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Ghugar, U., Pradhan, J..  2018.  NL-IDS: Trust Based Intrusion Detection System for Network Layer in Wireless Sensor Networks. 2018 Fifth International Conference on Parallel, Distributed and Grid Computing (PDGC). :512-516.

From the last few years, security in wireless sensor network (WSN) is essential because WSN application uses important information sharing between the nodes. There are large number of issues raised related to security due to open deployment of network. The attackers disturb the security system by attacking the different protocol layers in WSN. The standard AODV routing protocol faces security issues when the route discovery process takes place. The data should be transmitted in a secure path to the destination. Therefore, to support the process we have proposed a trust based intrusion detection system (NL-IDS) for network layer in WSN to detect the Black hole attackers in the network. The sensor node trust is calculated as per the deviation of key factor at the network layer based on the Black hole attack. We use the watchdog technique where a sensor node continuously monitors the neighbor node by calculating a periodic trust value. Finally, the overall trust value of the sensor node is evaluated by the gathered values of trust metrics of the network layer (past and previous trust values). This NL-IDS scheme is efficient to identify the malicious node with respect to Black hole attack at the network layer. To analyze the performance of NL-IDS, we have simulated the model in MATLAB R2015a, and the result shows that NL-IDS is better than Wang et al. [11] as compare of detection accuracy and false alarm rate.

Adeniji, V. O., Sibanda, K..  2018.  Analysis of the effect of malicious packet drop attack on packet transmission in wireless mesh networks. 2018 Conference on Information Communications Technology and Society (ICTAS). :1–6.
Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) are known for possessing good attributes such as low up-front cost, easy network maintenance, and reliable service coverage. This has largely made them to be adopted in various environments such as; school campus networks, community networking, pervasive healthcare, office and home automation, emergency rescue operations and ubiquitous wireless networks. The routing nodes are equipped with self-organized and self-configuring capabilities. However, the routing mechanisms of WMNs depend on the collaboration of all participating nodes for reliable network performance. The authors of this paper have noted that most routing algorithms proposed for WMNs in the last few years are designed with the assumption that all the participating nodes will collaboratively be involved in relaying the data packets originated from a source to a multi-hop destination. Such design approach however exposes WMNs to vulnerability such as malicious packet drop attack. This paper presents an evaluation of the effect of the black hole attack with other influential factors in WMNs. In this study, NS-3 simulator was used with AODV as the routing protocol. The results show that the packet delivery ratio and throughput of WMN under attack decreases sharply as compared to WMN free from attack. On an average, 47.41% of the transmitted data packets were dropped in presence of black hole attack.
Mistry, M., Tandel, P., Reshamwala, V..  2017.  Mitigating techniques of black hole attack in MANET: A review. 2017 International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Informatics (ICEI). :554–557.

A Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is infrastructure-less network where nodes can move arbitrary in any place without the help of any fixed infrastructure. Due to the vague limit, no centralized administrator, dynamic topology and wireless connections it is powerless against various types of assaults. MANET has more threat contrast to any other conventional networks. AODV (Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector) is most utilized well-known routing protocol in MANET. AODV protocol is scared by "Black Hole" attack. A black hole attack is a serious assault that can be effortlessly employed towards AODV protocol. A black hole node that incorrectly replies for each path requests while not having active path to targeted destination and drops all the packets that received from other node. If these malicious nodes cooperate with every other as a set then the harm will be very extreme. In this paper, present review on various existing techniques for detection and mitigation of black hole attacks.

Yadav, S., Trivedi, M. C., Singh, V. K., Kolhe, M. L..  2017.  Securing AODV routing protocol against black hole attack in MANET using outlier detection scheme. 2017 4th IEEE Uttar Pradesh Section International Conference on Electrical, Computer and Electronics (UPCON). :1–4.

Imposing security in MANET is very challenging and hot topic of research science last two decades because of its wide applicability in applications like defense. Number of efforts has been made in this direction. But available security algorithms, methods, models and framework may not completely solve this problem. Motivated from various existing security methods and outlier detection, in this paper novel simple but efficient outlier detection scheme based security algorithm is proposed to protect the Ad hoc on demand distance vector (AODV) reactive routing protocol from Black hole attack in mobile ad hoc environment. Simulation results obtained from network simulator tool evident the simplicity, robustness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm over the original AODV protocol and existing methods.

Dhende, S., Musale, S., Shirbahadurkar, S., Najan, A..  2017.  SAODV: Black hole and gray hole attack detection protocol in MANETs. 2017 International Conference on Wireless Communications, Signal Processing and Networking (WiSPNET). :2391–2394.

A MANET is a group of wireless mobile nodes which cooperate in forwarding packets over a wireless links. Due to the lack of an infrastructure and open nature of MANET, security has become an essential and challenging issue. The mobile nature and selfishness of malicious node is a critical issue in causing the security problem. The MANETs are more defenseless to the security attacks; some of them are black hole and gray hole attacks. One of its key challenges is to find black hole attack. In this paper, researchers propose a secure AODV protocol (SAODV) for detection and removal of black hole and gray hole attacks in MANTEs. The proposed method is simulated using NS-2 and it seems that the proposed methodology is more secure than the existing one.

Soleimani, M.T., Kahvand, M..  2014.  Defending packet dropping attacks based on dynamic trust model in wireless ad hoc networks. Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference (MELECON), 2014 17th IEEE. :362-366.

Rapid advances in wireless ad hoc networks lead to increase their applications in real life. Since wireless ad hoc networks have no centralized infrastructure and management, they are vulnerable to several security threats. Malicious packet dropping is a serious attack against these networks. In this attack, an adversary node tries to drop all or partial received packets instead of forwarding them to the next hop through the path. A dangerous type of this attack is called black hole. In this attack, after absorbing network traffic by the malicious node, it drops all received packets to form a denial of service (DOS) attack. In this paper, a dynamic trust model to defend network against this attack is proposed. In this approach, a node trusts all immediate neighbors initially. Getting feedback from neighbors' behaviors, a node updates the corresponding trust value. The simulation results by NS-2 show that the attack is detected successfully with low false positive probability.

Sarma, K.J., Sharma, R., Das, R..  2014.  A survey of Black hole attack detection in Manet. Issues and Challenges in Intelligent Computing Techniques (ICICT), 2014 International Conference on. :202-205.

MANET is an infrastructure less, dynamic, decentralised network. Any node can join the network and leave the network at any point of time. Due to its simplicity and flexibility, it is widely used in military communication, emergency communication, academic purpose and mobile conferencing. In MANET there no infrastructure hence each node acts as a host and router. They are connected to each other by Peer-to-peer network. Decentralised means there is nothing like client and server. Each and every node is acted like a client and a server. Due to the dynamic nature of mobile Ad-HOC network it is more vulnerable to attack. Since any node can join or leave the network without any permission the security issues are more challenging than other type of network. One of the major security problems in ad hoc networks called the black hole problem. It occurs when a malicious node referred as black hole joins the network. The black hole conducts its malicious behavior during the process of route discovery. For any received RREQ, the black hole claims having route and propagates a faked RREP. The source node responds to these faked RREPs and sends its data through the received routes once the data is received by the black hole; it is dropped instead of being sent to the desired destination. This paper discusses some of the techniques put forwarded by researchers to detect and prevent Black hole attack in MANET using AODV protocol and based on their flaws a new methodology also have been proposed.