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Sivanesh, S., Sarma Dhulipala, V.R..  2019.  Comparitive Analysis of Blackhole and Rushing Attack in MANET. 2019 TEQIP III Sponsored International Conference on Microwave Integrated Circuits, Photonics and Wireless Networks (IMICPW). :495—499.

For the past few decades, mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) have been a global trend in wireless networking technology. These kind of ad-hoc networks are infrastructure less, dynamic in topology and further doesn't have a centralized network administration which makes it easier for the intruders to launch several attacks on MANETs. In this paper, we have made a comparative analysis of the network layer attack by simulating rushing and black hole attack using NS-2 network simulator. For determining the most vulnerable attack we have considered packet delivery ratio, end to end delay and throughput as a evaluation metrices. Here, AODV routing protocol has been configured for data forwarding operations. From our Simulation result, it is evident that the black hole attack is more vulnerable when compared to the rushing attack.

V S, Deepthi, S, Vagdevi.  2018.  Behaviour Analysis and Detection of Blackhole Attacker Node under Reactive Routing Protocol in MANETs. 2018 International Conference on Networking, Embedded and Wireless Systems (ICNEWS). :1–5.
Mobile Adhoc networks are wireless adhoc networks that have property of self organizing, less infrastructure, multi hoping, which are designed to work under low power vulnerable environment. Due to its very unique characteristics, there is much chances of threat of malicious nodes within the network. Blackhole attack is a menace in MANETs which redirects all traffic to itself and drops it. This paper’s objective is to analyze the effects of blackhole attack under reactive routing protocol such as Adhoc on Demand Distance Vector routing (AODV). The performance of this protocol is assessed to find the vulnerability of attack and also compared the impact of attack on both AODV, AODV with blackhole and proposed AODV protocols. The analysis is done by simulated using NS- 2.35 and QoS parameters such as Throughput, PDR, and Average Energy Consumed are measured further.
Zhong, Xiaoxiong, Lu, Renhao, Li, Li, Wang, Xinghan, Zheng, Yanbin.  2019.  DSOR: A Traffic-Differentiated Secure Opportunistic Routing with Game Theoretic Approach in MANETs. 2019 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC). :1–6.

Recently, the increase of different services makes the design of routing protocols more difficult in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), e.g., how to guarantee the QoS of different types of traffics flows in MANETs with resource constrained and malicious nodes. opportunistic routing (OR) can make full use of the broadcast characteristics of wireless channels to improve the performance of MANETs. In this paper, we propose a traffic-differentiated secure opportunistic routing from a game theoretic perspective, DSOR. In the proposed scheme, we use a novel method to calculate trust value, considering node's forwarding capability and the status of different types of flows. According to the resource status of the network, we propose a service price and resource price for the auction model, which is used to select optimal candidate forwarding sets. At the same time, the optimal bid price has been proved and a novel flow priority decision for transmission is presented, which is based on waiting time and requested time. The simulation results show that the network lifetime, packet delivery rate and delay of the DSOR are better than existing works.

Singh, Prateek Kumar, Kar, Koushik.  2018.  Countering Control Message Manipulation Attacks on OLSR. Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Distributed Computing and Networking. :22:1–22:9.

In this work we utilize a Reputation Routing Model (RRM), which we developed in an earlier work, to mitigate the impact of three different control message based blackhole attacks in Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). A malicious node can potentially introduce three types of blackhole attacks on OLSR, namely TC-Blackhole attack, HELLO-Blackhole attack and TC-HELLO-Blackhole attack, by modifying its TC and HELLO messages with false information and disseminating them in the network in order to fake its advertisement. This results in node(s) diverting their messages toward the malicious node, therefore posing great security risks. Our solution reduces the risk posed by such bad nodes in the network and tries to isolate such links by feeding correct link state information to OLSR. We evaluate the performance of our model by emulating network scenarios on Common Open Research Emulator (CORE) for static as well as dynamic topologies. From our findings, it is observed that our model diminishes the effect of all three blackhole attacks on OLSR protocol in terms of packet delivery rates, especially at static and low mobility.

Hmouda, E., Li, W..  2018.  Detection and Prevention of Attacks in MANETs by Improving the EAACK Protocol. SoutheastCon 2018. :1–7.

Mobile Ad Hoc Networks are dynamic in nature and have no rigid or reliable network infrastructure by their very definition. They are expected to be self-governed and have dynamic wireless links which are not entirely reliable in terms of connectivity and security. Several factors could cause their degradation, such as attacks by malicious and selfish nodes which result in data carrying packets being dropped which in turn could cause breaks in communication between nodes in the network. This paper aims to address the issue of remedy and mitigation of the damage caused by packet drops. We proposed an improvement on the EAACK protocol to reduce the network overhead packet delivery ratio by using hybrid cryptography techniques DES due to its higher efficiency in block encryption, and RSA due to its management in key cipher. Comparing to the existing approaches, our simulated results show that hybrid cryptography techniques provide higher malicious behavior detection rates, and improve the performance. This research can also lead to more future efforts in using hybrid encryption based authentication techniques for attack detection/prevention in MANETs.

Li, T., Ma, J., Pei, Q., Shen, Y., Sun, C..  2018.  Log-based Anomalies Detection of MANETs Routing with Reasoning and Verification. 2018 Asia-Pacific Signal and Information Processing Association Annual Summit and Conference (APSIPA ASC). :240–246.

Routing security plays an important role in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs). Despite many attempts to improve its security, the routing procedure of MANETs remains vulnerable to attacks. Existing approaches offer support for detecting attacks or debugging in different routing phases, but many of them have not considered the privacy of the nodes during the anomalies detection, which depend on the central control program or a third party to supervise the whole network. In this paper, we present an approach called LAD which uses the raw logs of routers to construct control a flow graph and find the existing communication rules in MANETs. With the reasoning rules, LAD can detect both active and passive attacks launched during the routing phase. LAD can also protect the privacy of the nodes in the verification phase with the specific Merkle hash tree. Without deploying any special nodes to assist the verification, LAD can detect multiple malicious nodes by itself. To show that our approach can be used to guarantee the security of the MANETs, we deploy our experiment in NS3 as well as the practical router environment. LAD can improve the accuracy rate from 2.28% to 29.22%. The results show that LAD performs limited time and memory usages, high detection and low false positives.

Ghonge, M. M., Jawandhiya, P. M., Thakare, V. M..  2018.  Reputation and trust based selfish node detection system in MANETs. 2018 2nd International Conference on Inventive Systems and Control (ICISC). :661–667.

With the progress over technology, it is becoming viable to set up mobile ad hoc networks for non-military services as like well. Examples consist of networks of cars, law about communication facilities into faraway areas, and exploiting the solidity between urban areas about present nodes such as cellular telephones according to offload or otherwise keep away from using base stations. In such networks, there is no strong motive according to assume as the nodes cooperate. Some nodes may also be disruptive and partial may additionally attempt according to save sources (e.g. battery power, memory, CPU cycles) through “selfish” behavior. The proposed method focuses on the robustness of packet forwarding: keeping the usual packet throughput over a mobile ad hoc network in the rear regarding nodes that misbehave at the routing layer. Proposed system listen at the routing layer or function no longer try after address attacks at lower layers (eg. jamming the network channel) and passive attacks kind of eavesdropping. Moreover such functionate now not bear together with issues kind of node authentication, securing routes, or message encryption. Proposed solution addresses an orthogonal problem the encouragement concerning proper routing participation.

Alsumayt, A., Haggerty, J., Lotfi, A..  2018.  Evaluation of Detection Method to Mitigate DoS Attacks in MANETs. 2018 1st International Conference on Computer Applications Information Security (ICCAIS). :1–5.

A Mobile ad hoc Network (MANET) is a self-configure, dynamic, and non-fixed infrastructure that consists of many nodes. These nodes communicate with each other without an administrative point. However, due to its nature MANET becomes prone to many attacks such as DoS attacks. DoS attack is a severe as it prevents legitimate users from accessing to their authorised services. Monitoring, Detection, and rehabilitation (MrDR) method is proposed to detect DoS attacks. MrDR method is based on calculating different trust values as nodes can be trusted or not. In this paper, we evaluate the MrDR method which detect DoS attacks in MANET and compare it with existing method Trust Enhanced Anonymous on-demand routing Protocol (TEAP) which is also based on trust concept. We consider two factors to compare the performance of the proposed method to TEAP method: packet delivery ratio and network overhead. The results confirm that the MrDR method performs better in network performance compared to TEAP method.

Umar, M., Sabo, A., Tata, A. A..  2018.  Modified Cooperative Bait Detection Scheme for Detecting and Preventing Cooperative Blackhole and Eavesdropping Attacks in MANET. 2018 International Conference on Networking and Network Applications (NaNA). :121–126.

Mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is a system of wireless mobile nodes that are dynamically self-organized in arbitrary and temporary topologies, that have received increasing interest due to their potential applicability to numerous applications. The deployment of such networks however poses several security challenging issues, due to their lack of fixed communication infrastructure, centralized administration, nodes mobility and dynamic topological changes, which make it susceptible to passive and active attacks such as single and cooperative black hole, sinkhole and eavesdropping attacks. The mentioned attacks mainly disrupt data routing processes by giving false routing information or stealing secrete information by malicious nodes in MANET. Thus, finding safe routing path by avoiding malicious nodes is a genuine challenge. This paper aims at combining the existing cooperative bait detection scheme which uses the baiting procedure to bait malicious nodes into sending fake route reply and then using a reverse tracing operation to detect the malicious nodes, with an RSA encryption technique to encode data packet before transmitting it to the destination to prevent eavesdropper and other malicious nodes from unauthorized read and write on the data packet. The proposed work out performs the existing Cooperative Bait Detection Scheme (CBDS) in terms of packet delivery ratio, network throughput, end to end delay, and the routing overhead.

Singh, E. P..  2017.  Re-joining of authorized nodes in MANETs using EGSR scheme and detection of internal attacks using 2ACK scheme. 2017 IEEE 8th Annual Ubiquitous Computing, Electronics and Mobile Communication Conference (UEMCON). :306–311.

One of the specially designated versatile networks, commonly referred to as MANET, performs on the basics that each and every one grouping in nodes totally operate in self-sorting out limits. In any case, performing in a group capacity maximizes quality and different sources. Mobile ad hoc network is a wireless infrastructureless network. Due to its unique features, various challenges are faced under MANET when the role of routing and its security comes into play. The review has demonstrated that the impact of failures during the information transmission has not been considered in the existing research. The majority of strategies for ad hoc networks just determines the path and transmits the data which prompts to packet drop in case of failures, thus resulting in low dependability. The majority of the existing research has neglected the use of the rejoining processing of the root nodes network. Most of the existing techniques are based on detecting the failures but the use of path re-routing has also been neglected in the existing methods. Here, we have proposed a method of path re-routing for managing the authorized nodes and managing the keys for group in ad hoc environment. Securing Schemes, named as 2ACK and the EGSR schemes have been proposed, which may be truly interacted to most of the routing protocol. The path re-routing has the ability to reduce the ratio of dropped packets. The comparative analysis has clearly shown that the proposed technique outperforms the available techniques in terms of various quality metrics.

Deeksha, Kumar, A., Bansal, M..  2017.  A review on VANET security attacks and their countermeasure. 2017 4th International Conference on Signal Processing, Computing and Control (ISPCC). :580–585.

In the development of smart cities across the world VANET plays a vital role for optimized route between source and destination. The VANETs is based on infra-structure less network. It facilitates vehicles to give information about safety through vehicle to vehicle communication (V2V) or vehicle to infrastructure communication (V2I). In VANETs wireless communication between vehicles so attackers violate authenticity, confidentiality and privacy properties which further effect security. The VANET technology is encircled with security challenges these days. This paper presents overview on VANETs architecture, a related survey on VANET with major concern of the security issues. Further, prevention measures of those issues, and comparative analysis is done. From the survey, found out that encryption and authentication plays an important role in VANETS also some research direction defined for future work.

Li, T., Ma, J., Sun, C., Wei, D., Xi, N..  2017.  PVad: Privacy-Preserving Verification for Secure Routing in Ad Hoc Networks. 2017 International Conference on Networking and Network Applications (NaNA). :5–10.

Routing security has a great importance to the security of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). There are various kinds of attacks when establishing routing path between source and destination. The adversaries attempt to deceive the source node and get the privilege of data transmission. Then they try to launch the malicious behaviors such as passive or active attacks. Due to the characteristics of the MANETs, e.g. dynamic topology, open medium, distributed cooperation, and constrained capability, it is difficult to verify the behavior of nodes and detect malicious nodes without revealing any privacy. In this paper, we present PVad, an approach conducting privacy-preserving verification in the routing discovery phase of MANETs. PVad tries to find the existing communication rules by association rules instead of making the rules. PVad consists of two phases, a reasoning phase deducing the expected log data of the peers, and a verification phase using Merkle Hash Tree to verify the correctness of derived information without revealing any privacy of nodes on expected routing paths. Without deploying any special nodes to assist the verification, PVad can detect multiple malicious nodes by itself. To show our approach can be used to guarantee the security of the MANETs, we conduct our experiments in NS3 as well as the real router environment, and we improved the detection accuracy by 4% on average compared to our former work.

Rajamanickam, V., Veerappan, D..  2014.  Inter cluster communication and rekeying technique for multicast security in mobile ad hoc networks. Information Security, IET. 8:234-239.

Owing to dynamic topology changes in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), nodes have the freedom of movement. This characteristic necessitates the process of rekeying to secure multicast transmission. Furthermore, a secure inter cluster communication technique is also mandatory to improve the performance of multicast transmission. In this paper, we propose an inter cluster communication and rekeying technique for multicast security in MANET. The technique facilitates inter cluster communication by distributing private key shares to the nodes, which is performed by the centralised key manager. By tamper proofing the data using private key share, inter cluster communication is accomplished. Furthermore, the rekeying mechanism is invoked when a node joins the cluster. Our rekeying technique incurs low overhead and computation cost. Our technique is simulated in network simulator tool. The simulation results show the proficiency of our technique.

Yanwei Wang, Yu, F.R., Tang, H., Minyi Huang.  2014.  A Mean Field Game Theoretic Approach for Security Enhancements in Mobile Ad hoc Networks. Wireless Communications, IEEE Transactions on. 13:1616-1627.

Game theory can provide a useful tool to study the security problem in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). Most of existing works on applying game theories to security only consider two players in the security game model: an attacker and a defender. While this assumption may be valid for a network with centralized administration, it is not realistic in MANETs, where centralized administration is not available. In this paper, using recent advances in mean field game theory, we propose a novel game theoretic approach with multiple players for security in MANETs. The mean field game theory provides a powerful mathematical tool for problems with a large number of players. The proposed scheme can enable an individual node in MANETs to make strategic security defence decisions without centralized administration. In addition, since security defence mechanisms consume precious system resources (e.g., energy), the proposed scheme considers not only the security requirement of MANETs but also the system resources. Moreover, each node in the proposed scheme only needs to know its own state information and the aggregate effect of the other nodes in the MANET. Therefore, the proposed scheme is a fully distributed scheme. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.