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Kim, Byoungkoo, Yoon, Seungyong, Kang, Yousung.  2021.  PUF-based IoT Device Authentication Scheme on IoT Open Platform. 2021 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC). :1873–1875.
Recently, it is predicted that interworking between heterogeneous devices will be accelerated due to the openness of the IoT (Internet of Things) platform, but various security threats are also expected to increase. However, most IoT open platforms remain at the level that utilizes existing security technologies. Therefore, a more secure security technology is required to prevent illegal copying and leakage of important data through stealing, theft, and hacking of IoT devices. In addition, a technique capable of ensuring interoperability with existing standard technologies is required. This paper proposes an IoT device authentication method based on PUF (Physical Unclonable Function) that operates on an IoT open platform. By utilizing PUF technology, the proposed method can effectively respond to the threat of exposure of the authentication key of the existing IoT open platform. Above all, the proposed method can contribute to compatibility and interoperability with existing technologies by providing a device authentication method that can be effectively applied to the OCF Iotivity standard specification, which is a representative IoT open platform.
Asare, Bismark Tei, Quist-Aphetsi, Kester, Nana, Laurent, Simpson, Grace.  2021.  A nodal Authentication IoT Data Model for Heterogeneous Connected Sensor Nodes Within a Blockchain Network. 2021 International Conference on Cyber Security and Internet of Things (ICSIoT). :65–71.
Modern IoT infrastructure consists of different sub-systems, devices, applications, platforms, varied connectivity protocols with distinct operating environments scattered across different subsystems within the whole network. Each of these subsystems of the global system has its peculiar computational and security challenges. A security loophole in one subsystem has a directly negative impact on the security of the whole system. The nature and intensity of recent cyber-attacks within IoT networks have increased in recent times. Blockchain technology promises several security benefits including a decentralized authentication mechanism that addresses almost readily the challenges with a centralized authentication mechanism that has the challenges of introducing a single point of failure that affects data and system availability anytime such systems are compromised. The different design specifications and the unique functional requirements for most IoT devices require a strong yet universal authentication mechanism for multimedia data that assures an additional security layer to IoT data. In this paper, the authors propose a decentralized authentication to validate data integrity at the IoT node level. The proposed mechanism guarantees integrity, privacy, and availability of IoT node data.
Terzi, Sofia, Savvaidis, Charalampos, Sersemis, Athanasios, Votis, Konstantinos, Tzovaras, Dimitrios.  2021.  Decentralizing Identity Management and Vehicle Rights Delegation through Self-Sovereign Identities and Blockchain. 2021 IEEE 45th Annual Computers, Software, and Applications Conference (COMPSAC). :1217–1223.
With smart vehicles interconnected with multiple systems and other entities, whether they are people or IoT devices, the importance of a digital identity for them has emerged. We present in this paper how a Self-Sovereign Identities combined with blockchain can provide a solution to this end, in order to decentralize the identity management and provide them with capabilities to identify the other entities they interact with. Such entities can be the owners of the vehicles, other drivers and workshops that act as service providers. Two use cases are examined along with the interactions between the participants, to demonstrate how a decentralized identity management solution can take care of the necessary authentication and authorization processes. Finally, we test the system and provide the measurements to prove its feasibility in real-life deployments.
Thao Nguyen, Thi Ai, Dang, Tran Khanh, Nguyen, Dinh Thanh.  2021.  Non-Invertibility for Random Projection based Biometric Template Protection Scheme. 2021 15th International Conference on Ubiquitous Information Management and Communication (IMCOM). :1—8.
Nowadays, biometric-based authentication systems are widely used. This fact has led to increased attacks on biometric data of users. Therefore, biometric template protection is sure to keep the attention of researchers for the security of the authentication systems. Many previous works proposed the biometric template protection schemes by transforming the original biometric data into a secure domain, or establishing a cryptographic key with the use of biometric data. The main purpose was that fulfill the all three requirements: cancelability, security, and performance as many as possible. In this paper, using random projection merged with fuzzy commitment, we will introduce a hybrid scheme of biometric template protection. We try to limit their own drawbacks and take full advantages of these techniques at the same time. In addition, an analysis of non-invertibility property will be exercised with regards to the use of random projection aiming at enhancing the security of the system while preserving the discriminability of the original biometric template.
Abdaoui, Abderrazak, Erbad, Aiman, Al-Ali, Abdulla, Mohamed, Amr, Guizani, Mohsen.  2021.  A Robust Protocol for Smart eHealthcare based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography and Fuzzy logic in IoT. 2021 IEEE Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps). :1—6.

Emerging technologies change the qualities of modern healthcare by employing smart systems for patient monitoring. To well use the data surrounding the patient, tiny sensing devices and smart gateways are involved. These sensing systems have been used to collect and analyze the real-time data remotely in Internet of Medical Thinks (IoM). Since the patient sensed information is so sensitive, the security and privacy of medical data are becoming challenging problem in IoM. It is then important to ensure the security, privacy and integrity of the transmitted data by designing a secure and a lightweight authentication protocol for the IoM. In this paper, in order to improve the authentication and communications in health care applications, we present a novel secure and anonymous authentication scheme. We will use elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) with random numbers generated by fuzzy logic. We simulate IoM scheme using network simulator 3 (NS3) and we employ optimized link state routing protocol (OLSR) algorithm and ECC at each node of the network. We apply some attack algorithms such as Pollard’s ρ and Baby-step Giant-step to evaluate the vulnerability of the proposed scheme.

Gowda, Naveen Chandra, Manvi, Sunilkumar S..  2021.  An Efficient Authentication Scheme for Fog Computing Environment using Symmetric Cryptographic methods. 2021 IEEE 9th Region 10 Humanitarian Technology Conference (R10-HTC). :01—06.

The mechanism of Fog computing is a distributed infrastructure to provide the computations as same as cloud computing. The fog computing environment provides the storage and processing of data in a distributed manner based on the locality. Fog servicing is better than cloud service for working with smart devices and users in a same locale. However the fog computing will inherit the features of the cloud, it also suffers from many security issues as cloud. One such security issue is authentication with efficient key management between the communicating entities. In this paper, we propose a secured two-way authentication scheme with efficient management of keys between the user mobile device and smart devices under the control of the fog server. We made use of operations such as one-way hash (SHA-512) functions, bitwise XOR, and fuzzy extractor function to make the authentication system to be better. We have verified the proposed scheme for its security effectiveness by using a well-used analysis tool ProVerif. We also proved that it can resist multiple attacks and the security overhead is reduced in terms of computation and communication cost as compared to the existing methods.

Ogundoyin, Sunday Oyinlola, Kamil, Ismaila Adeniyi.  2021.  A Lightweight Authentication and Key Agreement Protocol for Secure Fog-to-Fog Collaboration. 2021 IEEE International Mediterranean Conference on Communications and Networking (MeditCom). :348—353.
The fusion of peer-to-peer (P2P) fog network and the traditional three-tier fog computing architecture allows fog devices to conjointly pool their resources together for improved service provisioning and better bandwidth utilization. However, any unauthorized access to the fog network may have calamitous consequences. In this paper, a new lightweight two-party authenticated and key agreement (AKA) protocol is proposed for fog-to-fog collaboration. The security analysis of the protocol reveals that it is resilient to possible attacks. Moreover, the validation of the protocol conducted using the broadly-accepted Automated Verification of internet Security Protocols and Applications (AVISPA) shows that it is safe for practical deployment. The performance evaluation in terms of computation and communication overheads demonstrates its transcendence over the state-of-the-art protocols.
Khan, Aazar Imran, Jain, Samyak, Sharma, Purushottam, Deep, Vikas, Mehrotra, Deepti.  2021.  Stylometric Analysis of Writing Patterns Using Artificial Neural Networks. 2021 International Conference on Innovation and Intelligence for Informatics, Computing, and Technologies (3ICT). :29—35.
Plagiarism checkers have been widely used to verify the authenticity of dissertation/project submissions. However, when non-verbatim plagiarism or online examinations are considered, this practice is not the best solution. In this work, we propose a better authentication system for online examinations that analyses the submitted text's stylometry for a match of writing pattern of the author by whom the text was submitted. The writing pattern is analyzed over many indicators (i.e., features of one's writing style). This model extracts 27 such features and stores them as the writing pattern of an individual. Stylometric Analysis is a better approach to verify a document's authorship as it doesn't check for plagiarism, but verifies if the document was written by a particular individual and hence completely shuts down the possibility of using text-convertors or translators. This paper also includes a brief comparative analysis of some simpler algorithms for the same problem statement. These algorithms yield results that vary in precision and accuracy and hence plotting a conclusion from the comparison shows that the best bet to tackle this problem is through Artificial Neural Networks.
Alotaiby, Turky N., Alshebeili, Saleh A., Alotibi, Gaseb.  2021.  Subject Authentication using Time-Frequency Image Textural Features. 2021 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Information and Communication (ICAIIC). :130—133.
The growing internet-based services such as banking and shopping have brought both ease to human's lives and challenges in user identity authentication. Different methods have been investigated for user authentication such as retina, finger print, and face recognition. This study introduces a photoplethysmogram (PPG) based user identity authentication relying on textural features extracted from time-frequency image. The PPG signal is segmented into segments and each segment is transformed into time-frequency domain using continuous wavelet transform (CWT). Then, the textural features are extracted from the time-frequency images using Haralick's method. Finally, a classifier is employed for identity authentication purposes. The proposed system achieved an average accuracy of 99.14% and 99.9% with segment lengths of one and tweeny seconds, respectively, using random forest classifier.
Zhang, Yibo.  2021.  A Systematic Security Design Approach for Heterogeneous Embedded Systems. 2021 IEEE 10th Global Conference on Consumer Electronics (GCCE). :500–502.
Security has become a significant factor of Internet of Things (IoT) and Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) wherein the devices usually vary in computing power and intrinsic hardware features. It is necessary to use security-by-design method in the development of these systems. This paper focuses on the security design issue about this sort of heterogeneous embedded systems and proposes a systematic approach aiming to achieve optimal security design objective.
Liu, Nathan, Moreno, Carlos, Dunne, Murray, Fischmeister, Sebastian.  2021.  vProfile: Voltage-Based Anomaly Detection in Controller Area Networks. 2021 Design, Automation & Test in Europe Conference & Exhibition (DATE). :1142–1147.
Modern cars are becoming more accessible targets for cyberattacks due to the proliferation of wireless communication channels. The intra-vehicle Controller Area Network (CAN) bus lacks authentication, which exposes critical components to interference from less secure, wirelessly compromised modules. To address this issue, we propose vProfile, a sender authentication system based on voltage fingerprints of Electronic Control Units (ECUs). vProfile exploits the physical properties of ECU output voltages on the CAN bus to determine the authenticity of bus messages, which enables the detection of both hijacked ECUs and external devices connected to the bus. We show the potential of vProfile using experiments on two production vehicles with precision and recall scores of over 99.99%. The improved identification rates and more straightforward design of vProfile make it an attractive improvement over existing methods.
Prakash, Jay, Yu, Clarice Chua Qing, Thombre, Tanvi Ravindra, Bytes, Andrei, Jubur, Mohammed, Saxena, Nitesh, Blessing, Lucienne, Zhou, Jianying, Quek, Tony Q.S.  2021.  Countering Concurrent Login Attacks in “Just Tap” Push-based Authentication: A Redesign and Usability Evaluations. 2021 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS&P). :21—36.
In this paper, we highlight a fundamental vulnerability associated with the widely adopted “Just Tap” push-based authentication in the face of a concurrency attack, and propose the method REPLICATE, a redesign to counter this vulnerability. In the concurrency attack, the attacker launches the login session at the same time the user initiates a session, and the user may be fooled, with high likelihood, into accepting the push notification which corresponds to the attacker's session, thinking it is their own. The attack stems from the fact that the login notification is not explicitly mapped to the login session running on the browser in the Just Tap approach. REPLICATE attempts to address this fundamental flaw by having the user approve the login attempt by replicating the information presented on the browser session over to the login notification, such as by moving a key in a particular direction, choosing a particular shape, etc. We report on the design and a systematic usability study of REPLICATE. Even without being aware of the vulnerability, in general, participants placed multiple variants of REPLICATE in competition to the Just Tap and fairly above PIN-based authentication.
Hafidi, Hossem Eddine, Hmidi, Zohra, Kahloul, Laid, Benharzallah, Saber.  2021.  Formal Specification and Verification of 5G Authentication and Key Agreement Protocol using mCRL2. 2021 International Conference on Networking and Advanced Systems (ICNAS). :1—6.
The fifth-generation (5G) standard is the last telecommunication technology, widely considered to have the most important characteristics in the future network industry. The 5G system infrastructure contains three principle interfaces, each one follows a set of protocols defined by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project group (3GPP). For the next generation network, 3GPP specified two authentication methods systematized in two protocols namely 5G Authentication and Key Agreement (5G-AKA) and Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP). Such protocols are provided to ensure the authentication between system entities. These two protocols are critical systems, thus their reliability and correctness must be guaranteed. In this paper, we aim to formally re-examine 5G-AKA protocol using micro Common Representation Language 2 (mCRL2) language to verify such a security protocol. The mCRL2 language and its associated toolset are formal tools used for modeling, validation, and verification of concurrent systems and protocols. In this context, the authentication protocol 5G-AKA model is built using Algebra of Communication Processes (ACP), its properties are specified using Modal mu-Calculus and the properties analysis exploits Model-Checker provided with mCRL2. Indeed, we propose a new mCRL2 model of 3GPP specification considering 5G-AKA protocol and we specify some properties that describe necessary requirements to evaluate the correctness of the protocol where the parsed properties of Deadlock Freedom, Reachability, Liveness and Safety are positively assessed.
Sani, Abubakar Sadiq, Yuan, Dong, Meng, Ke, Dong, Zhao Yang.  2021.  R-Chain: A Universally Composable Relay Resilience Framework for Smart Grids. 2021 IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting (PESGM). :01–05.
Smart grids can be exposed to relay attacks (or wormhole attacks) resulting from weaknesses in cryptographic operations such as authentication and key derivation associated with process automation protocols. Relay attacks refer to attacks in which authentication is evaded without needing to attack the smart grid itself. By using a universal composability model that provides a strong security notion for designing cryptographic operations, we formulate the necessary relay resilience settings for strengthening authentication and key derivation and enhancing relay security in process automation protocols in this paper. We introduce R-Chain, a universally composable relay resilience framework that prevents bypass of cryptographic operations. Our framework provides an ideal chaining functionality that integrates all cryptographic operations such that all outputs from a preceding operation are used as input to the subsequent operation to support relay resilience. We apply R-Chain to provide relay resilience in a practical smart grid process automation protocol, namely WirelessHART.
Zhao, Chen, Yin, Jiaqi, Zhu, Huibiao, Li, Ran.  2021.  Modeling and Verifying Ticket-Based Authentication Scheme for IoT Using CSP. 2021 IEEE Intl Conf on Parallel & Distributed Processing with Applications, Big Data & Cloud Computing, Sustainable Computing & Communications, Social Computing & Networking (ISPA/BDCloud/SocialCom/SustainCom). :845—852.
Internet of Things (IoT) connects various nodes such as sensor devices. For users from foreign networks, their direct access to the data of sensor devices is restricted because of security threats. Therefore, a ticket-based authentication scheme was proposed, which can mutually authenticate a mobile device and a sensor device. This scheme with new features fills a gap in IoT authentication, but the scheme has not been verified formally. Hence, it is important to study the security and reliability of the scheme from the perspective of formal methods.In this paper, we model this scheme using Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP). Considering the possibility of key leakage caused by security threats in IoT networks, we also build models where one of the keys used in the scheme is leaked. With the model checker Process Analysis Toolkit (PAT), we verify four properties (deadlock freedom, data availability, data security, and data authenticity) and find that the scheme cannot satisfy the last two properties with key leakage. Thus, we propose two improved models. The verification results show that the first improved model can guarantee data security, and the second one can ensure both data security and data authenticity.
Catalfamo, Alessio, Ruggeri, Armando, Celesti, Antonio, Fazio, Maria, Villari, Massimo.  2021.  A Microservices and Blockchain Based One Time Password (MBB-OTP) Protocol for Security-Enhanced Authentication. 2021 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC). :1—6.
Nowadays, the increasing complexity of digital applications for social and business activities has required more and more advanced mechanisms to prove the identity of subjects like those based on the Two-Factor Authentication (2FA). Such an approach improves the typical authentication paradigm but it has still some weaknesses. Specifically, it has to deal with the disadvantages of a centralized architecture causing several security threats like denial of service (DoS) and man-in-the-middle (MITM). In fact, an attacker who succeeds in violating the central authentication server could be able to impersonate an authorized user or block the whole service. This work advances the state of art of 2FA solutions by proposing a decentralized Microservices and Blockchain Based One Time Password (MBB-OTP) protocol for security-enhanced authentication able to mitigate the aforementioned threats and to fit different application scenarios. Experiments prove the goodness of our MBB-OTP protocol considering both private and public Blockchain configurations.
Wiefling, Stephan, Tolsdorf, Jan, Iacono, Luigi Lo.  2021.  Privacy Considerations for Risk-Based Authentication Systems. 2021 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy Workshops (EuroS&PW). :320—327.
Risk-based authentication (RBA) extends authentication mechanisms to make them more robust against account takeover attacks, such as those using stolen passwords. RBA is recommended by NIST and NCSC to strengthen password-based authentication, and is already used by major online services. Also, users consider RBA to be more usable than two-factor authentication and just as secure. However, users currently obtain RBA’s high security and usability benefits at the cost of exposing potentially sensitive personal data (e.g., IP address or browser information). This conflicts with user privacy and requires to consider user rights regarding the processing of personal data. We outline potential privacy challenges regarding different attacker models and propose improvements to balance privacy in RBA systems. To estimate the properties of the privacy-preserving RBA enhancements in practical environments, we evaluated a subset of them with long-term data from 780 users of a real-world online service. Our results show the potential to increase privacy in RBA solutions. However, it is limited to certain parameters that should guide RBA design to protect privacy. We outline research directions that need to be considered to achieve a widespread adoption of privacy preserving RBA with high user acceptance.
Khalid, Haqi, Hashim, Shaiful Jahari, Mumtazah Syed Ahamed, Sharifah, Hashim, Fazirulhisyam, Chaudhary, Muhammad Akmal.  2021.  Secure Real-time Data Access Using Two-Factor Authentication Scheme for the Internet of Drones. 2021 IEEE 19th Student Conference on Research and Development (SCOReD). :168—173.
The Internet of Drones (IoD) is a distributed network control system that mainly manages unmanned aerial vehicle access to controlled airspace and provides navigation between so-called nodes. Securing the transmission of real-time information from the nodes in these applications is essential. The limited drone nodes, data storage, computing and communication capabilities necessitate the need to design an effective and secure authentication scheme. Recently, research has proposed remote user authentication and the key agreement on IoD and claimed that their schemes satisfied all security issues in these networks. However, we found that their schemes may lead to losing access to the drone system due to the corruption of using a key management system and make the system completely unusable. To solve this drawback, we propose a lightweight and anonymous two-factor authentication scheme for drones. The proposed scheme is based on an asymmetric cryptographic method to provide a secure system and is more suitable than the other existing schemes by securing real-time information. Moreover, the comparison shows that the proposed scheme minimized the complexity of communication and computation costs.
Husa, Eric, Tourani, Reza.  2021.  Vibe: An Implicit Two-Factor Authentication using Vibration Signals. 2021 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :236—244.
The increased need for online account security and the prominence of smartphones in today’s society has led to smartphone-based two-factor authentication schemes, in which the second factor is a code received on the user’s smartphone. Evolving two-factor authentication mechanisms suggest using the proximity of the user’s devices as the second authentication factor, avoiding the inconvenience of user-device interaction. These mechanisms often use low-range communication technologies or the similarities of devices’ environments to prove devices’ proximity and user authenticity. However, such mechanisms are vulnerable to colocated adversaries. This paper proposes Vibe-an implicit two-factor authentication mechanism, which uses a vibration communication channel to prove users’ authenticity in a secure and non-intrusive manner. Vibe’s design provides security at the physical layer, reducing the attack surface to the physical surface shared between devices. As a result, it protects users’ security even in the presence of co-located adversaries-the primary drawback of the existing systems. We prototyped Vibe and assessed its performance using commodity hardware in different environments. Our results show an equal error rate of 0.0175 with an end-to-end authentication latency of approximately 3.86 seconds.
Pappu, Shiburaj, Kangane, Dhanashree, Shah, Varsha, Mandwiwala, Junaid.  2021.  AI-Assisted Risk Based Two Factor Authentication Method (AIA-RB-2FA). 2021 International Conference on Innovative Computing, Intelligent Communication and Smart Electrical Systems (ICSES). :1—5.
Authentication, forms an important step in any security system to allow access to resources that are to be restricted. In this paper, we propose a novel artificial intelligence-assisted risk-based two-factor authentication method. We begin with the details of existing systems in use and then compare the two systems viz: Two Factor Authentication (2FA), Risk-Based Two Factor Authentication (RB-2FA) with each other followed by our proposed AIA-RB-2FA method. The proposed method starts by recording the user features every time the user logs in and learns from the user behavior. Once sufficient data is recorded which could train the AI model, the system starts monitoring each login attempt and predicts whether the user is the owner of the account they are trying to access. If they are not, then we fallback to 2FA.
Azhari Halim, Muhammad Arif, Othman, Mohd. Fairuz Iskandar, Abidin, Aa Zezen Zaenal, Hamid, Erman, Harum, Norharyati, Shah, Wahidah Md.  2021.  Face Recognition-based Door Locking System with Two-Factor Authentication Using OpenCV. 2021 Sixth International Conference on Informatics and Computing (ICIC). :1—7.

This project develops a face recognition-based door locking system with two-factor authentication using OpenCV. It uses Raspberry Pi 4 as the microcontroller. Face recognition-based door locking has been around for many years, but most of them only provide face recognition without any added security features, and they are costly. The design of this project is based on human face recognition and the sending of a One-Time Password (OTP) using the Twilio service. It will recognize the person at the front door. Only people who match the faces stored in its dataset and then inputs the correct OTP will have access to unlock the door. The Twilio service and image processing algorithm Local Binary Pattern Histogram (LBPH) has been adopted for this system. Servo motor operates as a mechanism to access the door. Results show that LBPH takes a short time to recognize a face. Additionally, if an unknown face is detected, it will log this instance into a "Fail" file and an accompanying CSV sheet.

Baruah, Barnana, Dhal, Subhasish.  2021.  An Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme for Secure Communication in Smart Grid. 2021 International Conference on COMmunication Systems & NETworkS (COMSNETS). :447—455.
Rapid development of wireless technologies has driven the evolution of smart grid application. In smart grid, authentication plays an important role for secure communication between smart meter and service provider. Hence, the design of secure authenticated key agreement schemes has received significant attention from researchers. In these schemes, a trusted third party directly participates in key agreement process. Although, this third party is assumed as trusted, however we cannot reject the possibility that being a third party, it can also be malicious. In the existing works, either the established session key is revealed to the agents of a trusted third party, or a trusted third party agent can impersonate the smart meter and establish a valid session key with the service provider, which is likely to cause security vulnerabilities. Therefore, there is a need to design a secure authentication scheme so that only the deserving entities involved in the communication can establish and know the session key. This paper proposes a new secure authenticated key agreement scheme for smart grid considering the fact that the third party can also be malicious. The security of the proposed scheme has been thoroughly evaluated using an adversary model. Correctness of the scheme has been analyzed using the broadly accepted Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) Logic. In addition, the formal security verification of the proposed scheme has been performed using the widely accepted Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications (AVISPA) simulation tool. Results of this simulation confirm that the proposed scheme is safe. Detailed security analysis shows the robustness of the scheme against various known attacks. Moreover, the comparative performance study of the proposed scheme with other relevant schemes is presented to demonstrate its practicality.
Papaspirou, Vassilis, Maglaras, Leandros, Ferrag, Mohamed Amine, Kantzavelou, Ioanna, Janicke, Helge, Douligeris, Christos.  2021.  A novel Two-Factor HoneyToken Authentication Mechanism. 2021 International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN). :1–7.
The majority of systems rely on user authentication on passwords, but passwords have so many weaknesses and widespread use that easily raise significant security concerns, regardless of their encrypted form. Users hold the same password for different accounts, administrators never check password files for flaws that might lead to a successful cracking, and the lack of a tight security policy regarding regular password replacement are a few problems that need to be addressed. The proposed research work aims at enhancing this security mechanism, prevent penetrations, password theft, and attempted break-ins towards securing computing systems. The selected solution approach is two-folded; it implements a two-factor authentication scheme to prevent unauthorized access, accompanied by Honeyword principles to detect corrupted or stolen tokens. Both can be integrated into any platform or web application with the use of QR codes and a mobile phone.
Lei Lei, Joanna Tan, Chuin, Liew Siau, Ernawan, Ferda.  2021.  An Image Watermarking based on Multi-level Authentication for Quick Response Code. 2021 International Conference on Software Engineering & Computer Systems and 4th International Conference on Computational Science and Information Management (ICSECS-ICOCSIM). :417–422.
This research presented a digital watermarking scheme using multi-level authentication for protecting QR code images in order to provide security and authenticity. This research focuses on the improved digital watermarking scheme for QR code security that can protect the confidentiality of the information stored in QR code images from the public. Information modification, malicious attack, and copyright violation may occur due to weak security and disclosure pattern of QR code. Digital watermarking can be a solution to reduce QR code imitation and increase QR code security and authenticity. The objectives of this research are to provide QR code image authentication and security, tamper localization, and recovery scheme on QR code images. This research proposed digital watermarking for QR code images based on multi-level authentication with Least Significant Bit (LSB) and SHA-256 hash function. The embedding and extracting watermark utilized region of Interest (ROI) and Region of Non-Interest (RONI) in the spatial domain for improving the depth and width of QR code application in the anti-counterfeiting field. The experiments tested the reversibility and robustness of the proposed scheme after a tempered watermarked QR code image. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme provides multi-level security, withstands tampered attacks and it provided high imperceptibility of QR code image.
Nanjo, Yuki, Shirase, Masaaki, Kodera, Yuta, Kusaka, Takuya, Nogami, Yasuyuki.  2021.  A Construction Method of Final Exponentiation for a Specific Cyclotomic Family of Pairing-Friendly Elliptic Curves with Prime Embedding Degrees. 2021 Ninth International Symposium on Computing and Networking (CANDAR). :148—154.
Pairings on elliptic curves which are carried out by the Miller loop and final exponentiation are used for innovative protocols such as ID-based encryption and group signature authentication. As the recent progress of attacks for finite fields in which pairings are defined, the importance of the use of the curves with prime embedding degrees \$k\$ has been increased. In this manuscript, the authors provide a method for providing efficient final exponentiation algorithms for a specific cyclotomic family of curves with arbitrary prime \$k\$ of \$k\textbackslashtextbackslashequiv 1(\textbackslashtextbackslashtextmod\textbackslashtextbackslash 6)\$. Applying the proposed method for several curves such as \$k=7\$, 13, and 19, it is found that the proposed method gives rise to the same algorithms as the previous state-of-the-art ones by the lattice-based method.