On the other hand, the risk of illegal attacks for IoT devices is pointed out; therefore, security countermeasures such as an authentication are very important. In the field of hardware security, the physical unclonable functions (PUFs) have been attracted attention as authentication techniques to prevent the semiconductor counterfeits. However, implementation of the dedicated hardware for both of NN and PUF increases circuit area. Therefore, this study proposes a new area constraint aware PUF for intelligence module. The proposed PUF utilizes the propagation delay time from input layer to output layer of NN. To share component for operation, the proposed PUF reduces the circuit area. Experiments using a field programmable gate array evaluate circuit area and PUF performance. In the result of circuit area, the proposed PUF was smaller than the conventional PUFs was showed. Then, in the PUF performance evaluation, for steadiness, diffuseness, and uniqueness, favorable results were obtained.

Riyadi, Munawar A., Khafid, M. Reza Aulia, Pandapotan, Natanael, Prakoso, Teguh.  2018.  A Secure Voice Channel using Chaotic Cryptography Algorithm. 2018 International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (ICECOS). :141–146.
A secure voice communications channel is on demand to avoid unwanted eavesdropping of voice messages. This paper reports the development of communicaiton channel prototype equipped with Chaotic cryptographic algorithm with Cipher Feedback mode, implemented on FPGA due to its high processing speed and low delay required for voice channel. Two Spartan-3 FPGA board was used for the purpose, one as transmitter in encryption process and the other as receiver of decryption process. The experimental tests reveal that the voice channel is successfully secured using the encryption-decription cycle for asynchronous communication. In the non-ecrypted channel, the average values of MSE, delay, and THD-N parameters are 0.3513 V2, 202 μs, and 17.52%, respectively, while the secured channel produce MSE of 0.3794 V2, delay 202 μs, and THD-N 20.45%. Therefore, the original information sent in the encrypted channel can be restored with similar quality compared to the non-encrypted channel.
Jalilian, Maisam, Ahmadi, Arash, Ahmadi, Majid.  2018.  Hardware Implementation of A Chaotic Pseudo Random Number Generator Based on 3D Chaotic System without Equilibrium. 2018 25th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (ICECS). :741–744.
Deterministic chaotic systems have been studied and developed in various fields of research. Dynamical systems with chaotic dynamics have different applications in communication, security and computation. Chaotic behaviors can be created by even simple nonlinear systems which can be implemented on low-cost hardware platforms. This paper presents a high-speed and low-cost hardware of three-dimensional chaotic flows without equilibrium. The proposed chaotic hardware is able to reproduce the main mechanism and dynamical behavior of the 3D chaotic flows observed in simulation, then a Chaotic Pseudo Random Number Generator is designed based on a 3D chaotic system. The proposed hardware is implemented with low computational overhead on an FPGA board, as a proof of concept. This low-cost chaotic hardware can be utilized in embedded and lightweight systems for a variety of chaotic based digital systems such as digital communication systems, and cryptography systems based on chaos theory for Security and IoT applications.