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Zhang, H., Ma, J., Wang, Y., Pei, Q..  2009.  An Active Defense Model and Framework of Insider Threats Detection and Sense. 2009 Fifth International Conference on Information Assurance and Security. 1:258—261.
Insider attacks is a well-known problem acknowledged as a threat as early as 1980s. The threat is attributed to legitimate users who take advantage of familiarity with the computational environment and abuse their privileges, can easily cause significant damage or losses. In this paper, we present an active defense model and framework of insider threat detection and sense. Firstly, we describe the hierarchical framework which deal with insider threat from several aspects, and subsequently, show a hierarchy-mapping based insider threats model, the kernel of the threats detection, sense and prediction. The experiments show that the model and framework could sense the insider threat in real-time effectively.
Foroughi, F., Hadipour, H., Shafiee, A. M..  2020.  High-Performance Monitoring Sensors for Home Computer Users Security Profiling. 2020 International Conference on Cyber Situational Awareness, Data Analytics and Assessment (CyberSA). :1—7.

Recognising user's risky behaviours in real-time is an important element of providing appropriate solutions and recommending suitable actions for responding to cybersecurity threats. Employing user modelling and machine learning can make this process automated by requires high-performance intelligent agent to create the user security profile. User profiling is the process of producing a profile of the user from historical information and past details. This research tries to identify the monitoring factors and suggests a novel observation solution to create high-performance sensors to generate the user security profile for a home user concerning the user's privacy. This observer agent helps to create a decision-making model that influences the user's decision following real-time threats or risky behaviours.

Ben-Yaakov, Y., Meyer, J., Wang, X., An, B..  2020.  User detection of threats with different security measures. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Human-Machine Systems (ICHMS). :1—6.

Cyber attacks and the associated costs made cybersecurity a vital part of any system. User behavior and decisions are still a major part in the coping with these risks. We developed a model of optimal investment and human decisions with security measures, given that the effectiveness of each measure depends partly on the performance of the others. In an online experiment, participants classified events as malicious or non-malicious, based on the value of an observed variable. Prior to making the decisions, they had invested in three security measures - a firewall, an IDS or insurance. In three experimental conditions, maximal investment in only one of the measures was optimal, while in a fourth condition, participants should not have invested in any of the measures. A previous paper presents the analysis of the investment decisions. This paper reports users' classifications of events when interacting with these systems. The use of security mechanisms helped participants gain higher scores. Participants benefited in particular from purchasing IDS and/or Cyber Insurance. Participants also showed higher sensitivity and compliance with the alerting system when they could benefit from investing in the IDS. Participants, however, did not adjust their behavior optimally to the security settings they had chosen. The results demonstrate the complex nature of risk-related behaviors and the need to consider human abilities and biases when designing cyber security systems.

Shaout, A., Schmidt, N..  2020.  Keystroke Identifier Using Fuzzy Logic to Increase Password Security. 2020 21st International Arab Conference on Information Technology (ACIT). :1—8.

Cybersecurity is a major issue today. It is predicted that cybercrime will cost the world \$6 trillion annually by 2021. It is important to make logins secure as well as to make advances in security in order to catch cybercriminals. This paper will design and create a device that will use Fuzzy logic to identify a person by the rhythm and frequency of their typing. The device will take data from a user from a normal password entry session. This data will be used to make a Fuzzy system that will be able to identify the user by their typing speed. An application of this project could be used to make a more secure log-in system for a user. The log-in system would not only check that the correct password was entered but also that the rhythm of how the password was typed matched the user. Another application of this system could be used to help catch cybercriminals. A cybercriminal may have a certain rhythm at which they type at and this could be used like a fingerprint to help officials locate cybercriminals.

Papakonstantinou, N., Linnosmaa, J., Bashir, A. Z., Malm, T., Bossuyt, D. L. V..  2020.  Early Combined Safety - Security Defense in Depth Assessment of Complex Systems. 2020 Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS). :1—7.

Safety and security of complex critical infrastructures is very important for economic, environmental and social reasons. The interdisciplinary and inter-system dependencies within these infrastructures introduce difficulties in the safety and security design. Late discovery of safety and security design weaknesses can lead to increased costs, additional system complexity, ineffective mitigation measures and delays to the deployment of the systems. Traditionally, safety and security assessments are handled using different methods and tools, although some concepts are very similar, by specialized experts in different disciplines and are performed at different system design life-cycle phases.The methodology proposed in this paper supports a concurrent safety and security Defense in Depth (DiD) assessment at an early design phase and it is designed to handle safety and security at a high level and not focus on specific practical technologies. It is assumed that regardless of the perceived level of security defenses in place, a determined (motivated, capable and/or well-funded) attacker can find a way to penetrate a layer of defense. While traditional security research focuses on removing vulnerabilities and increasing the difficulty to exploit weaknesses, our higher-level approach focuses on how the attacker's reach can be limited and to increase the system's capability for detection, identification, mitigation and tracking. The proposed method can assess basic safety and security DiD design principles like Redundancy, Physical separation, Functional isolation, Facility functions, Diversity, Defense lines/Facility and Computer Security zones, Safety classes/Security Levels, Safety divisions and physical gates/conduits (as defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and international standards) concurrently and provide early feedback to the system engineer. A prototype tool is developed that can parse the exported project file of the interdisciplinary model. Based on a set of safety and security attributes, the tool is able to assess aspects of the safety and security DiD capabilities of the design. Its results can be used to identify errors, improve the design and cut costs before a formal human expert inspection. The tool is demonstrated on a case study of an early conceptual design of a complex system of a nuclear power plant.

Sayers, J. M., Feighery, B. E., Span, M. T..  2020.  A STPA-Sec Case Study: Eliciting Early Security Requirements for a Small Unmanned Aerial System. 2020 IEEE Systems Security Symposium (SSS). :1—8.

This work describes a top down systems security requirements analysis approach for understanding and eliciting security requirements for a notional small unmanned aerial system (SUAS). More specifically, the System-Theoretic Process Analysis approach for Security (STPA-Sec) is used to understand and elicit systems security requirements. The effort employs STPA-Sec on a notional SUAS system case study to detail the development of functional-level security requirements, design-level engineering considerations, and architectural-level security specification criteria early in the system life cycle when the solution trade-space is largest rather than merely examining components and adding protections during system operation or sustainment. These details were elaborated during a semester independent study research effort by two United States Air Force Academy Systems Engineering cadets, guided by their instructor and a series of working group sessions with UAS operators and subject matter experts. This work provides insight into a viable systems security requirements analysis approach which results in traceable security, safety, and resiliency requirements that can be designed-for, built-to, and verified with confidence.

DiMase, D., Collier, Z. A., Chandy, J., Cohen, B. S., D'Anna, G., Dunlap, H., Hallman, J., Mandelbaum, J., Ritchie, J., Vessels, L..  2020.  A Holistic Approach to Cyber Physical Systems Security and Resilience. 2020 IEEE Systems Security Symposium (SSS). :1—8.

A critical need exists for collaboration and action by government, industry, and academia to address cyber weaknesses or vulnerabilities inherent to embedded or cyber physical systems (CPS). These vulnerabilities are introduced as we leverage technologies, methods, products, and services from the global supply chain throughout a system's lifecycle. As adversaries are exploiting these weaknesses as access points for malicious purposes, solutions for system security and resilience become a priority call for action. The SAE G-32 Cyber Physical Systems Security Committee has been convened to address this complex challenge. The SAE G-32 will take a holistic systems engineering approach to integrate system security considerations to develop a Cyber Physical System Security Framework. This framework is intended to bring together multiple industries and develop a method and common language which will enable us to more effectively, efficiently, and consistently communicate a risk, cost, and performance trade space. The standard will allow System Integrators to make decisions utilizing a common framework and language to develop affordable, trustworthy, resilient, and secure systems.

Perkins, J., Eikenberry, J., Coglio, A., Rinard, M..  2020.  Comprehensive Java Metadata Tracking for Attack Detection and Repair. 2020 50th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN). :39—51.

We present ClearTrack, a system that tracks meta-data for each primitive value in Java programs to detect and nullify a range of vulnerabilities such as integer overflow/underflow and SQL/command injection vulnerabilities. Contributions include new techniques for eliminating false positives associated with benign integer overflows and underflows, new metadata-aware techniques for detecting and nullifying SQL/command command injection attacks, and results from an independent evaluation team. These results show that 1) ClearTrack operates successfully on Java programs comprising hundreds of thousands of lines of code (including instrumented jar files and Java system libraries, the majority of the applications comprise over 3 million lines of code), 2) because of computations such as cryptography and hash table calculations, these applications perform millions of benign integer overflows and underflows, and 3) ClearTrack successfully detects and nullifies all tested integer overflow and underflow and SQL/command injection vulnerabilities in the benchmark applications.

Bresch, C., Lysecky, R., Hély, D..  2020.  BackFlow: Backward Edge Control Flow Enforcement for Low End ARM Microcontrollers. 2020 Design, Automation Test in Europe Conference Exhibition (DATE). :1606–1609.
This paper presents BackFlow, a compiler-based toolchain that enforces indirect backward edge control flow integrity for low-end ARM Cortex-M microprocessors. BackFlow is implemented within the Clang/LLVM compiler and supports the ARM instruction set and its subset Thumb. The control flow integrity generated by the compiler relies on a bitmap, where each set bit indicates a valid pointer destination. The efficiency of the framework is benchmarked using an STM32 NUCLEO F446RE microcontroller. The obtained results show that the control flow integrity solution incurs an execution time overhead ranging from 1.5 to 4.5%.
Widulinski, P., Wawryn, K..  2020.  A Human Immunity Inspired Intrusion Detection System to Search for Infections in an Operating System. 2020 27th International Conference on Mixed Design of Integrated Circuits and System (MIXDES). :187—191.

In the paper, an intrusion detection system to safeguard computer software is proposed. The detection is based on negative selection algorithm, inspired by the human immunity mechanism. It is composed of two stages, generation of receptors and anomaly detection. Experimental results of the proposed system are presented, analyzed, and concluded.

Moskvichev, A. D., Dolgachev, M. V..  2020.  System of Collection and Analysis Event Log from Sources under Control of Windows Operating System. 2020 International Multi-Conference on Industrial Engineering and Modern Technologies (FarEastCon). :1—5.

The purpose of this work is to implement a universal system for collecting and analyzing event logs from sources that use the Windows operating system. The authors use event-forwarding technology to collect data from logs. Security information and event management detects incidents from received events. The authors analyze existing methods for transmitting event log entries from sources running the Windows operating system. This article describes in detail how to connect event sources running on the Windows operating system to the event collector without connecting to a domain controller. Event sources are authenticated using certificates created by the event collector. The authors suggest a scheme for connecting the event collector to security information and event management. Security information and event management must meet the requirements for use in conjunction with event forwarding technology. The authors of the article demonstrate the scheme of the test stand and the result of testing the event forwarding technology.

Kuppa, A., Le-Khac, N.-A..  2020.  Black Box Attacks on Explainable Artificial Intelligence(XAI) methods in Cyber Security. 2020 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN). :1–8.

Cybersecurity community is slowly leveraging Machine Learning (ML) to combat ever evolving threats. One of the biggest drivers for successful adoption of these models is how well domain experts and users are able to understand and trust their functionality. As these black-box models are being employed to make important predictions, the demand for transparency and explainability is increasing from the stakeholders.Explanations supporting the output of ML models are crucial in cyber security, where experts require far more information from the model than a simple binary output for their analysis. Recent approaches in the literature have focused on three different areas: (a) creating and improving explainability methods which help users better understand the internal workings of ML models and their outputs; (b) attacks on interpreters in white box setting; (c) defining the exact properties and metrics of the explanations generated by models. However, they have not covered, the security properties and threat models relevant to cybersecurity domain, and attacks on explainable models in black box settings.In this paper, we bridge this gap by proposing a taxonomy for Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) methods, covering various security properties and threat models relevant to cyber security domain. We design a novel black box attack for analyzing the consistency, correctness and confidence security properties of gradient based XAI methods. We validate our proposed system on 3 security-relevant data-sets and models, and demonstrate that the method achieves attacker's goal of misleading both the classifier and explanation report and, only explainability method without affecting the classifier output. Our evaluation of the proposed approach shows promising results and can help in designing secure and robust XAI methods.

Khan, M., Rehman, O., Rahman, I. M. H., Ali, S..  2020.  Lightweight Testbed for Cybersecurity Experiments in SCADA-based Systems. 2020 International Conference on Computing and Information Technology (ICCIT-1441). :1—5.

A rapid rise in cyber-attacks on Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) has been observed in the last decade. It becomes even more concerning that several of these attacks were on critical infrastructures that indeed succeeded and resulted into significant physical and financial damages. Experimental testbeds capable of providing flexible, scalable and interoperable platform for executing various cybersecurity experiments is highly in need by all stakeholders. A container-based SCADA testbed is presented in this work as a potential platform for executing cybersecurity experiments. Through this testbed, a network traffic containing ARP spoofing is generated that represents a Man in the middle (MITM) attack. While doing so, scanning of different systems within the network is performed which represents a reconnaissance attack. The network traffic generated by both ARP spoofing and network scanning are captured and further used for preparing a dataset. The dataset is utilized for training a network classification model through a machine learning algorithm. Performance of the trained model is evaluated through a series of tests where promising results are obtained.

Eftimie, S., Moinescu, R., Rǎcuciu, C..  2020.  Insider Threat Detection Using Natural Language Processing and Personality Profiles. 2020 13th International Conference on Communications (COMM). :325–330.
This work represents an interdisciplinary effort to proactively identify insider threats, using natural language processing and personality profiles. Profiles were developed for the relevant insider threat types using the five-factor model of personality and were used in a proof-of-concept detection system. The system employs a third-party cloud service that uses natural language processing to analyze personality profiles based on personal content. In the end, an assessment was made over the feasibility of the system using a public dataset.
Navabi, S., Nayyar, A..  2020.  A Dynamic Mechanism for Security Management in Multi-Agent Networked Systems. IEEE INFOCOM 2020 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. :1628—1637.
We study the problem of designing a dynamic mechanism for security management in an interconnected multi-agent system with N strategic agents and one coordinator. The system is modeled as a network of N vertices. Each agent resides in one of the vertices of the network and has a privately known security state that describes its safety level at each time. The evolution of an agent's security state depends on its own state, the states of its neighbors in the network and on actions taken by a network coordinator. Each agent's utility at time instant t depends on its own state, the states of its neighbors in the network and on actions taken by a network coordinator. The objective of the network coordinator is to take security actions in order to maximize the long-term expected social surplus. Since agents are strategic and their security states are private information, the coordinator needs to incentivize agents to reveal their information. This results in a dynamic mechanism design problem for the coordinator. We leverage the inter-temporal correlations between the agents' security states to identify sufficient conditions under which an incentive compatible expected social surplus maximizing mechanism can be constructed. We then identify two special cases of our formulation and describe how the desired mechanism is constructed in these cases.
Li, W., Li, L..  2009.  A Novel Approach for Vehicle-logo Location Based on Edge Detection and Morphological Filter. 2009 Second International Symposium on Electronic Commerce and Security. 1:343—345.

Vehicle-logo location is a crucial step in vehicle-logo recognition system. In this paper, a novel approach of the vehicle-logo location based on edge detection and morphological filter is proposed. Firstly, the approximate location of the vehicle-logo region is determined by the prior knowledge about the position of the vehicle-logo; Secondly, the texture measure is defined to recognize the texture of the vehicle-logo background; Then, vertical edge detection is executed for the vehicle-logo background with the horizontal texture and horizontal edge detection is implemented for the vehicle-logo background with the vertical texture; Finally, position of the vehicle-logo is located accurately by mathematical morphology filter. Experimental results show the proposed method is effective.

Gillen, R. E., Anderson, L. A., Craig, C., Johnson, J., Columbia, A., Anderson, R., Craig, A., Scott, S. L..  2020.  Design and Implementation of Full-Scale Industrial Control System Test Bed for Assessing Cyber-Security Defenses. 2020 IEEE 21st International Symposium on "A World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks" (WoWMoM). :341—346.
In response to the increasing awareness of the Ethernet-based threat surface of industrial control systems (ICS), both the research and commercial communities are responding with ICS-specific security solutions. Unfortunately, many of the properties of ICS environments that contribute to the extent of this threat surface (e.g. age of devices, inability or unwillingness to patch, criticality of the system) similarly prevent the proper testing and evaluation of these security solutions. Production environments are often too fragile to introduce unvetted technology and most organizations lack test environments that are sufficiently consistent with production to yield actionable results. Cost and space requirements prevent the creation of mirrored physical environments leading many to look towards simulation or virtualization. Examples in literature provide various approaches to building ICS test beds, though most of these suffer from a lack of realism due to contrived scenarios, synthetic data and other compromises. In this paper, we provide a design methodology for building highly realistic ICS test beds for validating cybersecurity defenses. We then apply that methodology to the design and building of a specific test bed and describe the results and experimental use cases.
Calhoun, C. S., Reinhart, J., Alarcon, G. A., Capiola, A..  2020.  Establishing Trust in Binary Analysis in Software Development and Applications. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Human-Machine Systems (ICHMS). :1–4.
The current exploratory study examined software programmer trust in binary analysis techniques used to evaluate and understand binary code components. Experienced software developers participated in knowledge elicitations to identify factors affecting trust in tools and methods used for understanding binary code behavior and minimizing potential security vulnerabilities. Developer perceptions of trust in those tools to assess implementation risk in binary components were captured across a variety of application contexts. The software developers reported source security and vulnerability reports provided the best insight and awareness of potential issues or shortcomings in binary code. Further, applications where the potential impact to systems and data loss is high require relying on more than one type of analysis to ensure the binary component is sound. The findings suggest binary analysis is viable for identifying issues and potential vulnerabilities as part of a comprehensive solution for understanding binary code behavior and security vulnerabilities, but relying simply on binary analysis tools and binary release metadata appears insufficient to ensure a secure solution.
Fathi, Z., Rafsanjani, A. J., Habibi, F..  2020.  Anon-ISAC: Anonymity-preserving cyber threat information sharing platform based on permissioned Blockchain. 2020 28th Iranian Conference on Electrical Engineering (ICEE). :1—5.

In cyber threat information sharing, secure transfer and protecting privacy are very important. In this paper we solve these issues by suggesting a platform based on private permissioned Blockchain, which provides us with access control as well. The platform is called Anon-ISAC and is built on the Enhanced Privacy ID (EPID) zero-knowledge proof scheme. It makes use of permissioned Blockchain as a way to keep identity anonymous. Organizations can share their information on incidents or other artifacts among trusted parties, while they keep their identity hidden. This will save them from unwanted consequences of exposure of sensitive security information.

Krasnov, A. N., Prakhova, M. Y., Novikova, U. V..  2020.  Ensuring Cybersecurity of Data Transmission in Limited Energy Consumption Networks. 2020 International Multi-Conference on Industrial Engineering and Modern Technologies (FarEastCon). :1—5.

In the northern gas fields, most data are transmitted via wireless networks, which requires special transmission security measures. Herewith, the gas field infrastructure dictates cybersecurity modules to not only meet standard requirements but also ensure reduced energy consumption. The paper discusses the issue of building such a module for a process control system based on the RTP-04M recorder operating in conjunction with an Android-based mobile device. The software options used for the RSA and Diffie-Hellman data encryption and decryption algorithms on both the RTP-04M and the Android-based mobile device sides in the Keil μVision4 and Android Studio software environments, respectively, have shown that the Diffie-Hellman algorithm is preferable. It provides significant savings in RAM and CPU resources and power consumption of the recorder. In terms of energy efficiency, the implemented programs have been analyzed in the Android Studio (Android Profiler) and Simplicity Studio (Advanced Energy Monitor) environments. The integration of this module into the existing software will improve the field's PCS cybersecurity level due to protecting data transmitted from third-party attacks.

Li, M., Chang, H., Xiang, Y., An, D..  2020.  A Novel Anti-Collusion Audio Fingerprinting Scheme Based on Fourier Coefficients Reversing. IEEE Signal Processing Letters. 27:1794—1798.

Most anti-collusion audio fingerprinting schemes are aiming at finding colluders from the illegal redistributed audio copies. However, the loss caused by the redistributed versions is inevitable. In this letter, a novel fingerprinting scheme is proposed to eliminate the motivation of collusion attack. The audio signal is transformed to the frequency domain by the Fourier transform, and the coefficients in frequency domain are reversed in different degrees according to the fingerprint sequence. Different from other fingerprinting schemes, the coefficients of the host media are excessively modified by the proposed method in order to reduce the quality of the colluded version significantly, but the imperceptibility is well preserved. Experiments show that the colluded audio cannot be reused because of the poor quality. In addition, the proposed method can also resist other common attacks. Various kinds of copyright risks and losses caused by the illegal redistribution are effectively avoided, which is significant for protecting the copyright of audio.

Shaikh, F., Bou-Harb, E., Neshenko, N., Wright, A. P., Ghani, N..  2018.  Internet of Malicious Things: Correlating Active and Passive Measurements for Inferring and Characterizing Internet-Scale Unsolicited IoT Devices. IEEE Communications Magazine. 56:170—177.

Advancements in computing, communication, and sensing technologies are making it possible to embed, control, and gather vital information from tiny devices that are being deployed and utilized in practically every aspect of our modernized society. From smart home appliances to municipal water and electric industrial facilities to our everyday work environments, the next Internet frontier, dubbed IoT, is promising to revolutionize our lives and tackle some of our nations' most pressing challenges. While the seamless interconnection of IoT devices with the physical realm is envisioned to bring a plethora of critical improvements in many aspects and diverse domains, it will undoubtedly pave the way for attackers that will target and exploit such devices, threatening the integrity of their data and the reliability of critical infrastructure. Further, such compromised devices will undeniably be leveraged as the next generation of botnets, given their increased processing capabilities and abundant bandwidth. While several demonstrations exist in the literature describing the exploitation procedures of a number of IoT devices, the up-to-date inference, characterization, and analysis of unsolicited IoT devices that are currently deployed "in the wild" is still in its infancy. In this article, we address this imperative task by leveraging active and passive measurements to report on unsolicited Internet-scale IoT devices. This work describes a first step toward exploring the utilization of passive measurements in combination with the results of active measurements to shed light on the Internet-scale insecurities of the IoT paradigm. By correlating results of Internet-wide scanning with Internet background radiation traffic, we disclose close to 14,000 compromised IoT devices in diverse sectors, including critical infrastructure and smart home appliances. To this end, we also analyze their generated traffic to create effective mitigation signatures that could be deployed in local IoT realms. To support largescale empirical data analytics in the context of IoT, we make available the inferred and extracted IoT malicious raw data through an authenticated front-end service. The outcomes of this work confirm the existence of such compromised devices on an Internet scale, while the generated inferences and insights are postulated to be employed for inferring other similarly compromised IoT devices, in addition to contributing to IoT cyber security situational awareness.

Bhaharin, S. H., Mokhtar, U. A., Sulaiman, R., Yusof, M. M..  2019.  Issues and Trends in Information Security Policy Compliance. 2019 6th International Conference on Research and Innovation in Information Systems (ICRIIS). :1—6.
In the era of Industry 4.0 (IR 4.0), information leakage has become a critical issue for information security. The basic approach to addressing information leakage threats is to implement an information security policy (ISP) that defines the standards, boundaries, and responsibilities of users of information and technology of an organization. ISPs are one of the most commonly used methods for controlling internal user security behaviours, which include, but not limited to, computer usage ethics; organizational system usage policies; Internet and email usage policies; and the use of social media. Human error is the main security threat to information security, resulting from negligence, ignorance, and failure to adhere to organizational information security policies. Information security incidents are a problem related to human behaviour because technology is designed and operated by humans, presenting the opportunities and spaces for human error. In addition to the factor of human error as the main source of information leakage, this study aims to systematically analyse the fundamental issues of information security policy compliance. An analysis of these papers identifies and categories critical factor that effect an employee's attitude toward compliance with ISP. The human, process, technology element and information governance should be thought as a significant scope for more efficiency of information security policy compliance and in any further extensive studies to improve on information security policy compliance. Therefore, to ensure these are properly understood, further study is needed to identity the information governance that needs to be included in organizations and current best practices for developing an information security policy compliance within organizations.
Koo, J., Kim, Y., Lee, S..  2019.  Security Requirements for Cloud-based C4I Security Architecture. 2019 International Conference on Platform Technology and Service (PlatCon). :1—4.
With the development of cloud computing technology, developed countries including the U.S. are performing the efficiency of national defense and public sector, national innovation, and construction of the infrastructure for cloud computing environment through the policies that apply cloud computing. Korea Military is also considering that apply the cloud computing technology into its national defense command control system. However, only existing security requirements for national defense information system cannot solve the problem related security vulnerabilities of cloud computing. In order to solve this problem, it is necessary to design the secure security architecture of national defense command control system considering security requirements related to cloud computing. This study analyze the security requirements needed when the U.S. military apply the cloud computing system. It also analyze existing security requirements for Korea national defense information system and security requirements for cloud computing system and draw the security requirements needed to Korea national defense information system based on cloud computing.
Alzahrani, A., Johnson, C., Altamimi, S..  2018.  Information security policy compliance: Investigating the role of intrinsic motivation towards policy compliance in the organization. 2018 4th International Conference on Information Management (ICIM). :125—132.
Recent behavioral research in information security has focused on increasing employees' motivation to enhance the security performance in an organization. This empirical study investigated employees' information security policy (ISP) compliance intentions using self-determination theory (SDT). Relevant hypotheses were developed to test the proposed research model. Data obtained via a survey (N=3D407) from a Fortune 600 organization in Saudi Arabia provides empirical support for the model. The results confirmed that autonomy, competence and the concept of relatedness all positively affect employees' intentions to comply. The variable 'perceived value congruence' had a negative effect on ISP compliance intentions, and the perceived legitimacy construct did not affect employees' intentions. In general, the findings of this study suggest that SDT has value in research into employees' ISP compliance intentions.