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2021-04-09
Smith, B., Feather, M. S., Huntsberger, T., Bocchino, R..  2020.  Software Assurance of Autonomous Spacecraft Control. 2020 Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS). :1—7.
Summary & Conclusions: The work described addresses assurance of a planning and execution software system being added to an in-orbit CubeSat to demonstrate autonomous control of that spacecraft. Our focus was on how to develop assurance of the correct operation of the added software in its operational context, our approach to which was to use an assurance case to guide and organize the information involved. The relatively manageable magnitude of the CubeSat and its autonomy demonstration experiment made it plausible to try out our assurance approach in a relatively short timeframe. Additionally, the time was ripe to inject useful assurance results into the ongoing development and testing of the autonomy demonstration. In conducting this, we sought to answer several questions about our assurance approach. The questions, and the conclusions we reached, are as follows: 1. Question: Would our approach to assurance apply to the introduction of a planning and execution software into an existing system? Conclusion: Yes. The use of an assurance case helped focus our attention on the more challenging aspects, notably the interactions between the added software and the existing software system into which it was being introduced. This guided us to choose a hazard analysis method specifically for software interactions. In addition, we were able to automate generation of assurance case elements from the hazard analysis' tabular representation. 2. Question: Would our methods prove understandable to the software engineers tasked with integrating the software into the CubeSat's existing system? Conclusion: Somewhat. In interim discussions with the software engineers we found the assurance case style, of decomposing an argument into smaller pieces, to be useful and understandable to organize discussion. Ultimately however we did not persuade them to adopt assurance cases as the means to present review information. We attribute this to reluctance to deviate from JPL's tried and true style of holding reviews. For the CubeSat project as a whole, hosting an autonomy demonstration was already a novelty. Combining this with presentation of review information via an assurance case, with which our reviewers would be unaccustomed, would have exacerbated the unfamiliarity. 3. Question: Would conducting our methods prove to be compatible with the (limited) time available of the software engineers? Conclusion: Yes. We used a series of six brief meetings (approximately one hour each) with the development team to first identify the interactions as the area on which to focus, and to then perform the hazard analysis on those interactions. We used the meetings to confirm, or correct as necessary, our understanding of the software system and the spacecraft context. Between meetings we studied the existing software documentation, did preliminary analyses by ourselves, and documented the results in a concise form suitable for discussion with the team. 4. Question: Would our methods yield useful results to the software engineers? Conclusion: Yes. The hazard analysis systematically confirmed existing hazards' mitigations, and drew attention to a mitigation whose implementation needed particular care. In some cases, the analysis identified potential hazards - and what to do about them - should some of the more sophisticated capabilities of the planning and execution software be used. These capabilities, not exercised in the initial experiments on the CubeSat, may be used in future experiments. We remain involved with the developers as they prepare for these future experiments, so our analysis results will be of benefit as these proceed.
2021-03-01
Dubey, R., Louis, S. J., Sengupta, S..  2020.  Evolving Dynamically Reconfiguring UAV-hosted Mesh Networks. 2020 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC). :1–8.
We use potential fields tuned by genetic algorithms to dynamically reconFigure unmanned aerial vehicles networks to serve user bandwidth needs. Such flying network base stations have applications in the many domains needing quick temporary networked communications capabilities such as search and rescue in remote areas and security and defense in overwatch and scouting. Starting with an initial deployment that covers an area and discovers how users are distributed across this area of interest, tuned potential fields specify subsequent movement. A genetic algorithm tunes potential field parameters to reposition UAVs to create and maintain a mesh network that maximizes user bandwidth coverage and network lifetime. Results show that our evolutionary adaptive network deployment algorithm outperforms the current state of the art by better repositioning the unmanned aerial vehicles to provide longer coverage lifetimes while serving bandwidth requirements. The parameters found by the genetic algorithm on four training scenarios with different user distributions lead to better performance than achieved by the state of the art. Furthermore, these parameters also lead to superior performance in three never before seen scenarios indicating that our algorithm finds parameter values that generalize to new scenarios with different user distributions.
2021-02-03
Lyons, J. B., Nam, C. S., Jessup, S. A., Vo, T. Q., Wynne, K. T..  2020.  The Role of Individual Differences as Predictors of Trust in Autonomous Security Robots. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Human-Machine Systems (ICHMS). :1—5.

This research used an Autonomous Security Robot (ASR) scenario to examine public reactions to a robot that possesses the authority and capability to inflict harm on a human. Individual differences in terms of personality and Perfect Automation Schema (PAS) were examined as predictors of trust in the ASR. Participants (N=316) from Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) rated their trust of the ASR and desire to use ASRs in public and military contexts following a 2-minute video depicting the robot interacting with three research confederates. The video showed the robot using force against one of the three confederates with a non-lethal device. Results demonstrated that individual differences factors were related to trust and desired use of the ASR. Agreeableness and both facets of the PAS (high expectations and all-or-none beliefs) demonstrated unique associations with trust using multiple regression techniques. Agreeableness, intellect, and high expectations were uniquely related to desired use for both public and military domains. This study showed that individual differences influence trust and one's desired use of ASRs, demonstrating that societal reactions to ASRs may be subject to variation among individuals.

Razin, Y. S., Feigh, K. M..  2020.  Hitting the Road: Exploring Human-Robot Trust for Self-Driving Vehicles. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Human-Machine Systems (ICHMS). :1—6.

With self-driving cars making their way on to our roads, we ask not what it would take for them to gain acceptance among consumers, but what impact they may have on other drivers. How they will be perceived and whether they will be trusted will likely have a major effect on traffic flow and vehicular safety. This work first undertakes an exploratory factor analysis to validate a trust scale for human-robot interaction and shows how previously validated metrics and general trust theory support a more complete model of trust that has increased applicability in the driving domain. We experimentally test this expanded model in the context of human-automation interaction during simulated driving, revealing how using these dimensions uncovers significant biases within human-robot trust that may have particularly deleterious effects when it comes to sharing our future roads with automated vehicles.

Illing, B., Westhoven, M., Gaspers, B., Smets, N., Brüggemann, B., Mathew, T..  2020.  Evaluation of Immersive Teleoperation Systems using Standardized Tasks and Measurements. 2020 29th IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN). :278—285.

Despite advances regarding autonomous functionality for robots, teleoperation remains a means for performing delicate tasks in safety critical contexts like explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) and ambiguous environments. Immersive stereoscopic displays have been proposed and developed in this regard, but bring about their own specific problems, e.g., simulator sickness. This work builds upon standardized test environments to yield reproducible comparisons between different robotic platforms. The focus was placed on testing three optronic systems of differing degrees of immersion: (1) A laptop display showing multiple monoscopic camera views, (2) an off-the-shelf virtual reality headset coupled with a pantilt-based stereoscopic camera, and (3) a so-called Telepresence Unit, providing fast pan, tilt, yaw rotation, stereoscopic view, and spatial audio. Stereoscopic systems yielded significant faster task completion only for the maneuvering task. As expected, they also induced Simulator Sickness among other results. However, the amount of Simulator Sickness varied between both stereoscopic systems. Collected data suggests that a higher degree of immersion combined with careful system design can reduce the to-be-expected increase of Simulator Sickness compared to the monoscopic camera baseline while making the interface subjectively more effective for certain tasks.

2020-12-28
Slavic, G., Campo, D., Baydoun, M., Marin, P., Martin, D., Marcenaro, L., Regazzoni, C..  2020.  Anomaly Detection in Video Data Based on Probabilistic Latent Space Models. 2020 IEEE Conference on Evolving and Adaptive Intelligent Systems (EAIS). :1—8.

This paper proposes a method for detecting anomalies in video data. A Variational Autoencoder (VAE) is used for reducing the dimensionality of video frames, generating latent space information that is comparable to low-dimensional sensory data (e.g., positioning, steering angle), making feasible the development of a consistent multi-modal architecture for autonomous vehicles. An Adapted Markov Jump Particle Filter defined by discrete and continuous inference levels is employed to predict the following frames and detecting anomalies in new video sequences. Our method is evaluated on different video scenarios where a semi-autonomous vehicle performs a set of tasks in a closed environment.

2020-12-17
Kumar, R., Sarupria, G., Panwala, V., Shah, S., Shah, N..  2020.  Power Efficient Smart Home with Voice Assistant. 2020 11th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1—5.

The popularity and demand of home automation has increased exponentially in recent years because of the ease it provides. Recently, development has been done in this domain and few systems have been proposed that either use voice assistants or application for controlling the electrical appliances. However; less emphasis is laid on power efficiency and this system cannot be integrated with the existing appliances and hence, the entire system needs to be upgraded adding to a lot of additional cost in purchasing new appliances. In this research, the objective is to design such a system that emphasises on power efficiency as well as can be integrated with the already existing appliances. NodeMCU, along with Raspberry Pi, Firebase realtime database, is used to create a system that accomplishes such endeavours and can control relays, which can control these appliances without the need of replacing them. The experiments in this paper demonstrate triggering of electrical appliances using voice assistant, fire alarm on the basis of flame sensor and temperature sensor. Moreover; use of android application was presented for operating electrical appliances from a remote location. Lastly, the system can be modified by adding security cameras, smart blinds, robot vacuums etc.

Promyslov, V., Semenkov, K..  2020.  Security Threats for Autonomous and Remotely Controlled Vehicles in Smart City. 2020 International Conference on Industrial Engineering, Applications and Manufacturing (ICIEAM). :1—5.

The paper presents a comprehensive model of cybersecurity threats for a system of autonomous and remotely controlled vehicles (AV) in the environment of a smart city. The main focus in the security context is given to the “integrity” property. That property is of higher importance for industrial control systems in comparison with other security properties (availability and confidentiality). The security graph, which is part of the model, is dynamic, and, in real cases, its analysis may require significant computing resources for AV systems with a large number of assets and connections. The simplified example of the security graph for the AV system is presented.

Gao, X., Fu, X..  2020.  Miniature Water Surface Garbage Cleaning Robot. 2020 International Conference on Computer Engineering and Application (ICCEA). :806—810.

In light of the problem for garbage cleaning in small water area, an intelligent miniature water surface garbage cleaning robot with unmanned driving and convenient operation is designed. Based on STC12C5A60S2 as the main controller in the design, power module, transmission module and cleaning module are controlled together to realize the function of cleaning and transporting garbage, intelligent remote control of miniature water surface garbage cleaning robot is realized by the WiFi module. Then the prototype is developed and tested, which will verify the rationality of the design. Compared with the traditional manual driving water surface cleaning devices, the designed robot realizes the intelligent control of unmanned driving, and achieves the purpose of saving human resources and reducing labor intensity, and the system operates security and stability, which has certain practical value.

Amrouche, F., Lagraa, S., Frank, R., State, R..  2020.  Intrusion detection on robot cameras using spatio-temporal autoencoders: A self-driving car application. 2020 IEEE 91st Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2020-Spring). :1—5.

Robot Operating System (ROS) is becoming more and more important and is used widely by developers and researchers in various domains. One of the most important fields where it is being used is the self-driving cars industry. However, this framework is far from being totally secure, and the existing security breaches do not have robust solutions. In this paper we focus on the camera vulnerabilities, as it is often the most important source for the environment discovery and the decision-making process. We propose an unsupervised anomaly detection tool for detecting suspicious frames incoming from camera flows. Our solution is based on spatio-temporal autoencoders used to truthfully reconstruct the camera frames and detect abnormal ones by measuring the difference with the input. We test our approach on a real-word dataset, i.e. flows coming from embedded cameras of self-driving cars. Our solution outperforms the existing works on different scenarios.

Maram, S. S., Vishnoi, T., Pandey, S..  2019.  Neural Network and ROS based Threat Detection and Patrolling Assistance. 2019 Second International Conference on Advanced Computational and Communication Paradigms (ICACCP). :1—5.

To bring a uniform development platform which seamlessly combines hardware components and software architecture of various developers across the globe and reduce the complexity in producing robots which help people in their daily ergonomics. ROS has come out to be a game changer. It is disappointing to see the lack of penetration of technology in different verticals which involve protection, defense and security. By leveraging the power of ROS in the field of robotic automation and computer vision, this research will pave path for identification of suspicious activity with autonomously moving bots which run on ROS. The research paper proposes and validates a flow where ROS and computer vision algorithms like YOLO can fall in sync with each other to provide smarter and accurate methods for indoor and limited outdoor patrolling. Identification of age,`gender, weapons and other elements which can disturb public harmony will be an integral part of the research and development process. The simulation and testing reflects the efficiency and speed of the designed software architecture.

Mukhandi, M., Portugal, D., Pereira, S., Couceiro, M. S..  2019.  A novel solution for securing robot communications based on the MQTT protocol and ROS. 2019 IEEE/SICE International Symposium on System Integration (SII). :608—613.

With the growing use of the Robot Operating System (ROS), it can be argued that it has become a de-facto framework for developing robotic solutions. ROS is used to build robotic applications for industrial automation, home automation, medical and even automatic robotic surveillance. However, whenever ROS is utilized, security is one of the main concerns that needs to be addressed in order to ensure a secure network communication of robots. Cyber-attacks may hinder evolution and adaptation of most ROS-enabled robotic systems for real-world use over the Internet. Thus, it is important to address and prevent security threats associated with the use of ROS-enabled applications. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for securing ROS-enabled robotic system by integrating ROS with the Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) protocol. We manage to secure robots' network communications by providing authentication and data encryption, therefore preventing man-in-the-middle and hijacking attacks. We also perform real-world experiments to assess how the performance of a ROS-enabled robotic surveillance system is affected by the proposed approach.

Lagraa, S., Cailac, M., Rivera, S., Beck, F., State, R..  2019.  Real-Time Attack Detection on Robot Cameras: A Self-Driving Car Application. 2019 Third IEEE International Conference on Robotic Computing (IRC). :102—109.

The Robot Operating System (ROS) are being deployed for multiple life critical activities such as self-driving cars, drones, and industries. However, the security has been persistently neglected, especially the image flows incoming from camera robots. In this paper, we perform a structured security assessment of robot cameras using ROS. We points out a relevant number of security flaws that can be used to take over the flows incoming from the robot cameras. Furthermore, we propose an intrusion detection system to detect abnormal flows. Our defense approach is based on images comparisons and unsupervised anomaly detection method. We experiment our approach on robot cameras embedded on a self-driving car.

Basan, E., Gritsynin, A., Avdeenko, T..  2019.  Framework for Analyzing the Security of Robot Control Systems. 2019 International Conference on Information Systems and Computer Science (INCISCOS). :354—360.

The purpose of this work is to analyze the security model of a robotized system, to analyze the approaches to assessing the security of this system, and to develop our own framework. The solution to this problem involves the use of developed frameworks. The analysis will be conducted on a robotic system of robots. The prefix structures assume that the robotic system is divided into levels, and after that it is necessary to directly protect each level. Each level has its own characteristics and drawbacks that must be considered when developing a security system for a robotic system.

Abeykoon, I., Feng, X..  2019.  Challenges in ROS Forensics. 2019 IEEE SmartWorld, Ubiquitous Intelligence Computing, Advanced Trusted Computing, Scalable Computing Communications, Cloud Big Data Computing, Internet of People and Smart City Innovation (SmartWorld/SCALCOM/UIC/ATC/CBDCom/IOP/SCI). :1677—1682.

The usage of robot is rapidly growth in our society. The communication link and applications connect the robots to their clients or users. This communication link and applications are normally connected through some kind of network connections. This network system is amenable of being attached and vulnerable to the security threats. It is a critical part for ensuring security and privacy for robotic platforms. The paper, also discusses about several cyber-physical security threats that are only for robotic platforms. The peer to peer applications use in the robotic platforms for threats target integrity, availability and confidential security purposes. A Remote Administration Tool (RAT) was introduced for specific security attacks. An impact oriented process was performed for analyzing the assessment outcomes of the attacks. Tests and experiments of attacks were performed in simulation environment which was based on Gazbo Turtlebot simulator and physically on the robot. A software tool was used for simulating, debugging and experimenting on ROS platform. Integrity attacks performed for modifying commands and manipulated the robot behavior. Availability attacks were affected for Denial-of-Service (DoS) and the robot was not listened to Turtlebot commands. Integrity and availability attacks resulted sensitive information on the robot.

Sandoval, S., Thulasiraman, P..  2019.  Cyber Security Assessment of the Robot Operating System 2 for Aerial Networks. 2019 IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon). :1—8.

The Robot Operating System (ROS) is a widely adopted standard robotic middleware. However, its preliminary design is devoid of any network security features. Military grade unmanned systems must be guarded against network threats. ROS 2 is built upon the Data Distribution Service (DDS) standard and is designed to provide solutions to identified ROS 1 security vulnerabilities by incorporating authentication, encryption, and process profile features, which rely on public key infrastructure. The Department of Defense is looking to use ROS 2 for its military-centric robotics platform. This paper seeks to demonstrate that ROS 2 and its DDS security architecture can serve as a functional platform for use in military grade unmanned systems, particularly in unmanned Naval aerial swarms. In this paper, we focus on the viability of ROS 2 to safeguard communications between swarms and a ground control station (GCS). We test ROS 2's ability to mitigate and withstand certain cyber threats, specifically that of rogue nodes injecting unauthorized data and accessing services that will disable parts of the UAV swarm. We use the Gazebo robotics simulator to target individual UAVs to ascertain the effectiveness of our attack vectors under specific conditions. We demonstrate the effectiveness of ROS 2 in mitigating the chosen attack vectors but observed a measurable operational delay within our simulations.

2020-12-15
Nasser, B., Rabani, A., Freiling, D., Gan, C..  2018.  An Adaptive Telerobotics Control for Advanced Manufacturing. 2018 NASA/ESA Conference on Adaptive Hardware and Systems (AHS). :82—89.
This paper explores an innovative approach to the telerobotics reasoning architecture and networking, which offer a reliable and adaptable operational process for complex tasks. There are many operational challenges in the remote control for manufacturing that can be introduced by the network communications and Iatency. A new protocol, named compact Reliable UDP (compact-RUDP), has been developed to combine both data channelling and media streaming for robot teleoperation. The original approach ensures connection reliability by implementing a TCP-like sliding window with UDP packets. The protocol provides multiple features including data security, link status monitoring, bandwidth control, asynchronous file transfer and prioritizing transfer of data packets. Experiments were conducted on a 5DOF robotic arm where a cutting tool was mounted at its distal end. A light sensor was used to guide the robot movements, and a camera device to provide a video stream of the operation. The data communication reliability is evaluated using Round-Trip Time (RTT), and advanced robot path planning for distributed decision making between endpoints. The results show 88% correlation between the remotely and locally operated robots. The file transfers and video streaming were performed with no data loss or corruption on the control commands and data feedback packets.
Laso, P. Merino, Brosset, D., Giraud, M..  2018.  Secured Architecture for Unmanned Surface Vehicle Fleets Management and Control. 2018 IEEE 16th Intl Conf on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, 16th Intl Conf on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, 4th Intl Conf on Big Data Intelligence and Computing and Cyber Science and Technology Congress(DASC/PiCom/DataCom/CyberSciTech). :373—375.

Cyber-physical systems contribute to building new infrastructure in the modern world. These systems help realize missions reducing costs and risks. The seas being a harsh and dangerous environment are a perfect application of them. Unmanned Surface vehicles (USV) allow realizing normal and new tasks reducing risk and cost i.e. surveillance, water cleaning, environmental monitoring or search and rescue operations. Also, as they are unmanned vehicles they can extend missions to unpleasing and risky weather conditions. The novelty of these systems makes that new command and control platforms need to be developed. In this paper, we describe an implemented architecture with 5 separated levels. This structure increases security by defining roles and by limiting information exchanges.

Shanavas, H., Ahmed, S. A., Hussain, M. H. Safwat.  2018.  Design of an Autonomous Surveillance Robot Using Simultaneous Localization and Mapping. 2018 International Conference on Design Innovations for 3Cs Compute Communicate Control (ICDI3C). :64—68.

In this paper, the design as well as complete implementation of a robot which can be autonomously controlled for surveillance. It can be seamlessly integrated into an existing security system already present. The robot's inherent ability allows it to map the interiors of an unexplored building and steer autonomously using its self-ruling and pilot feature. It uses a 2D LIDAR to map its environment in real-time and HD camera records suspicious activity. It also features an in-built display with touch based commands and voice recognition that enables people to interact with the robot during any situation.

Prakash, A., Walambe, R..  2018.  Military Surveillance Robot Implementation Using Robot Operating System. 2018 IEEE Punecon. :1—5.

Robots are becoming more and more prevalent in many real world scenarios. Housekeeping, medical aid, human assistance are a few common implementations of robots. Military and Security are also major areas where robotics is being researched and implemented. Robots with the purpose of surveillance in war zones and terrorist scenarios need specific functionalities to perform their tasks with precision and efficiency. In this paper, we present a model of Military Surveillance Robot developed using Robot Operating System. The map generation based on Kinect sensor is presented and some test case scenarios are discussed with results.

2020-12-14
Huang, Y., Wang, W., Wang, Y., Jiang, T., Zhang, Q..  2020.  Lightweight Sybil-Resilient Multi-Robot Networks by Multipath Manipulation. IEEE INFOCOM 2020 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. :2185–2193.

Wireless networking opens up many opportunities to facilitate miniaturized robots in collaborative tasks, while the openness of wireless medium exposes robots to the threats of Sybil attackers, who can break the fundamental trust assumption in robotic collaboration by forging a large number of fictitious robots. Recent advances advocate the adoption of bulky multi-antenna systems to passively obtain fine-grained physical layer signatures, rendering them unaffordable to miniaturized robots. To overcome this conundrum, this paper presents ScatterID, a lightweight system that attaches featherlight and batteryless backscatter tags to single-antenna robots to defend against Sybil attacks. Instead of passively "observing" signatures, ScatterID actively "manipulates" multipath propagation by using backscatter tags to intentionally create rich multipath features obtainable to a single-antenna robot. These features are used to construct a distinct profile to detect the real signal source, even when the attacker is mobile and power-scaling. We implement ScatterID on the iRobot Create platform and evaluate it in typical indoor and outdoor environments. The experimental results show that our system achieves a high AUROC of 0.988 and an overall accuracy of 96.4% for identity verification.

Lee, M.-F. R., Chien, T.-W..  2020.  Artificial Intelligence and Internet of Things for Robotic Disaster Response. 2020 International Conference on Advanced Robotics and Intelligent Systems (ARIS). :1–6.
After the Fukushima nuclear disaster and the Wenchuan earthquake, the relevant government agencies recognized the urgency of disaster-straining robots. There are many natural or man-made disasters in Taiwan, and it is usually impossible to dispatch relevant personnel to search or explore immediately. The project proposes to use the architecture of Intelligent Internet of Things (AIoT) (Artificial Intelligence + Internet of Things) to coordinate with ground, surface and aerial and underwater robots, and apply them to disaster response, ground, surface and aerial and underwater swarm robots to collect environmental big data from the disaster site, and then through the Internet of Things. From the field workstation to the cloud for “training” deep learning model and “model verification”, the trained deep learning model is transmitted to the field workstation via the Internet of Things, and then transmitted to the ground, surface and aerial and underwater swarm robots for on-site continuing objects classification. Continuously verify the “identification” with the environment and make the best decisions for the response. The related tasks include monitoring, search and rescue of the target.
Ababii, V., Sudacevschi, V., Braniste, R., Nistiriuc, A., Munteanu, S., Borozan, O..  2020.  Multi-Robot System Based on Swarm Intelligence for Optimal Solution Search. 2020 International Congress on Human-Computer Interaction, Optimization and Robotic Applications (HORA). :1–5.
This work presents the results of the Multi-Robot System designing that works on the basis of Swarm Intelligence models and is used to search for optimal solutions. The process of searching for optimal solutions is performed based on a field of gradient vectors that can be generated by ionizing radiation sources, radio-electro-magnetic devices, temperature generating sources, etc. The concept of the operation System is based on the distribution in the search space of a multitude of Mobile Robots that form a Mesh network between them. Each Mobile Robot has a set of ultrasonic sensors for excluding the collisions with obstacles, two sensors for identifying the gradient vector of the analyzed field, resources for wireless storage, processing and communication. The direction of the Mobile Robot movement is determined by the rotational speed of two DC motors which is calculated based on the models of Artificial Neural Networks. Gradient vectors generated by all Mobile Robots in the system structure are used to calculate the movement direction.
2020-12-11
Fujiwara, N., Shimasaki, K., Jiang, M., Takaki, T., Ishii, I..  2019.  A Real-time Drone Surveillance System Using Pixel-level Short-time Fourier Transform. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Safety, Security, and Rescue Robotics (SSRR). :303—308.

In this study we propose a novel method for drone surveillance that can simultaneously analyze time-frequency responses in all pixels of a high-frame-rate video. The propellers of flying drones rotate at hundreds of Hz and their principal vibration frequency components are much higher than those of their background objects. To separate the pixels around a drone's propellers from its background, we utilize these time-series features for vibration source localization with pixel-level short-time Fourier transform (STFT). We verify the relationship between the number of taps in the STFT computation and the performance of our algorithm, including the execution time and the localization accuracy, by conducting experiments under various conditions, such as degraded appearance, weather, and defocused blur. The robustness of the proposed algorithm is also verified by localizing a flying multi-copter in real-time in an outdoor scenario.

2020-12-01
Zhang, H., Liu, H., Deng, L., Wang, P., Rong, X., Li, Y., Li, B., Wang, H..  2018.  Leader Recognition and Tracking for Quadruped Robots. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Information and Automation (ICIA). :1438—1443.

To meet the high requirement of human-machine interaction, quadruped robots with human recognition and tracking capability are studied in this paper. We first introduce a marker recognition system which uses multi-thread laser scanner and retro-reflective markers to distinguish the robot's leader and other objects. When the robot follows leader autonomously, the variant A* algorithm which having obstacle grids extended virtually (EA*) is used to plan the path. But if robots need to track and follow the leader's path as closely as possible, it will trust that the path which leader have traveled is safe enough and uses the incremental form of EA* algorithm (IEA*) to reproduce the trajectory. The simulation and experiment results illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.