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2019-12-02
Takahashi, Akira, Tibouchi, Mehdi.  2019.  Degenerate Fault Attacks on Elliptic Curve Parameters in OpenSSL. 2019 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS P). :371–386.
In this paper, we describe several practically exploitable fault attacks against OpenSSL's implementation of elliptic curve cryptography, related to the singular curve point decompression attacks of Blömer and Günther (FDTC2015) and the degenerate curve attacks of Neves and Tibouchi (PKC 2016). In particular, we show that OpenSSL allows to construct EC key files containing explicit curve parameters with a compressed base point. A simple single fault injection upon loading such a file yields a full key recovery attack when the key file is used for signing with ECDSA, and a complete recovery of the plaintext when the file is used for encryption using an algorithm like ECIES. The attack is especially devastating against curves with j-invariant equal to 0 such as the Bitcoin curve secp256k1, for which key recovery reduces to a single division in the base field. Additionally, we apply the present fault attack technique to OpenSSL's implementation of ECDH, by combining it with Neves and Tibouchi's degenerate curve attack. This version of the attack applies to usual named curve parameters with nonzero j-invariant, such as P192 and P256. Although it is typically more computationally expensive than the one against signatures and encryption, and requires multiple faulty outputs from the server, it can recover the entire static secret key of the server even in the presence of point validation. These various attacks can be mounted with only a single instruction skipping fault, and therefore can be easily injected using low-cost voltage glitches on embedded devices. We validated them in practice using concrete fault injection experiments on a Rapsberry Pi single board computer running the up to date OpenSSL command line tools-a setting where the threat of fault attacks is quite significant.
2019-11-26
Chollet, Stéphanie, Pion, Laurent, Barbot, Nicolas, Michel, Clément.  2018.  Secure IoT for a Pervasive Platform. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PerCom Workshops). :113-118.

Nowadays, the proliferation of smart, communication-enable devices is opening up many new opportunities of pervasive applications. A major requirement of pervasive applications is to be secured. The complexity to secure pervasive systems is to address a end-to-end security level: from the device to the services according to the entire life cycle of devices, applications and platform. In this article, we propose a solution combining both hardware and software elements to secure communications between devices and pervasive platform based on certificates issued from a Public Key Infrastructure. Our solution is implemented and validated with a real device extended by a secure element and our own Public Key Infrastructure.

2019-11-18
Boontaetae, Pongpayak, Sangpetch, Akkarit, Sangpetch, Orathai.  2018.  RDI: Real Digital Identity Based on Decentralized PKI. 2018 22nd International Computer Science and Engineering Conference (ICSEC). :1–6.
Establishing a digital identity plays a vital part in the digital era. It is crucial to authenticate and identify the users in order to perform online transactions securely. For example, internet banking applications normally require a user to present a digital identity, e.g., username and password, to allow users to perform online transactions. However, the username-password approach has several downsides, e.g., susceptible to the brute-force attack. Public key binding using Certificate Authority (CA) is another common alternative to provide digital identity. Yet, the public key approach has a serious drawback: all CAs in the browser/OS' CA list are treated equally, and consequently, all trusts on the certificates could be invalidated by compromising only a single root CA's private key. We propose a Real Digital Identity based approach, or RDI, on decentralized PKI scheme. The core idea relies on a combination of well-known parties (e.g., a bank, a government agency) to certify the identity, instead of relying on a single CA. These parties, collectively known as Trusted Source Certificate Authorities (TSCA), formed a network of CAs. The generated certificates are stored in the blockchain controlled by smart contract. RDI creates a digital identity that can be trusted based on the TSCAs' challenge/response and it is also robust against a single point of trust attack on traditional CAs.
Chowdhary, Ankur, Huang, Dijiang, Alshamrani, Adel, Kang, Myong, Kim, Anya, Velazquez, Alexander.  2019.  TRUFL: Distributed Trust Management Framework in SDN. ICC 2019 - 2019 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–6.
Software Defined Networking (SDN) has emerged as a revolutionary paradigm to manage cloud infrastructure. SDN lacks scalable trust setup and verification mechanism between Data Plane-Control Plane elements, Control Plane elements, and Control Plane-Application Plane. Trust management schemes like Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) used currently in SDN are slow for trust establishment in a larger cloud environment. We propose a distributed trust mechanism - TRUFL to establish and verify trust in SDN. The distributed framework utilizes parallelism in trust management, in effect faster transfer rates and reduced latency compared to centralized trust management. The TRUFL framework scales well with the number of OpenFlow rules when compared to existing research works.
Lu, Zhaojun, Wang, Qian, Qu, Gang, Liu, Zhenglin.  2018.  BARS: A Blockchain-Based Anonymous Reputation System for Trust Management in VANETs. 2018 17th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/ 12th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :98–103.
The public key infrastructure (PKI) based authentication protocol provides the basic security services for vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs). However, trust and privacy are still open issues due to the unique characteristics of vehicles. It is crucial for VANETs to prevent internal vehicles from broadcasting forged messages while simultaneously protecting the privacy of each vehicle against tracking attacks. In this paper, we propose a blockchain-based anonymous reputation system (BARS) to break the linkability between real identities and public keys to preserve privacy. The certificate and revocation transparency is implemented efficiently using two blockchains. We design a trust model to improve the trustworthiness of messages relying on the reputation of the sender based on both direct historical interactions and indirect opinions about the sender. Experiments are conducted to evaluate BARS in terms of security and performance and the results show that BARS is able to establish distributed trust management, while protecting the privacy of vehicles.
Dong, Yuhao, Kim, Woojung, Boutaba, Raouf.  2018.  Conifer: Centrally-Managed PKI with Blockchain-Rooted Trust. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Internet of Things (iThings) and IEEE Green Computing and Communications (GreenCom) and IEEE Cyber, Physical and Social Computing (CPSCom) and IEEE Smart Data (SmartData). :1092–1099.
Secure naming systems, or more narrowly public key infrastructures (PKIs), form the basis of secure communications over insecure networks. All security guarantees against active attackers come from a trustworthy binding between user-facing names, such as domain names, to cryptographic identities, such as public keys. By offering a secure, distributed ledger with highly decentralized trust, blockchains such as Bitcoin show promise as the root of trust for naming systems with no central trusted parties. PKIs based upon blockchains, such as Namecoin and Blockstack, have greatly improved security and resilience compared to traditional centralized PKIs. Yet blockchain PKIs tend to significantly sacrifice scalability and flexibility in pursuit of decentralization, hindering large-scale deployability on the Internet. We propose Conifer, a novel PKI with an architecture based upon CONIKS, a centralized transparency-based PKI, and Catena, a blockchain-agnostic way of embedding a permissioned log, but with a different lookup strategy. In doing so, Conifer achieves decentralized trust with security at least as strong as existing blockchain-based naming systems, yet without sacrificing the flexibility and performance typically found in centralized PKIs. We also present our reference implementation of Conifer, demonstrating how it can easily be integrated into applications. Finally, we use experiments to evaluate the performance of Conifer compared with other naming systems, both centralized and blockchain-based, demonstrating that it incurs only a modest overhead compared to traditional centralized-trust systems while being far more scalable and performant than purely blockchain-based solutions.
Singla, Ankush, Bertino, Elisa.  2018.  Blockchain-Based PKI Solutions for IoT. 2018 IEEE 4th International Conference on Collaboration and Internet Computing (CIC). :9–15.
Traditionally, a Certification Authority (CA) is required to sign, manage, verify and revoke public key certificates. Multiple CAs together form the CA-based Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). The use of a PKI forces one to place trust in the CAs, which have proven to be a single point-of-failure on multiple occasions. Blockchain has emerged as a transformational technology that replaces centralized trusted third parties with a decentralized, publicly verifiable, peer-to-peer data store which maintains data integrity among nodes through various consensus protocols. In this paper, we deploy three blockchain-based alternatives to the CA-based PKI for supporting IoT devices, based on Emercoin Name Value Service (NVS), smart contracts by Ethereum blockchain, and Ethereum Light Sync client. We compare these approaches with CA-based PKI and show that they are much more efficient in terms of computational and storage requirements in addition to providing a more robust and scalable PKI.
Ahmed, Abu Shohel, Aura, Tuomas.  2018.  Turning Trust Around: Smart Contract-Assisted Public Key Infrastructure. 2018 17th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/ 12th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :104–111.
In past, several Certificate Authority (CA) compromise and subsequent mis-issue of certificate raise the importance of certificate transparency and dynamic trust management for certificates. Certificate Transparency (CT) provides transparency for issued certificates, thus enabling corrective measure for a mis-issued certificate by a CA. However, CT and existing mechanisms cannot convey the dynamic trust state for a certificate. To address this weakness, we propose Smart Contract-assisted PKI (SCP) - a smart contract based PKI extension - to manage dynamic trust network for PKI. SCP enables distributed trust in PKI, provides a protocol for managing dynamic trust, assures trust state of a certificate, and provides a better trust experience for end-users.
2019-10-30
Ghose, Nirnimesh, Lazos, Loukas, Li, Ming.  2018.  Secure Device Bootstrapping Without Secrets Resistant to Signal Manipulation Attacks. 2018 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). :819-835.
In this paper, we address the fundamental problem of securely bootstrapping a group of wireless devices to a hub, when none of the devices share prior associations (secrets) with the hub or between them. This scenario aligns with the secure deployment of body area networks, IoT, medical devices, industrial automation sensors, autonomous vehicles, and others. We develop VERSE, a physical-layer group message integrity verification primitive that effectively detects advanced wireless signal manipulations that can be used to launch man-in-the-middle (MitM) attacks over wireless. Without using shared secrets to establish authenticated channels, such attacks are notoriously difficult to thwart and can undermine the authentication and key establishment processes. VERSE exploits the existence of multiple devices to verify the integrity of the messages exchanged within the group. We then use VERSE to build a bootstrapping protocol, which securely introduces new devices to the network. Compared to the state-of-the-art, VERSE achieves in-band message integrity verification during secure pairing using only the RF modality without relying on out-of-band channels or extensive human involvement. It guarantees security even when the adversary is capable of fully controlling the wireless channel by annihilating and injecting wireless signals. We study the limits of such advanced wireless attacks and prove that the introduction of multiple legitimate devices can be leveraged to increase the security of the pairing process. We validate our claims via theoretical analysis and extensive experimentations on the USRP platform. We further discuss various implementation aspects such as the effect of time synchronization between devices and the effects of multipath and interference. Note that the elimination of shared secrets, default passwords, and public key infrastructures effectively addresses the related key management challenges when these are considered at scale.
2019-10-23
Madala, D S V, Jhanwar, Mahabir Prasad, Chattopadhyay, Anupam.  2018.  Certificate Transparency Using Blockchain. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Data Mining Workshops (ICDMW). :71-80.

The security of web communication via the SSL/TLS protocols relies on safe distributions of public keys associated with web domains in the form of X.509 certificates. Certificate authorities (CAs) are trusted third parties that issue these certificates. However, the CA ecosystem is fragile and prone to compromises. Starting with Google's Certificate Transparency project, a number of research works have recently looked at adding transparency for better CA accountability, effectively through public logs of all certificates issued by certification authorities, to augment the current X.509 certificate validation process into SSL/TLS. In this paper, leveraging recent progress in blockchain technology, we propose a novel system, called CTB, that makes it impossible for a CA to issue a certificate for a domain without obtaining consent from the domain owner. We further make progress to equip CTB with certificate revocation mechanism. We implement CTB using IBM's Hyperledger Fabric blockchain platform. CTB's smart contract, written in Go, is provided for complete reference.

Szalachowski, Pawel.  2018.  (Short Paper) Towards More Reliable Bitcoin Timestamps. 2018 Crypto Valley Conference on Blockchain Technology (CVCBT). :101-104.

Bitcoin provides freshness properties by forming a blockchain where each block is associated with its timestamp and the previous block. Due to these properties, the Bitcoin protocol is being used as a decentralized, trusted, and secure timestamping service. Although Bitcoin participants which create new blocks cannot modify their order, they can manipulate timestamps almost undetected. This undermines the Bitcoin protocol as a reliable timestamping service. In particular, a newcomer that synchronizes the entire blockchain has a little guarantee about timestamps of all blocks. In this paper, we present a simple yet powerful mechanism that increases the reliability of Bitcoin timestamps. Our protocol can provide evidence that a block was created within a certain time range. The protocol is efficient, backward compatible, and surprisingly, currently deployed SSL/TLS servers can act as reference time sources. The protocol has many applications and can be used for detecting various attacks against the Bitcoin protocol.

Chen, Jing, Yao, Shixiong, Yuan, Quan, He, Kun, Ji, Shouling, Du, Ruiying.  2018.  CertChain: Public and Efficient Certificate Audit Based on Blockchain for TLS Connections. IEEE INFOCOM 2018 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. :2060-2068.

In recent years, real-world attacks against PKI take place frequently. For example, malicious domains' certificates issued by compromised CAs are widespread, and revoked certificates are still trusted by clients. In spite of a lot of research to improve the security of SSL/TLS connections, there are still some problems unsolved. On one hand, although log-based schemes provided certificate audit service to quickly detect CAs' misbehavior, the security and data consistency of log servers are ignored. On the other hand, revoked certificates checking is neglected due to the incomplete, insecure and inefficient certificate revocation mechanisms. Further, existing revoked certificates checking schemes are centralized which would bring safety bottlenecks. In this paper, we propose a blockchain-based public and efficient audit scheme for TLS connections, which is called Certchain. Specially, we propose a dependability-rank based consensus protocol in our blockchain system and a new data structure to support certificate forward traceability. Furthermore, we present a method that utilizes dual counting bloom filter (DCBF) with eliminating false positives to achieve economic space and efficient query for certificate revocation checking. The security analysis and experimental results demonstrate that CertChain is suitable in practice with moderate overhead.

2019-10-15
Toradmalle, D., Singh, R., Shastri, H., Naik, N., Panchidi, V..  2018.  Prominence Of ECDSA Over RSA Digital Signature Algorithm. 2018 2nd International Conference on 2018 2nd International Conference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC)I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC). :253–257.

Digital signatures are replacing paper-based work to make life easier for customers and employees in various industries. We rigorously use RSA and Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) for public key cryptographic algorithms. Nowadays ECDSA (Elliptical Curve Digital Signature Algorithm) gaining more popularity than the RSA algorithm because of the better performance of ECDSA over RSA. The main advantage of ECC over RSA is ECC provides the same level of security with less key size and overhead than RSA. This paper focuses on a brief review of the performance of ECDSA and RSA in various aspects like time, security and power. This review tells us about why ECC has become the latest trend in the present cryptographic scenario.

2019-10-08
Tripathi, S. K., Pandian, K. K. S., Gupta, B..  2018.  Hardware Implementation of Dynamic Key Value Based Stream Cipher Using Chaotic Logistic Map. 2018 2nd International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Informatics (ICOEI). :1104–1108.

In the last few decades, the relative simplicity of the logistic map made it a widely accepted point in the consideration of chaos, which is having the good properties of unpredictability, sensitiveness in the key values and ergodicity. Further, the system parameters fit the requirements of a cipher widely used in the field of cryptography, asymmetric and symmetric key chaos based cryptography, and for pseudorandom sequence generation. Also, the hardware-based embedded system is configured on FPGA devices for high performance. In this paper, a novel stream cipher using chaotic logistic map is proposed. The two chaotic logistic maps are coded using Verilog HDL and implemented on commercially available FPGA hardware using Xilinx device: XC3S250E for the part: FT256 and operated at frequency of 62.20 MHz to generate the non-recursive key which is used in key scheduling of pseudorandom number generation (PRNG) to produce the key stream. The realization of proposed cryptosystem in this FPGA device accomplishes the improved efficiency equal to 0.1186 Mbps/slice. Further, the generated binary sequence from the experiment is analyzed for X-power, thermal analysis, and randomness tests are performed using NIST statistical.

2019-09-26
Mishra, B., Jena, D..  2018.  CCA Secure Proxy Re-Encryption Scheme for Secure Sharing of Files through Cloud Storage. 2018 Fifth International Conference on Emerging Applications of Information Technology (EAIT). :1-6.
Cloud Storage Service(CSS) provides unbounded, robust file storage capability and facilitates for pay-per-use and collaborative work to end users. But due to security issues like lack of confidentiality, malicious insiders, it has not gained wide spread acceptance to store sensitive information. Researchers have proposed proxy re-encryption schemes for secure data sharing through cloud. Due to advancement of computing technologies and advent of quantum computing algorithms, security of existing schemes can be compromised within seconds. Hence there is a need for designing security schemes which can be quantum computing resistant. In this paper, a secure file sharing scheme through cloud storage using proxy re-encryption technique has been proposed. The proposed scheme is proven to be chosen ciphertext secure(CCA) under hardness of ring-LWE, Search problem using random oracle model. The proposed scheme outperforms the existing CCA secure schemes in-terms of re-encryption time and decryption time for encrypted files which results in an efficient file sharing scheme through cloud storage.
Li, S., Wang, F., Shi, T., Kuang, J..  2019.  Probably Secure Multi-User Multi-Keyword Searchable Encryption Scheme in Cloud Storage. 2019 IEEE 3rd Information Technology, Networking, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (ITNEC). :1368-1372.
Searchable encryption server protects privacal data of data owner from leaks. This paper analyzes the security of a multi-user searchable encryption scheme and points out that this scheme does not satisfy the invisibility of trapdoors. In order to improve the security of the original scheme, this paper proposes a probably secure multi-user multi-keyword searchable encryption scheme. New secheme not only ensures the confidentiality of the cipher text keyword, but also does not increase the encryption workload of the data owner when the new data user joins. In the random oracle model, based on the hard problem of decisional Diffie-Hellman, it is proved that the scheme has trapdoor indistinguishability. In the end, obtained by the simulation program to achieve a new computationally efficient communication at low cost.
2019-09-11
Wang, D., Ma, Y., Du, J., Ji, Y., Song, Y..  2018.  Security-Enhanced Signaling Scheme in Software Defined Optical Network. 2018 10th International Conference on Communication Software and Networks (ICCSN). :286–289.

The communication security issue is of great importance and should not be ignored in backbone optical networks which is undergoing the evolution toward software defined networks (SDN). With the aim to solve this problem, this paper conducts deep analysis into the security challenge of software defined optical networks (SDON) and proposes a so-called security-enhanced signaling scheme of SDON. The proposed scheme makes full advantage of current OpenFIow protocol with some necessary extensions and security improvement, by combining digital signatures and message feedback with efficient PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) in signaling procedure of OpenFIow interaction. Thus, this security-enhanced signaling procedure is also designed in details to make sure the end-to-end trusted service connection. Simulation results show that this proposed approach can greatly improve the security level of large-scale optical network for Energy Internet services with better performance in term of connection success rate performance.

2019-08-26
Gupta, D. S., Biswas, G. P., Nandan, R..  2018.  Security weakness of a lattice-based key exchange protocol. 2018 4th International Conference on Recent Advances in Information Technology (RAIT). :1–5.

A key exchange protocol is an important primitive in the field of information and network security and is used to exchange a common secret key among various parties. A number of key exchange protocols exist in the literature and most of them are based on the Diffie-Hellman (DH) problem. But, these DH type protocols cannot resist to the modern computing technologies like quantum computing, grid computing etc. Therefore, a more powerful non-DH type key exchange protocol is required which could resist the quantum and exponential attacks. In the year 2013, Lei and Liao, thus proposed a lattice-based key exchange protocol. Their protocol was related to the NTRU-ENCRYPT and NTRU-SIGN and so, was referred as NTRU-KE. In this paper, we identify that NTRU-KE lacks the authentication mechanism and suffers from the man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack. This attack may lead to the forging the authenticated users and exchanging the wrong key.

2019-06-10
Umar, M., Sabo, A., Tata, A. A..  2018.  Modified Cooperative Bait Detection Scheme for Detecting and Preventing Cooperative Blackhole and Eavesdropping Attacks in MANET. 2018 International Conference on Networking and Network Applications (NaNA). :121–126.

Mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is a system of wireless mobile nodes that are dynamically self-organized in arbitrary and temporary topologies, that have received increasing interest due to their potential applicability to numerous applications. The deployment of such networks however poses several security challenging issues, due to their lack of fixed communication infrastructure, centralized administration, nodes mobility and dynamic topological changes, which make it susceptible to passive and active attacks such as single and cooperative black hole, sinkhole and eavesdropping attacks. The mentioned attacks mainly disrupt data routing processes by giving false routing information or stealing secrete information by malicious nodes in MANET. Thus, finding safe routing path by avoiding malicious nodes is a genuine challenge. This paper aims at combining the existing cooperative bait detection scheme which uses the baiting procedure to bait malicious nodes into sending fake route reply and then using a reverse tracing operation to detect the malicious nodes, with an RSA encryption technique to encode data packet before transmitting it to the destination to prevent eavesdropper and other malicious nodes from unauthorized read and write on the data packet. The proposed work out performs the existing Cooperative Bait Detection Scheme (CBDS) in terms of packet delivery ratio, network throughput, end to end delay, and the routing overhead.

2019-05-20
Sutradhar, M. R., Sultana, N., Dey, H., Arif, H..  2018.  A New Version of Kerberos Authentication Protocol Using ECC and Threshold Cryptography for Cloud Security. 2018 Joint 7th International Conference on Informatics, Electronics Vision (ICIEV) and 2018 2nd International Conference on Imaging, Vision Pattern Recognition (icIVPR). :239–244.

Dependency on cloud computing are increasing day by day due to its beneficial aspects. As day by day we are relying on cloud computing, the securities issues are coming up. There are lots of security protocols but now-a-days those protocol are not secured enough to provide a high security. One of those protocols which were once highly secured, is Kerberos authentication protocol. With the advancement of technology, Kerberos authentication protocol is no longer as secured as it was before. Many authors have thought about the improvement of Kerberos authentication protocol and consequently they have proposed different types of protocol models by using a renowned public key cryptography named RSA cryptography. Though RSA cryptography is good to some extent but this cryptography has some flaws that make this cryptography less secured as well as less efficient. In this paper, we are combining Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) as well as Threshold Cryptography to create a new version of Kerberos authentication protocol. Our proposed model will provide secure transaction of data which will not only be hard to break but also increase memory efficiency, cost efficiency, and reduce the burden of computation.

Dey, H., Islam, R., Arif, H..  2019.  An Integrated Model To Make Cloud Authentication And Multi-Tenancy More Secure. 2019 International Conference on Robotics,Electrical and Signal Processing Techniques (ICREST). :502–506.

Cloud Computing is an important term of modern technology. The usefulness of Cloud is increasing day by day and simultaneously more and more security problems are arising as well. Two of the major threats of Cloud are improper authentication and multi-tenancy. According to the specialists both pros and cons belong to multi-tenancy. There are security protocols available but it is difficult to claim these protocols are perfect and ensure complete protection. The purpose of this paper is to propose an integrated model to ensure better Cloud security for Authentication and multi-tenancy. Multi-tenancy means sharing of resources and virtualization among clients. Since multi-tenancy allows multiple users to access same resources simultaneously, there is high probability of accessing confidential data without proper privileges. Our model includes Kerberos authentication protocol to enhance authentication security. During our research on Kerberos we have found some flaws in terms of encryption method which have been mentioned in couple of IEEE conference papers. Pondering about this complication we have elected Elliptic Curve Cryptography. On the other hand, to attenuate arose risks due to multi-tenancy we are proposing a Resource Allocation Manager Unit, a Control Database and Resource Allocation Map. This part of the model will perpetuate resource allocation for the users.

Kurera, C., Navoda, D..  2018.  Node-to-Node Secure Data Transmission Protocol for Low-power IoT Devices. 2018 18th International Conference on Advances in ICT for Emerging Regions (ICTer). :1–7.

Through the internet and local networks, IoT devices exchange data. Most of the IoT devices are low-power devices, meaning that they are designed to use less electric power. To secure data transmission, it is required to encrypt the messages. Encryption and decryption of messages are computationally expensive activities, thus require considerable amount of processing and memory power which is not affordable to low-power IoT devices. Therefore, not all secure transmission protocols are low-power IoT devices friendly. This study proposes a secure data transmission protocol for low-power IoT devices. The design inherits some features in Kerberos and onetime password concepts. The protocol is designed for devices which are connected to each other, as in a fully connected network topology. The protocol uses symmetric key cryptography under the assumption of that the device specific keys are never being transmitted over the network. It resists DoS, message replay and Man-of-the-middle attacks while facilitating the key security concepts such as Authenticity, Confidentiality and Integrity. The designed protocol uses less number of encryption/decryption cycles and maintain session based strong authentication to facilitate secure data transmission among nodes.

Ma, Y., Ning, H..  2018.  The improvement of wireless LAN security authentication mechanism based on Kerberos. 2018 International Conference on Electronics Technology (ICET). :392–397.

In order to solve the problem of vulnerable password guessing attacks caused by dictionary attacks, replay attacks in the authentication process, and man-in-the-middle attacks in the existing wireless local area network in terms of security authentication, we make some improvements to the 802.1X / EAP authentication protocol based on the study of the current IEEE802.11i security protocol with high security. After introducing the idea of Kerberos protocol authentication and applying the idea in the authentication process of 802.1X / EAP, a new protocol of Kerberos extensible authentication protocol (KEAP) is proposed. Firstly, the protocol introduces an asymmetric key encryption method, uses public key encryption during data transmission, and the receiver uses the corresponding private key for decryption. With unidirectional characteristics and high security, the encryption can avoid password guessing attacks caused by dictionary attacks as much as possible. Secondly, aiming at the problem that the request message sent from the client to the authentication server is vulnerable to replay attacks, the protocol uses a combination of the message sequence number and the random number, and the message serial number is added to the request message sent from the client to the authentication server. And establish a list database for storing message serial number and random number in the authentication server. After receiving a transfer message, the serial number and the random number are extracted and compared with the values in the list database to distinguish whether it is a retransmission message. Finally, the protocol introduces a keychain mechanism and uses an irreversible Hash function to encrypt the final authentication result, thereby effectively solving the man-in-the-middle attack by the pretender. The experiment uses the OPNET 14.5 simulation platform to model the KEAP protocol and simulate simulation attacks, and compares it with the current more common EAP-TLS authentication protocol. Experimental results show that the average traffic of the KEAP protocol is at least 14.74% higher than the EAP-TLS authentication protocol, and the average bit error rate is reduced by at least 24.00%.

2019-05-01
Hajny, J., Dzurenda, P., Ricci, S., Malina, L., Vrba, K..  2018.  Performance Analysis of Pairing-Based Elliptic Curve Cryptography on Constrained Devices. 2018 10th International Congress on Ultra Modern Telecommunications and Control Systems and Workshops (ICUMT). :1–5.

The paper deals with the implementation aspects of the bilinear pairing operation over an elliptic curve on constrained devices, such as smart cards, embedded devices, smart meters and similar devices. Although cryptographic constructions, such as group signatures, anonymous credentials or identity-based encryption schemes, often rely on the pairing operation, the implementation of such schemes into practical applications is not straightforward, in fact, it may become very difficult. In this paper, we show that the implementation is difficult not only due to the high computational complexity, but also due to the lack of cryptographic libraries and programming interfaces. In particular, we show how difficult it is to implement pairing-based schemes on constrained devices and show the performance of various libraries on different platforms. Furthermore, we show the performance estimates of fundamental cryptographic constructions, the group signatures. The purpose of this paper is to reduce the gap between the cryptographic designers and developers and give performance results that can be used for the estimation of the implementability and performance of novel, upcoming schemes.

Vagin, V. V., Butakova, N. G..  2019.  Mathematical Modeling of Group Authentication Based on Isogeny of Elliptic Curves. 2019 IEEE Conference of Russian Young Researchers in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (EIConRus). :1780–1785.

In this paper, we consider ways of organizing group authentication, as well as the features of constructing the isogeny of elliptic curves. The work includes the study of isogeny graphs and their application in postquantum systems. A hierarchical group authentication scheme has been developed using transformations based on the search for isogeny of elliptic curves.