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Naik, Badavath Shravan, Tripathy, Somanath, Mohanty, Susil Kumar.  2022.  MuSigRDT: MultiSig Contract based Reliable Data Transmission in Social Internet of Vehicle. GLOBECOM 2022 - 2022 IEEE Global Communications Conference. :1763–1768.
Social Internet of Vehicle (SIoV) has emerged as one of the most promising applications for vehicle communication, which provides safe and comfortable driving experience. It reduces traffic jams and accidents, thereby saving public resources. However, the wrongly communicated messages would cause serious issues, including life threats. So it is essential to ensure the reliability of the message before acting on considering that. Existing works use cryptographic primitives like threshold authentication and ring signatures, which incurs huge computation and communication overheads, and the ring signature size grew linearly with the threshold value. Our objective is to keep the signature size constant regardless of the threshold value. This work proposes MuSigRDT, a multisignature contract based data transmission protocol using Schnorr digital signature. MuSigRDT provides incentives, to encourage the vehicles to share correct information in real-time and participate honestly in SIoV. MuSigRDT is shown to be secure under Universal Composability (UC) framework. The MuSigRDT contract is deployed on Ethereum's Rinkeby testnet.
AlFaw, Aysha, Elmedany, Wael, Sharif, Mhd Saeed.  2022.  Blockchain Vulnerabilities and Recent Security Challenges: A Review Paper. 2022 International Conference on Data Analytics for Business and Industry (ICDABI). :780–786.
Blockchain is a relatively new technology, a distributed database used for sharing between nodes of computer networks. A blockchain stores all information in automated digital format as a database. Blockchain innovation ensures the accuracy and security of the data record and generates trust without the need for a trusted third party. The objectives of this paper are to determine the security risk of the blockchain systems, analyze the vulnerabilities exploited on the blockchain, and identify recent security challenges that the blockchain faces. This review paper presents some of the previous studies of the security threats that blockchain faces and reviews the security enhancement solutions for blockchain vulnerabilities. There are some studies on blockchain security issues, but there is no systematic examination of the problem, despite the blockchain system’s security threats. An observational research methodology was used in this research. Through this methodology, many research related to blockchain threats and vulnerabilities obtained. The outcomes of this research are to Identify the most important security threats faced by the blockchain and consideration of security recently vulnerabilities. Processes and methods for dealing with security concerns are examined. Intelligent corporate security academic challenges and limitations are covered throughout this review. The goal of this review is to serve as a platform as well as a reference point for future work on blockchain-based security.
Li, Weijian, Li, Chengyan, Xu, Qiwei, Yin, Keting.  2022.  A Novel Distributed CA System Based on Blockchain. 2022 IEEE 10th International Conference on Information, Communication and Networks (ICICN). :710–716.
In the PKI-CA system with a traditional trust model based on trust chain and centralized private key management, there are some problems with issuing certificates illegally, denying issued certificates, tampering with issuance log, and leaking certificate private key due to the excessive power of a single CA. A novel distributed CA system based on blockchain was constructed to solve the problems. The system applied blockchain and smart contract to coordinate the certificate issuing process, and stored the issuing process logs and information used to verify certificates on the blockchain. It guaranteed the non-tamperability and non-repudiation of logs and information. Aiming at the disadvantage of easy leakage of private keys in centralized management mode, the system used the homomorphism of elliptic encryption algorithm, CPK and transformation matrix to generate and store user private keys safely and distributively. Experimental analysis showed that the system can not only overcome the drawbacks of the traditional PKI-CA system, but also issue certificates quickly and save as much storage as possible to store certificate private keys.
Wang, Meng, Long, Yihong.  2020.  SM9 Digital Signature with Non-Repudiation. 2020 16th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Security (CIS). :356–361.
SM9 is an identity-based cryptography algorithm published by the State Cryptography Administration of China. With SM9, a user's private key for signing is generated by a central system called key generation center (KGC). When the owner of the private key wants to shirk responsibility by denying that the signature was generated by himself, he can claim that the operator of KGC forged the signature using the generated private key. To address this issue, in this paper, two schemes of SM9 digital signature with non-repudiation are proposed. With the proposed schemes, the user's private key for signing is collaboratively generated by two separate components, one of which is deployed in the private key service provider's site while the other is deployed in the user's site. The private key can only be calculated in the user's site with the help of homomorphic encryption. Therefore, only the user can obtain the private key and he cannot deny that the signature was generated by himself. The proposed schemes can achieve the non-repudiation of SM9 digital signature.
Ahmadi-Assalemi, Gabriela, al-Khateeb, Haider M., Epiphaniou, Gregory, Cosson, Jon, Jahankhani, Hamid, Pillai, Prashant.  2019.  Federated Blockchain-Based Tracking and Liability Attribution Framework for Employees and Cyber-Physical Objects in a Smart Workplace. 2019 IEEE 12th International Conference on Global Security, Safety and Sustainability (ICGS3). :1–9.
The systematic integration of the Internet of Things (IoT) and Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) into the supply chain to increase operational efficiency and quality has also introduced new complexities to the threat landscape. The myriad of sensors could increase data collection capabilities for businesses to facilitate process automation aided by Artificial Intelligence (AI) but without adopting an appropriate Security-by-Design framework, threat detection and response are destined to fail. The emerging concept of Smart Workplace incorporates many CPS (e.g. Robots and Drones) to execute tasks alongside Employees both of which can be exploited as Insider Threats. We introduce and discuss forensic-readiness, liability attribution and the ability to track moving Smart SPS Objects to support modern Digital Forensics and Incident Response (DFIR) within a defence-in-depth strategy. We present a framework to facilitate the tracking of object behaviour within Smart Controlled Business Environments (SCBE) to support resilience by enabling proactive insider threat detection. Several components of the framework were piloted in a company to discuss a real-life case study and demonstrate anomaly detection and the emerging of behavioural patterns according to objects' movement with relation to their job role, workspace position and nearest entry or exit. The empirical data was collected from a Bluetooth-based Proximity Monitoring Solution. Furthermore, a key strength of the framework is a federated Blockchain (BC) model to achieve forensic-readiness by establishing a digital Chain-of-Custody (CoC) and a collaborative environment for CPS to qualify as Digital Witnesses (DW) to support post-incident investigations.
Jiang, Jehn-Ruey, Chung, Wei-Sheng.  2019.  Real-Time Proof of Violation with Adaptive Huffman Coding Hash Tree for Cloud Storage Service. 2019 IEEE 12th Conference on Service-Oriented Computing and Applications (SOCA). :147–153.
This paper proposes two adaptive Huffman coding hash tree algorithms to construct the hash tree of a file system. The algorithms are used to design the real-time proof of violation (PoV) scheme for the cloud storage service to achieve mutual non-repudiation between the user and the service provider. The PoV scheme can then generate cryptographic proofs once the service-level agreement (SLA) is violated. Based on adaptive Huffman coding, the proposed algorithms add hash tree nodes dynamically when a file is accessed for the first time. Every node keeps a count to reflect the frequency of occurrence of the associated file, and all nodes' counts and the tree structure are adjusted on-the-fly for every file access. This can significantly reduce the memory and computation overheads required by the PoV scheme. The file access patterns of the NCUCCWiki and the SNIA IOTTA datasets are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms. The algorithms are also compared with a related hash tree construction algorithm used in a PoV scheme, named ERA, to show their superiority in performance.
Anand, Shajina, Raja, Gunasekaran, Anand, Gokul, Chauhdary, Sajjad Hussain, Bashir, Ali Kashif.  2019.  Mirage: A Protocol for Decentralized and Secured Communication of IoT Devices. 2019 IEEE 10th Annual Ubiquitous Computing, Electronics Mobile Communication Conference (UEMCON). :1074–1080.
Internet of Things (IoT) is rapidly emerging as the manifestation of the networked society vision. But its centralized architecture will lead to a single point of failure. On the other hand, it will be difficult to handle communications in the near future considering the rapid growth of IoT devices. Along with its popularity, IoT suffers from a lot of vulnerabilities, which IoT developers are constantly working to mitigate. This paper proposes a new protocol called Mirage which can be used for secure and decentralized communication of IoT devices. This protocol is built based on security principles. Out of which Mirage mainly focuses on authentication, integrity, and non-repudiation. In this protocol, devices are authenticated via secret keys known only to the parties involved in the communication. These secret keys are not static and will be constantly changing for every communication. For ensuring integrity, an intermediary is asked to exchange the hash of the messages. As the intermediary nodes are lending their computing and networking powers, they should be rewarded. To ensure non-repudiation, instead of going for trusted third parties, blockchain technology is used. Every node in the network needs to spend a mirage token for sending a message. Mirage tokens will be provided only to those nodes, who help in exchanging the hashes as a reward. In the end, a decentralized network of IoT devices is formed where every node contribute to the security of the network.
Toradmalle, D., Singh, R., Shastri, H., Naik, N., Panchidi, V..  2018.  Prominence Of ECDSA Over RSA Digital Signature Algorithm. 2018 2nd International Conference on 2018 2nd International Conference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC)I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC). :253–257.

Digital signatures are replacing paper-based work to make life easier for customers and employees in various industries. We rigorously use RSA and Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) for public key cryptographic algorithms. Nowadays ECDSA (Elliptical Curve Digital Signature Algorithm) gaining more popularity than the RSA algorithm because of the better performance of ECDSA over RSA. The main advantage of ECC over RSA is ECC provides the same level of security with less key size and overhead than RSA. This paper focuses on a brief review of the performance of ECDSA and RSA in various aspects like time, security and power. This review tells us about why ECC has become the latest trend in the present cryptographic scenario.

Wu, T. Y., Tseng, Y. M., Huang, S. S., Lai, Y. C..  2017.  Non-Repudiable Provable Data Possession Scheme With Designated Verifier in Cloud Storage Systems. IEEE Access. 5:19333–19341.

In cloud storage systems, users can upload their data along with associated tags (authentication information) to cloud storage servers. To ensure the availability and integrity of the outsourced data, provable data possession (PDP) schemes convince verifiers (users or third parties) that the outsourced data stored in the cloud storage server is correct and unchanged. Recently, several PDP schemes with designated verifier (DV-PDP) were proposed to provide the flexibility of arbitrary designated verifier. A designated verifier (private verifier) is trustable and designated by a user to check the integrity of the outsourced data. However, these DV-PDP schemes are either inefficient or insecure under some circumstances. In this paper, we propose the first non-repudiable PDP scheme with designated verifier (DV-NRPDP) to address the non-repudiation issue and resolve possible disputations between users and cloud storage servers. We define the system model, framework and adversary model of DV-NRPDP schemes. Afterward, a concrete DV-NRPDP scheme is presented. Based on the computing discrete logarithm assumption, we formally prove that the proposed DV-NRPDP scheme is secure against several forgery attacks in the random oracle model. Comparisons with the previously proposed schemes are given to demonstrate the advantages of our scheme.

Fattahi, J., Mejri, M., Ziadia, M., Ghayoula, E., Samoud, O., Pricop, E..  2017.  Cryptographic protocol for multipart missions involving two independent and distributed decision levels in a military context. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC). :1127–1132.

In several critical military missions, more than one decision level are involved. These decision levels are often independent and distributed, and sensitive pieces of information making up the military mission must be kept hidden from one level to another even if all of the decision levels cooperate to accomplish the same task. Usually, a mission is negotiated through insecure networks such as the Internet using cryptographic protocols. In such protocols, few security properties have to be ensured. However, designing a secure cryptographic protocol that ensures several properties at once is a very challenging task. In this paper, we propose a new secure protocol for multipart military missions that involve two independent and distributed decision levels having different security levels. We show that it ensures the secrecy, authentication, and non-repudiation properties. In addition, we show that it resists against man-in-the-middle attacks.

Schiavone, E., Ceccarelli, A., Bondavalli, A..  2017.  Continuous Biometric Verification for Non-Repudiation of Remote Services. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security. :4:1–4:10.
As our society massively relies on ICT, security services are becoming essential to protect users and entities involved. Amongst such services, non-repudiation provides evidences of actions, protects against their denial, and helps solving disputes between parties. For example, it prevents denial of past behaviors as having sent or received messages. Noteworthy, if the information flow is continuous, evidences should be produced for the entirety of the flow and not only at specific points. Further, non-repudiation should be guaranteed by mechanisms that do not reduce the usability of the system or application. To meet these challenges, in this paper, we propose two solutions for non-repudiation of remote services based on multi-biometric continuous authentication. We present an application scenario that discusses how users and service providers are protected with such solutions. We also discuss the technological readiness of biometrics for non-repudiation services: the outcome is that, under specific assumptions, it is actually ready.
Ray, B., Howdhury, M., Abawajy, J., Jesmin, M..  2015.  Secure object tracking protocol for Networked RFID Systems. 2015 IEEE/ACIS 16th International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD). :1–7.

Networked systems have adapted Radio Frequency identification technology (RFID) to automate their business process. The Networked RFID Systems (NRS) has some unique characteristics which raise new privacy and security concerns for organizations and their NRS systems. The businesses are always having new realization of business needs using NRS. One of the most recent business realization of NRS implementation on large scale distributed systems (such as Internet of Things (IoT), supply chain) is to ensure visibility and traceability of the object throughout the chain. However, this requires assurance of security and privacy to ensure lawful business operation. In this paper, we are proposing a secure tracker protocol that will ensure not only visibility and traceability of the object but also genuineness of the object and its travel path on-site. The proposed protocol is using Physically Unclonable Function (PUF), Diffie-Hellman algorithm and simple cryptographic primitives to protect privacy of the partners, injection of fake objects, non-repudiation, and unclonability. The tag only performs a simple mathematical computation (such as combination, PUF and division) that makes the proposed protocol suitable to passive tags. To verify our security claims, we performed experiment on Security Protocol Description Language (SPDL) model of the proposed protocol using automated claim verification tool Scyther. Our experiment not only verified our claims but also helped us to eliminate possible attacks identified by Scyther.

Kumar, A., Sinha, M..  2014.  Overview on vehicular ad hoc network and its security issues. Computing for Sustainable Global Development (INDIACom), 2014 International Conference on. :792-797.

Vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) provides infrastructure less, rapidly deployable, self-configurable network connectivity. The network is the collection vehicles interlinked by wireless links and willing to store and forward data for their peers. As vehicles move freely and organize themselves arbitrarily, message routing is done dynamically based on network connectivity. Compared with other ad-hoc networks, VANETs are particularly challenging due to the part of the vehicles' high rate of mobility and the numerous signal-weakening barrier, such as buildings, in their environments. Due to their enormous potential, VANET have gained an increasing attention in both industry and academia. Research activities range from lower layer protocol design to applications and implementation issues. A secure VANET system, while exchanging information should protect the system against unauthorized message injection, message alteration, eavesdropping. The security of VANET is one of the most critical issues because their information transmission is propagated in open access (wireless) environments. A few years back VANET has received increased attention as the potential technology to enhance active and preventive safety on the road, as well as travel comfort Safekeeping and privacy are mandatory in vehicular communications for a grateful acceptance and use of such technology. This paper is an attempt to highlight the problems occurred in Vehicular Ad hoc Networks and security issues.