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Song, Zekun, Wang, Yichen, Zong, Pengyang, Ren, Zhiwei, Qi, Di.  2019.  An Empirical Study of Comparison of Code Metric Aggregation Methods–on Embedded Software. 2019 IEEE 19th International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion (QRS-C). :114–119.

How to evaluate software reliability based on historical data of embedded software projects is one of the problems we have to face in practical engineering. Therefore, we establish a software reliability evaluation model based on code metrics. This evaluation technique requires the aggregation of software code metrics into project metrics. Statistical value methods, metric distribution methods, and econometric methods are commonly-used aggregation methods. What are the differences between these methods in the software reliability evaluation process, and which methods can improve the accuracy of the reliability assessment model we have established are our concerns. In view of these concerns, we conduct an empirical study on the application of software code metric aggregation methods based on actual projects. We find the distribution of code metrics for the projects under study. Using these distribution laws, we optimize the aggregation method of code metrics and improve the accuracy of the software reliability evaluation model.

Portolan, Michele, Savino, Alessandro, Leveugle, Regis, Di Carlo, Stefano, Bosio, Alberto, Di Natale, Giorgio.  2019.  Alternatives to Fault Injections for Early Safety/Security Evaluations. 2019 IEEE European Test Symposium (ETS). :1–10.
Functional Safety standards like ISO 26262 require a detailed analysis of the dependability of components subjected to perturbations. Radiation testing or even much more abstract RTL fault injection campaigns are costly and complex to set up especially for SoCs and Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs) comprising intertwined hardware and software. Moreover, some approaches are only applicable at the very end of the development cycle, making potential iterations difficult when market pressure and cost reduction are paramount. In this tutorial, we present a summary of classical state-of-the-art approaches, then alternative approaches for the dependability analysis that can give an early yet accurate estimation of the safety or security characteristics of HW-SW systems. Designers can rely on these tools to identify issues in their design to be addressed by protection mechanisms, ensuring that system dependability constraints are met with limited risk when subjected later to usual fault injections and to e.g., radiation testing or laser attacks for certification.
Serpanos, Dimitrios, Stachoulis, Dimitrios.  2019.  Secure Memory for Embedded Tamper-Proof Systems. 2019 14th International Conference on Design Technology of Integrated Systems In Nanoscale Era (DTIS). :1–4.

Data leakage and disclosure to attackers is a significant problem in embedded systems, considering the ability of attackers to get physical access to the systems. We present methods to protect memory data leakage in tamper-proof embedded systems. We present methods that exploit memory supply voltage manipulation to change the memory contents, leading to an operational and reusable memory or to destroy memory cell circuitry. For the case of memory data change, we present scenaria for data change to a known state and to a random state. The data change scenaria are effective against attackers who cannot detect the existence of the protection circuitry; furthermore, original data can be calculated in the case of data change to a known state, if the attacker identifies the protection circuitry and its operation. The methods that change memory contents to a random state or destroy memory cell circuitry lead to irreversible loss of the original data. However, since the known state can be used to calculate the original data.

Tran, Geoffrey Phi, Walters, John Paul, Crago, Stephen.  2019.  Increased Fault-Tolerance and Real-Time Performance Resiliency for Stream Processing Workloads through Redundancy. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Services Computing (SCC). :51–55.

Data analytics and telemetry have become paramount to monitoring and maintaining quality-of-service in addition to business analytics. Stream processing-a model where a network of operators receives and processes continuously arriving discrete elements-is well-suited for these needs. Current and previous studies and frameworks have focused on continuity of operations and aggregate performance metrics. However, real-time performance and tail latency are also important. Timing errors caused by either performance or failed communication faults also affect real-time performance more drastically than aggregate metrics. In this paper, we introduce redundancy in the stream data to improve the real-time performance and resiliency to timing errors caused by either performance or failed communication faults. We also address limitations in previous solutions using a fine-grained acknowledgment tracking scheme to both increase the effectiveness for resiliency to performance faults and enable effectiveness for failed communication faults. Our results show that fine-grained acknowledgment schemes can improve the tail and mean latencies by approximately 30%. We also show that these schemes can improve resiliency to performance faults compared to existing work. Our improvements result in 47.4% to 92.9% fewer missed deadlines compared to 17.3% to 50.6% for comparable topologies and redundancy levels in the state of the art. Finally, we show that redundancies of 25% to 100% can reduce the number of data elements that miss their deadline constraints by 0.76% to 14.04% for applications with high fan-out and by 7.45% up to 50% for applications with no fan-out.

Abraham, Jacob A..  2019.  Resiliency Demands on Next Generation Critical Embedded Systems. 2019 IEEE 25th International Symposium on On-Line Testing and Robust System Design (IOLTS). :135–138.

Emerging intelligent systems have stringent constraints including cost and power consumption. When they are used in critical applications, resiliency becomes another key requirement. Much research into techniques for fault tolerance and dependability has been successfully applied to highly critical systems, such as those used in space, where cost is not an overriding constraint. Further, most resiliency techniques were focused on dealing with failures in the hardware and bugs in the software. The next generation of systems used in critical applications will also have to be tolerant to test escapes after manufacturing, soft errors and transients in the electronics, hardware bugs, hardware and software Trojans and viruses, as well as intrusions and other security attacks during operation. This paper will assess the impact of these threats on the results produced by a critical system, and proposed solutions to each of them. It is argued that run-time checks at the application-level are necessary to deal with errors in the results.

Tychalas, Dimitrios, Keliris, Anastasis, Maniatakos, Michail.  2019.  LED Alert: Supply Chain Threats for Stealthy Data Exfiltration in Industrial Control Systems. 2019 IEEE 25th International Symposium on On-Line Testing and Robust System Design (IOLTS). :194–199.

Industrial Internet-of-Things has been touted as the next revolution in the industrial domain, offering interconnectivity, independence, real-time operation, and self-optimization. Integration of smart systems, however, bridges the gap between information and operation technology, creating new avenues for attacks from the cyber domain. The dismantling of this air-gap, in conjunction with the devices' long lifespan -in the range of 20-30 years-, motivates us to bring the attention of the community to emerging advanced persistent threats. We demonstrate a threat that bridges the air-gap by leaking data from memory to analog peripherals through Direct Memory Access (DMA), delivered as a firmware modification through the supply chain. The attack automatically adapts to a target device by leveraging the Device Tree and resides solely in the peripherals, completely transparent to the main CPU, by judiciously short-circuiting specific components. We implement this attack on a commercial Programmable Logic Controller, leaking information over the available LEDs. We evaluate the presented attack vector in terms of stealthiness, and demonstrate no observable overhead on both CPU performance and DMA transfer speed. Since traditional anomaly detection techniques would fail to detect this firmware trojan, this work highlights the need for industrial control system-appropriate techniques that can be applied promptly to installed devices.

De, Asmit, Basu, Aditya, Ghosh, Swaroop, Jaeger, Trent.  2019.  FIXER: Flow Integrity Extensions for Embedded RISC-V. 2019 Design, Automation Test in Europe Conference Exhibition (DATE). :348–353.
With the recent proliferation of Internet of Things (IoT) and embedded devices, there is a growing need to develop a security framework to protect such devices. RISC-V is a promising open source architecture that targets low-power embedded devices and SoCs. However, there is a dearth of practical and low-overhead security solutions in the RISC-V architecture. Programs compiled using RISC-V toolchains are still vulnerable to code injection and code reuse attacks such as buffer overflow and return-oriented programming (ROP). In this paper, we propose FIXER, a hardware implemented security extension to RISC-V that provides a defense mechanism against such attacks. FIXER enforces fine-grained control-flow integrity (CFI) of running programs on backward edges (returns) and forward edges (calls) without requiring any architectural modifications to the RISC-V processor core. We implement FIXER on RocketChip, a RISC-V SoC platform, by leveraging the integrated Rocket Custom Coprocessor (RoCC) to detect and prevent attacks. Compared to existing software based solutions, FIXER reduces energy overhead by 60% at minimal execution time (1.5%) and area (2.9%) overheads.
Todorov, Vassil, Taha, Safouan, Boulanger, Frédéric, Hernandez, Armando.  2019.  Improved Invariant Generation for Industrial Software Model Checking of Time Properties. 2019 IEEE 19th International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security (QRS). :334–341.
Modern automotive embedded software is mostly designed using model-based design tools such as Simulink or SCADE, and source code is generated automatically from the models. Formal proof using symbolic model checking has been integrated in these tools and can provide a higher assurance by proving safety-critical properties. Our experience shows that proving properties involving time is rather challenging when they involve long durations and timers. These properties are generally not inductive and even advanced techniques such as PDR/IC3 are unable to handle them on production models in reasonable time. In this paper, we first present our industrial use case and comment on the results obtained with the existing model checkers. Then we present our invariant generator and methodology for selecting invariants according to physical dimensions. They enable the proof of properties with long-running timers. Finally, we discuss their implementation and benchmarks.
Shahinzadeh, Hossein, Moradi, Jalal, Gharehpetian, Gevork B., Nafisi, Hamed, Abedi, Mehrdad.  2019.  IoT Architecture for Smart Grids. 2019 International Conference on Protection and Automation of Power System (IPAPS). :22–30.
The tremendous advances in information and communications technology (ICT), as well as the embedded systems, have been led to the emergence of the novel concept of the internet of things (IoT). Enjoying IoT-based technologies, many objects and components can be connected to each other through the internet or other modern communicational platforms. Embedded systems which are computing machines for special purposes like those utilized in high-tech devices, smart buildings, aircraft, and vehicles including advanced controllers, sensors, and meters with the ability of information exchange using IT infrastructures. The phrase "internet", in this context, does not exclusively refer to the World Wide Web rather than any type of server-based or peer-to-peer networks. In this study, the application of IoT in smart grids is addressed. Hence, at first, an introduction to the necessity of deployment of IoT in smart grids is presented. Afterwards, the applications of IoT in three levels of generation, transmission, and distribution is proposed. The generation level is composed of applications of IoT in renewable energy resources, wind and solar in particular, thermal generation, and energy storage facilities. The deployment of IoT in transmission level deals with congestion management in power system and guarantees the security of the system. In the distribution level, the implications of IoT in active distribution networks, smart cities, microgrids, smart buildings, and industrial sector are evaluated.
Nikolov, Neven, Nakov, Ognyan.  2019.  Research of Secure Communication of Esp32 IoT Embedded System to.NET Core Cloud Structure Using MQTTS SSL/TLS. 2019 IEEE XXVIII International Scientific Conference Electronics (ET). :1–4.

This paper studies and describes encrypted communication between IoT cloud and IoT embedded systems. It uses encrypted MQTTS protocol with SSL/TLS certificate. A JSON type data format is used between the cloud structure and the IoT device. The embedded system used in this experiment is Esp32 Wrover. The IoT embedded system measures temperature and humidity from a sensor DHT22. The architecture and software implementation of the experimental stage are also presented.

Thiemann, Benjamin, Feiten, Linus, Raiola, Pascal, Becker, Bernd, Sauer, Matthias.  2019.  On Integrating Lightweight Encryption in Reconfigurable Scan Networks. 2019 IEEE European Test Symposium (ETS). :1–6.

Reconfigurable Scan Networks (RSNs) are a powerful tool for testing and maintenance of embedded systems, since they allow for flexible access to on-chip instrumentation such as built-in self-test and debug modules. RSNs, however, can be also exploited by malicious users as a side-channel in order to gain information about sensitive data or intellectual property and to recover secret keys. Hence, implementing appropriate counter-measures to secure the access to and data integrity of embedded instrumentation is of high importance. In this paper we present a novel hardware and software combined approach to ensure data privacy in IEEE Std 1687 (IJTAG) RSNs. To do so, both a secure IJTAG compliant plug-and-play instrument wrapper and a versatile software toolchain are introduced. The wrapper demonstrates the necessary architectural adaptations required when using a lightweight stream cipher, whereas the software toolchain provides a seamless integration of the testing workflow with stream cipher. The applicability of the method is demonstrated by an FPGA-based implementation. We report on the performance of the developed instrument wrapper, which is empirically shown to have only a small impact on the workflow in terms of hardware overhead, operational costs and test time overhead.

Abdullah, Ghazi Muhammad, Mehmood, Quzal, Khan, Chaudry Bilal Ahmad.  2018.  Adoption of Lamport signature scheme to implement digital signatures in IoT. 2018 International Conference on Computing, Mathematics and Engineering Technologies (iCoMET). :1–4.
The adoption of Internet of Things (IoT) technology is increasing at a fast rate. With improving software technologies and growing security threats, there is always a need to upgrade the firmware in the IoT devices. Digital signatures are an integral part of digital communication to cope with the threat of these devices being exploited by attackers to run malicious commands, codes or patches on them. Digital Signatures measure the authenticity of the transmitted data as well as are a source of record keeping (repudiation). This study proposes the adoption of Lamport signature scheme, which is quantum resistant, for authentication of data transmission and its feasibility in IoT devices.
Alias, Yasin Fitri, Hashim, Habibah.  2018.  Timing Analysis for Diffie Hellman Key Exchange In U-BOOT Using Raspberry Pi. 2018 IEEE Symposium on Computer Applications Industrial Electronics (ISCAIE). :212-216.

In Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange (DHKE), two parties need to communicate to each other by sharing their secret key (cipher text) over an unsecure communication channel. An adversary or cryptanalyst can easily get their secret keys but cannot get the information (plaintext). Brute force is one the common tools used to obtain the secret key, but when the key is too large (etc. 1024 bits and 2048 bits) this tool is no longer suitable. Thus timing attacks have become more attractive in the new cryptographic era where networked embedded systems security present several vulnerabilities such as lower processing power and high deployment scale. Experiments on timing attacks are useful in helping cryptographers make security schemes more resistant. In this work, we timed the computations of the Discrete Log Hard Problem of the Diffie Hellman Key Exchange (DHKE) protocol implemented on an embedded system network and analyzed the timing patterns of 1024-bit and 2048-bit keys that was obtained during the attacks. We have chosen to implement the protocol on the Raspberry-pi board over U-BOOT Bare Metal and we used the GMP bignum library to compute numbers greater than 64 bits on the embedded system.

Jalilian, Maisam, Ahmadi, Arash, Ahmadi, Majid.  2018.  Hardware Implementation of A Chaotic Pseudo Random Number Generator Based on 3D Chaotic System without Equilibrium. 2018 25th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (ICECS). :741–744.
Deterministic chaotic systems have been studied and developed in various fields of research. Dynamical systems with chaotic dynamics have different applications in communication, security and computation. Chaotic behaviors can be created by even simple nonlinear systems which can be implemented on low-cost hardware platforms. This paper presents a high-speed and low-cost hardware of three-dimensional chaotic flows without equilibrium. The proposed chaotic hardware is able to reproduce the main mechanism and dynamical behavior of the 3D chaotic flows observed in simulation, then a Chaotic Pseudo Random Number Generator is designed based on a 3D chaotic system. The proposed hardware is implemented with low computational overhead on an FPGA board, as a proof of concept. This low-cost chaotic hardware can be utilized in embedded and lightweight systems for a variety of chaotic based digital systems such as digital communication systems, and cryptography systems based on chaos theory for Security and IoT applications.
Harrison, William L., Allwein, Gerard.  2018.  Semantics-Directed Prototyping of Hardware Runtime Monitors. 2018 International Symposium on Rapid System Prototyping (RSP). :42-48.

Building memory protection mechanisms into embedded hardware is attractive because it has the potential to neutralize a host of software-based attacks with relatively small performance overhead. A hardware monitor, being at the lowest level of the system stack, is more difficult to bypass than a software monitor and hardware-based protections are also potentially more fine-grained than is possible in software: an individual instruction executing on a processor may entail multiple memory accesses, all of which may be tracked in hardware. Finally, hardware-based protection can be performed without the necessity of altering application binaries. This article presents a proof-of-concept codesign of a small embedded processor with a hardware monitor protecting against ROP-style code reuse attacks. While the case study is small, it indicates, we argue, an approach to rapid-prototyping runtime monitors in hardware that is quick, flexible, and extensible as well as being amenable to formal verification.

Alomari, Mohammad Ahmed, Hafiz Yusoff, M., Samsudin, Khairulmizam, Ahmad, R. Badlishah.  2019.  Light Database Encryption Design Utilizing Multicore Processors for Mobile Devices. 2019 IEEE 15th International Colloquium on Signal Processing Its Applications (CSPA). :254–259.

The confidentiality of data stored in embedded and handheld devices has become an urgent necessity more than ever before. Encryption of sensitive data is a well-known technique to preserve their confidentiality, however it comes with certain costs that can heavily impact the device processing resources. Utilizing multicore processors, which are equipped with current embedded devices, has brought a new era to enhance data confidentiality while maintaining suitable device performance. Encrypting the complete storage area, also known as Full Disk Encryption (FDE) can still be challenging, especially with newly emerging massive storage systems. Alternatively, since the most user sensitive data are residing inside persisting databases, it will be more efficient to focus on securing SQLite databases, through encryption, where SQLite is the most common RDBMS in handheld and embedded systems. This paper addresses the problem of ensuring data protection in embedded and mobile devices while maintaining suitable device performance by mitigating the impact of encryption. We presented here a proposed design for a parallel database encryption system, called SQLite-XTS. The proposed system encrypts data stored in databases transparently on-the-fly without the need for any user intervention. To maintain a proper device performance, the system takes advantage of the commodity multicore processors available with most embedded and mobile devices.

Hagan, Matthew, Siddiqui, Fahad, Sezer, Sakir.  2018.  Policy-Based Security Modelling and Enforcement Approach for Emerging Embedded Architectures. 2018 31st IEEE International System-on-Chip Conference (SOCC). :84–89.
Complex embedded systems often contain hard to find vulnerabilities which, when exploited, have potential to cause severe damage to the operating environment and the user. Given that threats and vulnerabilities can exist within any layer of the complex eco-system, OEMs face a major challenge to ensure security throughout the device life-cycle To lower the potential risk and damage that vulnerabilities may cause, OEMs typically perform application threat analysis and security modelling. This process typically provides a high level guideline to solving security problems which can then be implemented during design and development. However, this concept presents issues where new threats or unknown vulnerability has been discovered. To address this issue, we propose a policy-based security modelling approach, which utilises a configurable policy engine to apply new policies that counter serious threats. By utilising this approach, the traditional security modelling approaches can be enhanced and the consequences of a new threat greatly reduced. We present a realistic use case of connected car, applying several attack scenarios. By utilising STRIDE threat modelling and DREAD risk assessment model, adequate policies are derived to protect the car assets. This approach poses advantages over the standard approach, allowing a policy update to counter a new threat, which may have otherwise required a product redesign to alleviate the issue under the traditional approach.
Tripathi, S. K., Pandian, K. K. S., Gupta, B..  2018.  Hardware Implementation of Dynamic Key Value Based Stream Cipher Using Chaotic Logistic Map. 2018 2nd International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Informatics (ICOEI). :1104–1108.

In the last few decades, the relative simplicity of the logistic map made it a widely accepted point in the consideration of chaos, which is having the good properties of unpredictability, sensitiveness in the key values and ergodicity. Further, the system parameters fit the requirements of a cipher widely used in the field of cryptography, asymmetric and symmetric key chaos based cryptography, and for pseudorandom sequence generation. Also, the hardware-based embedded system is configured on FPGA devices for high performance. In this paper, a novel stream cipher using chaotic logistic map is proposed. The two chaotic logistic maps are coded using Verilog HDL and implemented on commercially available FPGA hardware using Xilinx device: XC3S250E for the part: FT256 and operated at frequency of 62.20 MHz to generate the non-recursive key which is used in key scheduling of pseudorandom number generation (PRNG) to produce the key stream. The realization of proposed cryptosystem in this FPGA device accomplishes the improved efficiency equal to 0.1186 Mbps/slice. Further, the generated binary sequence from the experiment is analyzed for X-power, thermal analysis, and randomness tests are performed using NIST statistical.

Cook, W., Driscoll, A., Tenbergen, B..  2018.  AirborneCPS: A Simulator for Functional Dependencies in Cyber Physical Systems: A Traffic Collision Avoidance System Implementation. 2018 4th International Workshop on Requirements Engineering for Self-Adaptive, Collaborative, and Cyber Physical Systems (RESACS). :32-35.

The term "Cyber Physical System" (CPS) has been used in the recent years to describe a system type, which makes use of powerful communication networks to functionally combine systems that were previously thought of as independent. The common theme of CPSs is that through communication, CPSs can make decisions together and achieve common goals. Yet, in contrast to traditional system types such as embedded systems, the functional dependence between CPSs can change dynamically at runtime. Hence, their functional dependence may cause unforeseen runtime behavior, e.g., when a CPS becomes unavailable, but others depend on its correct operation. During development of any individual CPS, this runtime behavior must hence be predicted, and the system must be developed with the appropriate level of robustness. Since at present, research is mainly concerned with the impact of functional dependence in CPS on development, the impact on runtime behavior is mere conjecture. In this paper, we present AirborneCPS, a simulation tool for functionally dependent CPSs which simulates runtime behavior and aids in the identification of undesired functional interaction.

Jiang, H., Turki, T., Wang, J. T. L..  2018.  DLGraph: Malware Detection Using Deep Learning and Graph Embedding. 2018 17th IEEE International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications (ICMLA). :1029-1033.

In this paper we present a new approach, named DLGraph, for malware detection using deep learning and graph embedding. DLGraph employs two stacked denoising autoencoders (SDAs) for representation learning, taking into consideration computer programs' function-call graphs and Windows application programming interface (API) calls. Given a program, we first use a graph embedding technique that maps the program's function-call graph to a vector in a low-dimensional feature space. One SDA in our deep learning model is used to learn a latent representation of the embedded vector of the function-call graph. The other SDA in our model is used to learn a latent representation of the given program's Windows API calls. The two learned latent representations are then merged to form a combined feature vector. Finally, we use softmax regression to classify the combined feature vector for predicting whether the given program is malware or not. Experimental results based on different datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach and its superiority over a related method.

Mili, S., Nguyen, N., Chelouah, R..  2018.  Attack Modeling and Verification for Connected System Security. 2018 13th Annual Conference on System of Systems Engineering (SoSE). :157–162.

In the development process of critical systems, one of the main challenges is to provide early system validation and verification against vulnerabilities in order to reduce cost caused by late error detection. We propose in this paper an approach that, firstly allows formally describe system security specifications, thanks to our suggested extended attack tree. Secondly, static and dynamic system modeling by using a SysML connectivity profile to model error propagation is introduced. Finally, a model checker has been used in order to validate system specifications.

Jiang, Yikun, Xie, Wei, Tang, Yong.  2018.  Detecting Authentication-Bypass Flaws in a Large Scale of IoT Embedded Web Servers. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Communication and Network Security. :56–63.

With the rapid development of network and communication technologies, everything is able to be connected to the Internet. IoT devices, which include home routers, IP cameras, wireless printers and so on, are crucial parts facilitating to build pervasive and ubiquitous networks. As the number of IoT devices around the world increases, the security issues become more and more serious. To handle with the security issues and protect the IoT devices from being compromised, the firmware of devices needs to be strengthened by discovering and repairing vulnerabilities. Current vulnerability detection tools can only help strengthening traditional software, nevertheless these tools are not practical enough for IoT device firmware, because of the peculiarity in firmware's structure and embedded device's architecture. Therefore, new vulnerability detection framework is required for analyzing IoT device firmware. This paper reviews related works on vulnerability detection in IoT firmware, proposes and implements a framework to automatically detect authentication-bypass flaws in a large scale of Linux-based firmware. The proposed framework is evaluated with a data set of 2351 firmware images from several target vendors, which is proved to be capable of performing large-scale and automated analysis on firmware, and 1 known and 10 unknown authentication-bypass flaws are found by the analysis.

Taher, Bahaa Hussein, Wei, Lu Hong, Yassin, Ali A..  2018.  Flexible and Efficient Authentication of IoT Cloud Scheme Using Crypto Hash Function. Proceedings of the 2018 2Nd International Conference on Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. :487–494.
The Internet of Things and cloud computing (IoT Cloud) have a wide resonance in the Internet and modern communication technology, which allows laptops, phones, sensors, embedded devices, and other things to connect and exchange information via the Internet. Therefore, IoT Cloud offers several facilities, such as resources, storage, sharing, exchange, and communication. However, IoT Cloud suffers from security problems, which are a vital issue in the information technology world. All embedded devices in IoT Cloud need to be supported by strong authentication and preservation of privacy data during information exchange via the IoT Cloud environment. Malicious attacks (such as replay, man-in-the-middle [MITM], and impersonation attacks) play the negative role of obtaining important information of devices. In this study, we propose a good scheme that overcomes the mentioned issues by resisting well-known attacks, such as MITM, insider, offline password guessing, dictionary, replay, and eavesdropping. Our work achieves device anonymity, forward secrecy, confidentiality, and mutual authentication. Security and performance analyses show that our proposed scheme is more efficient, flexible, and secure with respect to several known attacks compared with related schemes.
Gautier, Adam M., Andel, Todd R., Benton, Ryan.  2018.  On-Device Detection via Anomalous Environmental Factors. Proceedings of the 8th Software Security, Protection, and Reverse Engineering Workshop. :5:1–5:8.
Embedded Systems (ES) underlie society's critical cyberinfrastructure and comprise the vast majority of consumer electronics, making them a prized target for dangerous malware and hardware Trojans. Malicious intrusion into these systems present a threat to national security and economic stability as globalized supply chains and tight network integration make ES more susceptible to attack than ever. High-end ES like the Xilinx Zynq-7020 system on a chip are widely used in the field and provide a representative platform for investigating the methods of cybercriminals. This research suggests a novel anomaly detection framework that could be used to detect potential zero-day exploits, undiscovered rootkits, or even maliciously implanted hardware by leveraging the Zynq architecture and real-time device-level measurements of thermal side-channels. The results of an initial investigation showed different processor workloads produce distinct thermal fingerprints that are detectable by out-of-band, digital logic-based thermal sensors.
Georgiadis, Ioannis, Dossis, Michael, Kontogiannis, Sotirios.  2018.  Performance Evaluation on IoT Devices Secure Data Delivery Processes. Proceedings of the 22Nd Pan-Hellenic Conference on Informatics. :306–311.
This paper presents existing cryptographic technologies used by the IoT industry. Authors review security capabilities of existing IoT protocols such as LoRaWAN, IEE802.15.4, BLE and RF based. Authors also experiment with the cryptographic efficiency and energy consumption of existing cryptography algorithms, implemented on embedded systems. Authors evaluate the performance of 32bit single ARM cortex microprocessor, Atmel ATmega32u4 8-bit micro-controller and Parallella Xillix Zynq FPGA parallel co-processors. From the experimental results, authors signify the requirements of the next generation IoT security protocols and from their experimental results provide useful guidelines.