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2021-11-08
Shang, Wenli, Zhang, Xiule, Chen, Xin, Liu, Xianda, Chen, Chunyu, Wang, Xiaopeng.  2020.  The Research and Application of Trusted Startup of Embedded TPM. 2020 39th Chinese Control Conference (CCC). :7669–7676.
In view of the security threats caused by the code execution vulnerability of the industrial control system, design the trusted security architecture of the industrial control system based on the embedded system. From the trusted startup of industrial control equipment, the safety protection for industrial control system is completed. The scheme is based on TPM and Xilinx Zynq-7030 to build an industrial trusted computing environment and complete the trusted startup process. Experiment shows that this method can effectively prevent the destruction of malicious code during the startup process of embedded system and provide technical support for the construction of trusted computing environment of industrial control system.
2021-08-02
Longueira-Romerc, Ángel, Iglesias, Rosa, Gonzalez, David, Garitano, Iñaki.  2020.  How to Quantify the Security Level of Embedded Systems? A Taxonomy of Security Metrics 2020 IEEE 18th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN). 1:153—158.
Embedded Systems (ES) development has been historically focused on functionality rather than security, and today it still applies in many sectors and applications. However, there is an increasing number of security threats over ES, and a successful attack could have economical, physical or even human consequences, since many of them are used to control critical applications. A standardized and general accepted security testing framework is needed to provide guidance, common reporting forms and the possibility to compare the results along the time. This can be achieved by introducing security metrics into the evaluation or assessment process. If carefully designed and chosen, metrics could provide a quantitative, repeatable and reproducible value that would reflect the level of security protection of the ES. This paper analyzes the features that a good security metric should exhibit, introduces a taxonomy for classifying them, and finally, it carries out a literature survey on security metrics for the security evaluation of ES. In this review, more than 500 metrics were collected and analyzed. Then, they were reduced to 169 metrics that have the potential to be applied to ES security evaluation. As expected, the 77.5% of them is related exclusively to software, and only the 0.6% of them addresses exclusively hardware security. This work aims to lay the foundations for constructing a security evaluation methodology that uses metrics so as to quantify the security level of an ES.
2021-07-28
Aigner, Andreas, Khelil, Abdelmajid.  2020.  A Semantic Model-Based Security Engineering Framework for Cyber-Physical Systems. 2020 IEEE 19th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom). :1826—1833.
The coupling of safety-relevant embedded- and cyber-space components to build Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) extends the functionality and quality in many business domains, while also creating new ones. Prime examples like Internet of Things and Industry 4.0 enable new technologies and extend the service capabilities of physical entities by building a universe of connected devices. In addition to higher complexity, the coupling of these heterogeneous systems results in many new challenges, which should be addressed by engineers and administrators. Here, security represents a major challenge, which may be well addressed in cyber-space engineering, but less in embedded system or CPS design. Although model-based engineering provides significant benefits for system architects, like reducing complexity and automated analysis, as well as being considered as standard methodology in embedded systems design, the aspect of security may not have had a major role in traditional engineering concepts. Especially the characteristics of CPS, as well as the coupling of safety-relevant (physical) components with high-scalable entities of the cyber-space domain have an enormous impact on the overall level of security, based on the introduced side effects and uncertainties. Therefore, we aim to define a model-based security-engineering framework, which is tailored to the needs of CPS engineers. Hereby, we focus on the actual modeling process, the evaluation of security, as well as quantitatively expressing security of a deployed CPS. Overall and in contrast to other approaches, we shift the engineering concepts on a semantic level, which allows to address the proposed challenges in CPS in the most efficient way.
2021-06-28
Kumar Saha, Sujan, Bobda, Christophe.  2020.  FPGA Accelerated Embedded System Security Through Hardware Isolation. 2020 Asian Hardware Oriented Security and Trust Symposium (AsianHOST). :1–6.
Modern embedded systems include on-chip FPGA along with processors to meet the high computation demand by providing flexibility to users to add custom hardware accelerators. Any confidential or sensitive information may be processed by those custom accelerators or hardware Intellectual Properties (IPs). Existing accelerator usage models in embedded systems do not prevent illegal access to the IPs, which can be a severe security breach. In this paper, we present a hardware-software co-design approach for secured FPGA accelerated embedded system design. Our proposed security framework inherits Mandatory Access Control (MAC) based authentication policies running at software down to hardware accelerators in FPGA. It ensures secured processing of confidential data in the hardware to prevent software originated attacks at hardware IPs and information leaks. We have implemented a prototype of our proposed framework, which shows that it can be easily integrated while designing an embedded system with custom accelerator IPs. The experimental results show that the proposed framework establishes secured hardware execution with a negligible amount of area and performance overhead.
2021-05-03
Maunero, Nicoló, Prinetto, Paolo, Roascio, Gianluca, Varriale, Antonio.  2020.  A FPGA-based Control-Flow Integrity Solution for Securing Bare-Metal Embedded Systems. 2020 15th Design Technology of Integrated Systems in Nanoscale Era (DTIS). :1–10.
Memory corruption vulnerabilities, mainly present in C and C++ applications, may enable attackers to maliciously take control over the program running on a target machine by forcing it to execute an unintended sequence of instructions present in memory. This is the principle of modern Code-Reuse Attacks (CRAs) and of famous attack paradigms as Return-Oriented Programming (ROP) and Jump-Oriented Programming (JOP). Control-Flow Integrity (CFI) is a promising approach to protect against such runtime attacks. Recently, many CFI-based solutions have been proposed, resorting to both hardware and software implementations. However, many of these solutions are hardly applicable to microcontroller systems, often very resource-limited. The paper presents a generic, portable, and lightweight CFI solution for bare-metal embedded systems, i.e., systems that execute firmware directly from their Flash memory, without any Operating System. The proposed defense mixes software and hardware instrumentation and is based on monitoring the Control-Flow Graph (CFG) with an FPGA connected to the CPU. The solution, applicable in principle to any architecture which disposes of an FPGA, forces all control-flow transfers to be compliant with the CFG, and preserves the execution context from possible corruption when entering unpredictable code such as Interrupt Services Routines (ISR).
2021-03-29
Pieper, P., Herdt, V., Große, D., Drechsler, R..  2020.  Dynamic Information Flow Tracking for Embedded Binaries using SystemC-based Virtual Prototypes. 2020 57th ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC). :1—6.

Avoiding security vulnerabilities is very important for embedded systems. Dynamic Information Flow Tracking (DIFT) is a powerful technique to analyze SW with respect to security policies in order to protect the system against a broad range of security related exploits. However, existing DIFT approaches either do not exist for Virtual Prototypes (VPs) or fail to model complex hardware/software interactions.In this paper, we present a novel approach that enables early and accurate DIFT of binaries targeting embedded systems with custom peripherals. Leveraging the SystemC framework, our DIFT engine tracks accurate data flow information alongside the program execution to detect violations of security policies at run-time. We demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of our approach by extensive experiments.

Liu, W., Niu, H., Luo, W., Deng, W., Wu, H., Dai, S., Qiao, Z., Feng, W..  2020.  Research on Technology of Embedded System Security Protection Component. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Advances in Electrical Engineering and Computer Applications( AEECA). :21—27.

With the development of the Internet of Things (IoT), it has been widely deployed. As many embedded devices are connected to the network and massive amounts of security-sensitive data are stored in these devices, embedded devices in IoT have become the target of attackers. The trusted computing is a key technology to guarantee the security and trustworthiness of devices' execution environment. This paper focuses on security problems on IoT devices, and proposes a security architecture for IoT devices based on the trusted computing technology. This paper implements a security management system for IoT devices, which can perform integrity measurement, real-time monitoring and security management for embedded applications, providing a safe and reliable execution environment and whitelist-based security protection for IoT devices. This paper also designs and implements an embedded security protection system based on trusted computing technology, containing a measurement and control component in the kernel and a remote graphical management interface for administrators. The kernel layer enforces the integrity measurement and control of the embedded application on the device. The graphical management interface communicates with the remote embedded device through the TCP/IP protocol, and provides a feature-rich and user-friendly interaction interface. It implements functions such as knowledge base scanning, whitelist management, log management, security policy management, and cryptographic algorithm performance testing.

Zimmo, S., Refaey, A., Shami, A..  2020.  Trusted Boot for Embedded Systems Using Hypothesis Testing Benchmark. 2020 IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (CCECE). :1—2.

Security has become a crucial consideration and is one of the most important design goals for an embedded system. This paper examines the type of boot sequence, and more specifically a trusted boot which utilizes the method of chain of trust. After defining these terms, this paper will examine the limitations of the existing safe boot, and finally propose the method of trusted boot based on hypothesis testing benchmark and the cost it takes to perform this method.

Gressl, L., Krisper, M., Steger, C., Neffe, U..  2020.  Towards Security Attack and Risk Assessment during Early System Design. 2020 International Conference on Cyber Security and Protection of Digital Services (Cyber Security). :1—8.

The advent of the Internet of Things (IoT) and Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) enabled a new class of smart and interactive devices. With their continuous connectivity and their access to valuable information in both the digital and physical world, they are attractive targets for security attackers. Hence, with their integration into both the industry and consumer devices, they added a new surface for cybersecurity attacks. These potential threats call for special care of security vulnerabilities during the design of IoT devices and CPS. The design of secure systems is a complex task, especially if they must adhere to other constraints, such as performance, power consumption, and others. A range of design space exploration tools have been proposed in academics, which aim to support system designers in their task of finding the optimal selection of hardware components and task mappings. Said tools offer a limited way of modeling attack scenarios as constraints for a system under design. The framework proposed in this paper aims at closing this gap, offering system designers a way to consider security attacks and security risks during the early design phase. It offers designers to model security constraints from the view of potential attackers, assessing the probability of successful security attacks and security risk. The framework's feasibility and performance is demonstrated by revisiting a potential system design of an industry partner.

Kazemi, Z., Fazeli, M., Hély, D., Beroulle, V..  2020.  Hardware Security Vulnerability Assessment to Identify the Potential Risks in A Critical Embedded Application. 2020 IEEE 26th International Symposium on On-Line Testing and Robust System Design (IOLTS). :1—6.

Internet of Things (IoT) is experiencing significant growth in the safety-critical applications which have caused new security challenges. These devices are becoming targets for different types of physical attacks, which are exacerbated by their diversity and accessibility. Therefore, there is a strict necessity to support embedded software developers to identify and remediate the vulnerabilities and create resilient applications against such attacks. In this paper, we propose a hardware security vulnerability assessment based on fault injection of an embedded application. In our security assessment, we apply a fault injection attack by using our clock glitch generator on a critical medical IoT device. Furthermore, we analyze the potential risks of ignoring these attacks in this embedded application. The results will inform the embedded software developers of various security risks and the required steps to improve the security of similar MCU-based applications. Our hardware security assessment approach is easy to apply and can lead to secure embedded IoT applications against fault attacks.

Nikolov, N..  2020.  Research of MQTT, CoAP, HTTP and XMPP IoT Communication protocols for Embedded Systems. 2020 XXIX International Scientific Conference Electronics (ET). :1—4.

This paper describe most popular IoT protocols used for IoT embedded systems and research their advantage and disadvantage. Hardware stage used in this experiment is described in this article - it is used Esp32 and programming language C. It is very important to use corrected IoT protocol that is determines of purpose, hardware and software of system. There are so different IoT protocols, because they are cover vary requirements for vary cases.

DiMase, D., Collier, Z. A., Chandy, J., Cohen, B. S., D'Anna, G., Dunlap, H., Hallman, J., Mandelbaum, J., Ritchie, J., Vessels, L..  2020.  A Holistic Approach to Cyber Physical Systems Security and Resilience. 2020 IEEE Systems Security Symposium (SSS). :1—8.

A critical need exists for collaboration and action by government, industry, and academia to address cyber weaknesses or vulnerabilities inherent to embedded or cyber physical systems (CPS). These vulnerabilities are introduced as we leverage technologies, methods, products, and services from the global supply chain throughout a system's lifecycle. As adversaries are exploiting these weaknesses as access points for malicious purposes, solutions for system security and resilience become a priority call for action. The SAE G-32 Cyber Physical Systems Security Committee has been convened to address this complex challenge. The SAE G-32 will take a holistic systems engineering approach to integrate system security considerations to develop a Cyber Physical System Security Framework. This framework is intended to bring together multiple industries and develop a method and common language which will enable us to more effectively, efficiently, and consistently communicate a risk, cost, and performance trade space. The standard will allow System Integrators to make decisions utilizing a common framework and language to develop affordable, trustworthy, resilient, and secure systems.

Aigner, A., Khelil, A..  2020.  An Effective Semantic Security Metric for Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems. 2020 IEEE Conference on Industrial Cyberphysical Systems (ICPS). 1:87—92.

The emergence of Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems (ICPS) in today's business world is still steadily progressing to new dimensions. Although they bring many new advantages to business processes and enable automation and a wider range of service capability, they also propose a variety of new challenges. One major challenge, which is introduced by such System-of-Systems (SoS), lies in the security aspect. As security may not have had that significant role in traditional embedded system engineering, a generic way to measure the level of security within an ICPS would provide a significant benefit for system engineers and involved stakeholders. Even though many security metrics and frameworks exist, most of them insufficiently consider an SoS context and the challenges of such environments. Therefore, we aim to define a security metric for ICPS, which measures the level of security during the system design, tests, and integration as well as at runtime. For this, we try to focus on a semantic point of view, which on one hand has not been considered in security metric definitions yet, and on the other hand allows us to handle the complexity of SoS architectures. Furthermore, our approach allows combining the critical characteristics of an ICPS, like uncertainty, required reliability, multi-criticality and safety aspects.

Dörr, T., Sandmann, T., Becker, J..  2020.  A Formal Model for the Automatic Configuration of Access Protection Units in MPSoC-Based Embedded Systems. 2020 23rd Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design (DSD). :596—603.

Heterogeneous system-on-chip platforms with multiple processing cores are becoming increasingly common in safety-and security-critical embedded systems. To facilitate a logical isolation of physically connected on-chip components, internal communication links of such platforms are often equipped with dedicated access protection units. When performed manually, however, the configuration of these units can be both time-consuming and error-prone. To resolve this issue, we present a formal model and a corresponding design methodology that allows developers to specify access permissions and information flow requirements for embedded systems in a mostly platform-independent manner. As part of the methodology, the consistency between the permissions and the requirements is automatically verified and an extensible generation framework is used to transform the abstract permission declarations into configuration code for individual access protection units. We present a prototypical implementation of this approach and validate it by generating configuration code for the access protection unit of a commercially available multiprocessor system-on-chip.

Agirre, I..  2020.  Safe and secure software updates on high-performance embedded systems. 2020 50th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops (DSN-W). :68—69.

The next generation of dependable embedded systems feature autonomy and higher levels of interconnection. Autonomy is commonly achieved with the support of artificial intelligence algorithms that pose high computing demands on the hardware platform, reaching a high performance scale. This involves a dramatic increase in software and hardware complexity, fact that together with the novelty of the technology, raises serious concerns regarding system dependability. Traditional approaches for certification require to demonstrate that the system will be acceptably safe to operate before it is deployed into service. The nature of autonomous systems, with potentially infinite scenarios, configurations and unanticipated interactions, makes it increasingly difficult to support such claim at design time. In this context, the extended networking technologies can be exploited to collect post-deployment evidence that serve to oversee whether safety assumptions are preserved during operation and to continuously improve the system through regular software updates. These software updates are not only convenient for critical bug fixing but also necessary for keeping the interconnected system resilient against security threats. However, such approach requires a recondition of the traditional certification practices.

2021-01-15
Zhu, K., Wu, B., Wang, B..  2020.  Deepfake Detection with Clustering-based Embedding Regularization. 2020 IEEE Fifth International Conference on Data Science in Cyberspace (DSC). :257—264.

In recent months, AI-synthesized face swapping videos referred to as deepfake have become an emerging problem. False video is becoming more and more difficult to distinguish, which brings a series of challenges to social security. Some scholars are devoted to studying how to improve the detection accuracy of deepfake video. At the same time, in order to conduct better research, some datasets for deepfake detection are made. Companies such as Google and Facebook have also spent huge sums of money to produce datasets for deepfake video detection, as well as holding deepfake detection competitions. The continuous advancement of video tampering technology and the improvement of video quality have also brought great challenges to deepfake detection. Some scholars have achieved certain results on existing datasets, while the results on some high-quality datasets are not as good as expected. In this paper, we propose new method with clustering-based embedding regularization for deepfake detection. We use open source algorithms to generate videos which can simulate distinctive artifacts in the deepfake videos. To improve the local smoothness of the representation space, we integrate a clustering-based embedding regularization term into the classification objective, so that the obtained model learns to resist adversarial examples. We evaluate our method on three latest deepfake datasets. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

2020-12-21
Ayers, H., Crews, P., Teo, H., McAvity, C., Levy, A., Levis, P..  2020.  Design Considerations for Low Power Internet Protocols. 2020 16th International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems (DCOSS). :103–111.
Low-power wireless networks provide IPv6 connectivity through 6LoWPAN, a set of standards to aggressively compress IPv6 packets over small maximum transfer unit (MTU) links such as 802.15.4.The entire purpose of IP was to interconnect different networks, but we find that different 6LoWPAN implementations fail to reliably communicate with one another. These failures are due to stacks implementing different subsets of the standard out of concern for code size. We argue that this failure stems from 6LoWPAN's design, not implementation, and is due to applying traditional Internet protocol design principles to low- power networks.We propose three design principles for Internet protocols on low-power networks, designed to prevent similar failures in the future. These principles are based around the importance of providing flexible tradeoffs between code size and energy efficiency. We apply these principles to 6LoWPAN and show that the modified protocol provides a wide range of implementation strategies while allowing implementations with different strategies to reliably communicate.
2020-12-17
Lee, J., Chen, H., Young, J., Kim, H..  2020.  RISC-V FPGA Platform Toward ROS-Based Robotics Application. 2020 30th International Conference on Field-Programmable Logic and Applications (FPL). :370—370.

RISC-V is free and open standard instruction set architecture following reduced instruction set computer principle. Because of its openness and scalability, RISC-V has been adapted not only for embedded CPUs such as mobile and IoT market, but also for heavy-workload CPUs such as the data center or super computing field. On top of it, Robotics is also a good application of RISC-V because security and reliability become crucial issues of robotics system. These problems could be solved by enthusiastic open source community members as they have shown on open source operating system. However, running RISC-V on local FPGA becomes harder than before because now RISC-V foundation are focusing on cloud-based FPGA environment. We have experienced that recently released OS and toolchains for RISC-V are not working well on the previous CPU image for local FPGA. In this paper we design the local FPGA platform for RISC-V processor and run the robotics application on mainstream Robot Operating System on top of the RISC-V processor. This platform allow us to explore the architecture space of RISC-V CPU for robotics application, and get the insight of the RISC-V CPU architecture for optimal performance and the secure system.

2020-11-23
Wang, X., Li, J..  2018.  Design of Intelligent Home Security Monitoring System Based on Android. 2018 2nd IEEE Advanced Information Management,Communicates,Electronic and Automation Control Conference (IMCEC). :2621–2624.
In view of the problem that the health status and safety monitoring of the traditional intelligent home are mainly dependent on the manual inspection, this paper introduces the intelligent home-based remote monitoring system by introducing the Internet-based Internet of Things technology into the intelligent home condition monitoring and safety assessment. The system's Android remote operation based on the MVP model to develop applications, the use of neural networks to deal with users daily use of operational data to establish the network data model, combined with S3C2440A microcontrollers in the gateway to the embedded Linux to facilitate different intelligent home drivers development. Finally, the power line communication network is used to connect the intelligent electrical appliances to the gateway. By calculating the success rate of the routing nodes, the success rate of the network nodes of 15 intelligent devices is 98.33%. The system can intelligent home many electrical appliances at the same time monitoring, to solve the system data and network congestion caused by the problem can not he security monitoring.
2020-11-17
Radha, P., Selvakumar, N., Sekar, J. Raja, Johnsonselva, J. V..  2018.  Enhancing Internet of Battle Things using Ultrasonic assisted Non-Destructive Testing (Technical solution). 2018 IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Research (ICCIC). :1—4.

The subsystem of IoMT (Internet of Military of Things) called IoBT (Internet of Battle of Things) is the major resource of the military where the various stack holders of the battlefield and different categories of equipment are tightly integrated through the internet. The proposed architecture mentioned in this paper will be helpful to design IoBT effectively for warfare using irresistible technologies like information technology, embedded technology, and network technology. The role of Machine intelligence is essential in IoBT to create smart things and provide accurate solutions without human intervention. Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) is used in Industries to examine and analyze the invisible defects of equipment. Generally, the ultrasonic waves are used to examine and analyze the internal defects of materials. Hence the proposed architecture of IoBT is enhanced by ultrasonic based NDT to study the properties of the things of the battlefield without causing any damage.

Benhani, E. M., Bossuet, L..  2018.  DVFS as a Security Failure of TrustZone-enabled Heterogeneous SoC. 2018 25th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (ICECS). :489—492.
Today, most embedded systems use Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS) to minimize energy consumption and maximize performance. The DVFS technique works by regulating the important parameters that govern the amount of energy consumed in a system, voltage and frequency. For the implementation of this technique, the operating system (OS) includes software applications that dynamically control a voltage regulator or a frequency regulator or both. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time a malicious use of the frequency regulator against a TrustZone-enabled System-on-Chip (SoC). We demonstrate a use of frequency scaling to create covert channel in a TrustZone-enabled heterogeneous SoC. We present four proofs of concept to transfer sensitive data from a secure entity in the SoC to a non-secure one. The first proof of concept is from a secure ARM core to outside of SoC. The second is from a secure ARM core to a non-secure one. The third is from a non-trusted third party IP embedded in the programmable logic part of the SoC to a non-secure ARM core. And the last proof of concept is from a secure third party IP to a non-secure ARM core.
2020-11-09
Saeed, S. M., Cui, X., Zulehner, A., Wille, R., Drechsler, R., Wu, K., Karri, R..  2018.  IC/IP Piracy Assessment of Reversible Logic. 2018 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD). :1–8.
Reversible logic is a building block for adiabatic and quantum computing in addition to other applications. Since common functions are non-reversible, one needs to embed them into proper-size reversible functions by adding ancillary inputs and garbage outputs. We explore the Intellectual Property (IP) piracy of reversible circuits. The number of embeddings of regular functions in a reversible function and the percent of leaked ancillary inputs measure the difficulty of recovering the embedded function. To illustrate the key concepts, we study reversible logic circuits designed using reversible logic synthesis tools based on Binary Decision Diagrams and Quantum Multi-valued Decision Diagrams.
2020-11-04
Zong, P., Wang, Y., Xie, F..  2018.  Embedded Software Fault Prediction Based on Back Propagation Neural Network. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion (QRS-C). :553—558.

Predicting software faults before software testing activities can help rational distribution of time and resources. Software metrics are used for software fault prediction due to their close relationship with software faults. Thanks to the non-linear fitting ability, Neural networks are increasingly used in the prediction model. We first filter metric set of the embedded software by statistical methods to reduce the dimensions of model input. Then we build a back propagation neural network with simple structure but good performance and apply it to two practical embedded software projects. The verification results show that the model has good ability to predict software faults.

2020-11-02
Das, Abhishek, Touba, Nur A..  2019.  A Graph Theory Approach towards IJTAG Security via Controlled Scan Chain Isolation. 2019 IEEE 37th VLSI Test Symposium (VTS). :1—6.

The IEEE Std. 1687 (IJTAG) was designed to provide on-chip access to the various embedded instruments (e.g. built-in self test, sensors, etc.) in complex system-on-chip designs. IJTAG facilitates access to on-chip instruments from third party intellectual property providers with hidden test-data registers. Although access to on-chip instruments provides valuable data specifically for debug and diagnosis, it can potentially expose the design to untrusted sources and instruments that can sniff and possibly manipulate the data that is being shifted through the IJTAG network. This paper provides a comprehensive protection scheme against data sniffing and data integrity attacks by selectively isolating the data flowing through the IJTAG network. The proposed scheme is modeled as a graph coloring problem to optimize the number of isolation signals required to protect the design. It is shown that combining the proposed approach with other existing schemes can also bolster the security against unauthorized user access as well. The proposed countermeasure is shown to add minimal overhead in terms of area and power consumption.

Anzer, Ayesha, Elhadef, Mourad.  2018.  A Multilayer Perceptron-Based Distributed Intrusion Detection System for Internet of Vehicles. 2018 IEEE 4th International Conference on Collaboration and Internet Computing (CIC). :438—445.

Security of Internet of vehicles (IoV) is critical as it promises to provide with safer and secure driving. IoV relies on VANETs which is based on V2V (Vehicle to Vehicle) communication. The vehicles are integrated with various sensors and embedded systems allowing them to gather data related to the situation on the road. The collected data can be information associated with a car accident, the congested highway ahead, parked car, etc. This information exchanged with other neighboring vehicles on the road to promote safe driving. IoV networks are vulnerable to various security attacks. The V2V communication comprises specific vulnerabilities which can be manipulated by attackers to compromise the whole network. In this paper, we concentrate on intrusion detection in IoV and propose a multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network to detect intruders or attackers on an IoV network. Results are in the form of prediction, classification reports, and confusion matrix. A thorough simulation study demonstrates the effectiveness of the new MLP-based intrusion detection system.