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Hamamreh, Rushdi A., Ayyad, Mohammad, Jamoos, Mohammad.  2019.  RAD: Reinforcement Authentication DYMO Protocol for MANET. 2019 International Conference on Promising Electronic Technologies (ICPET). :136–141.
Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) does not have fixed infrastructure centralized server which manage the connections between the nodes. Rather, the nodes in MANET move randomly. Thus, it is risky to exchange data between nodes because there is a high possibility of having malicious node in the path. In this paper, we will describe a new authentication technique using message digest 5 (MD5), hashing for dynamic MANET on demand protocol (DYMO) based on reinforcement learning. In addition, we will describe an encryption technique that can be used without the need for a third party to distribute a secret key. After implementing the suggested model, results showed a remarkable enhancement in securing the path by increasing the packet delivery ratio and average throughput. On the other hand, there was an increase in end to end delay due to time spent in cryptographic operations.
Soualfi, Abderrahim Hajji, Agoujil, Said, Qaraai, Youssef.  2019.  Performance Analysis of OLSR Protocol under MPR Attack in Progressive Size Grid MANET. 2019 International Conference on Wireless Networks and Mobile Communications (WINCOM). :1–5.
Mobile Ad-hoc NETwork (MANET) is a collection of mobile devices which interchange information without the use of predefined infrastructures or central administration. It is employed in many domains such as military and commercial sectors, data and sensors networks, low level applications, etc. The important constraints in this network are the limitation of bandwidth, processing capabilities and battery life. The choice of an effective routing protocol is primordial. From many routing protocols developed for MANET, OLSR protocol is a widely-used proactive routing protocol which diffuses topological information periodically. Thus, every node has a global vision of the entire network. The protocol assumes, like the other protocols, that the nodes cooperate in a trusted environment. So, all control messages are transmitted (HELLO messages) to all 1-hop neighbor nodes or broadcasted (TC and MID messages) to the entire network in clear. However, a node, which listens to OLSR control messages, can exploit this property to lead an attack. In this paper, we investigate on MultiPoint Relay (MPR) attack considered like one of the efficient OLSR attacks by using a simulation in progressive size gridMANET.
Jim, Lincy Elizebeth, Chacko, Jim.  2019.  Decision Tree based AIS strategy for Intrusion Detection in MANET. TENCON 2019 - 2019 IEEE Region 10 Conference (TENCON). :1191–1195.
Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) are wireless networks that are void of fixed infrastructure as the communication between nodes are dependent on the liaison of each node in the network. The efficacy of MANET in critical scenarios like battlefield communications, natural disaster require new security strategies and policies to guarantee the integrity of nodes in the network. Due to the inherent frailty of MANETs, new security measures need to be developed to defend them. Intrusion Detection strategy used in wired networks are unbefitting for wireless networks due to reasons not limited to resource constraints of participating nodes and nature of communication. Nodes in MANET utilize multi hop communication to forward packets and this result in consumption of resources like battery and memory. The intruder or cheat nodes decide to cooperate or non-cooperate with other nodes. The cheat nodes reduce the overall effectiveness of network communications such as reduced packet delivery ratio and sometimes increase the congestion of the network by forwarding the packet to wrong destination and causing packets to take more times to reach the appropriate final destination. In this paper a decision tree based artificial immune system (AIS) strategy is utilized to detect such cheat nodes thereby improving the efficiency of packet delivery.
Tripathi, Shripriya.  2019.  Performance Analysis of AODV and DSR Routing Protocols of MANET under Wormhole Attack and a Suggested Trust Based Routing Algorithm for DSR. 2019 IEEE International WIE Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (WIECON-ECE). :1–5.

The nodes in Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) can self-assemble themselves, locomote unreservedly and can interact with one another without taking any help from a centralized authority or fixed infrastructure. Due to its continuously changing and self-organizing nature, MANET is vulnerable to a variety of attacks like spoofing attack, wormhole attack, black hole attack, etc. This paper compares and analyzes the repercussion of the wormhole attack on MANET's two common routing protocols of reactive category, specifically, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) by increasing the number of wormhole tunnels in MANET. The results received by simulation will reveal that DSR is greatly affected by this attack. So, as a solution, a routing algorithm for DSR which is based on trust is proposed to prevent the routes from caching malicious nodes.

Alapati, Yaswanth Kumar, Ravichandran, Suban.  2019.  Efficient Route Identification Method for Secure Packets Transfer in MANET. 2019 Third International conference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC). :467–471.
Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) routing is basic and route selection ought to be made faster before the node leaves the system. MANET routing Methods are intended to work in a friendly and satisfying condition which makes them helpless against different attacks. MANET is one of the most encouraging fields for innovative work of remote system. MANET has now turned out to be one of the most lively and dynamic field of communication among systems. A MANET is a self-sufficient gathering of mobile nodes that speak with one another over remote connections and coordinate in an appropriated way so as to give the fundamental system convenience without a fixed framework. MANET has transfer speed limitations yet it permits self-ruling communication of versatile clients over it. Because of regular node mobility, and along these lines change in route topology, the architecture of the system goes unpredicted after some time. In such a decentralized situation, secured route identification is a key task for communication among nodes. Trust calculation among nodes is done for involving trusted nodes in route discovery process. In this manuscript, a novel secure routing method is proposed which identifies route among trusted nodes and update the routing table info frequently because of dynamic topology of the network. The outcomes demonstrate that the proposed method takes better routing technique when compared with existing methods.
Nithyapriya, J., Anandha Jothi, R., Palanisamy, V..  2019.  Protecting Messages Using Selective Encryption Based ESI Scheme for MANET. 2019 TEQIP III Sponsored International Conference on Microwave Integrated Circuits, Photonics and Wireless Networks (IMICPW). :50–54.
Mobile ad hoc network is a group of mobile nodes which have no centralized administrator. MANETs have dynamic topology since the nodes are moving. For this reason it is more prone to attacks that any node may be a misbehaving node. Every node acts as a router thereby it may lead the network with wrong routing. For these reasons MANETs have to be more protected than the wired networks. The mobile nodes will lavishly consume energy and so a security scheme that consumes less energy still provides ample protection to the messages have to be introduced. Here we propose an encryption scheme for the messages passing through MANET. The security scheme is based on selective encryption that is very robust, simple and with less computational capability.
Kumari, Alpana, Krishnan, Shoba.  2019.  Analysis of Malicious Behavior of Blackhole and Rushing Attack in MANET. 2019 International Conference on Nascent Technologies in Engineering (ICNTE). :1–6.

Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET) are the networks where network nodes uses wireless links to transfer information from one node to another without making use of existing infrastructure. There is no node in the network to control and coordinate establishment of connections between the network nodes. Hence the network nodes performs dual function of both node as well as router. Due to dynamically changing network scenarios, absence of centralization and lack of resources, MANETs have a threat of large number of security attacks. Hence security attacks need to be evaluated in order to find effective methods to avoid or remove them. In this paper malicious behavior of Blackhole attack and Rushing attack is studied and analyzed for QoS metrics.

Fu, Yulong, Li, Guoquan, Mohammed, Atiquzzaman, Yan, Zheng, Cao, Jin, Li, Hui.  2019.  A Study and Enhancement to the Security of MANET AODV Protocol Against Black Hole Attacks. 2019 IEEE SmartWorld, Ubiquitous Intelligence Computing, Advanced Trusted Computing, Scalable Computing Communications, Cloud Big Data Computing, Internet of People and Smart City Innovation (SmartWorld/SCALCOM/UIC/ATC/CBDCom/IOP/SCI). :1431–1436.
Mobile AdHoc Networks (MANET) can be fast implemented, and it is very popular in many specific network requirements, such as UAV (Unmanned Aerial Unit), Disaster Recovery and IoT (Internet of Things) etc. However, MANET is also vulnerable. AODV (Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing) protocol is one type of MANET routing protocol and many attacks can be implemented to break the connections on AODV based AdHoc networks. In this article, aim of protecting the MANET security, we modeled the AODV protocol with one type of Automata and analyzed the security vulnerabilities of it; then based on the analyzing results, we proposed an enhancement to AODV protocol to against the Black Hole Attacks. We also implemented the proposed enhancement in NS3 simulator and verified the correctness, usability and efficiency.
Jim, L. E., Gregory, M. A..  2018.  AIS Reputation Mechanism in MANET. 2018 28th International Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference (ITNAC). :1-6.

In Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET) the nodes act as a host as well as a router thereby forming a self-organizing network that does not rely upon fixed infrastructure, other than gateways to other networks. MANET provides a quick to deploy flexible networking capability with a dynamic topology due to node mobility. MANET nodes transmit, relay and receive traffic from neighbor nodes as the network topology changes. Security is important for MANET and trust computation is used to improve collaboration between nodes. MANET trust frameworks utilize real-time trust computations to maintain the trust state for nodes in the network. If the trust computation is not resilient against attack, the trust values computed could be unreliable. This paper proposes an Artificial Immune System based approach to compute trust and thereby provide a resilient reputation mechanism.

Karlsson, J., Dooley, L. S., Pulkkis, G..  2018.  Secure Routing for MANET Connected Internet of Things Systems. 2018 IEEE 6th International Conference on Future Internet of Things and Cloud (FiCloud). :114-119.

This paper presents a contemporary review of communication architectures and topographies for MANET-connected Internet-of-Things (IoT) systems. Routing protocols for multi-hop MANETs are analyzed with a focus on the standardized Routing Protocol for Low-power and Lossy Networks. Various security threats and vulnerabilities in current MANET routing are described and security enhanced routing protocols and trust models presented as methodologies for supporting secure routing. Finally, the paper identifies some key research challenges in the emerging domain of MANET-IoT connectivity.

Rathi, P. S., Rao, C. M..  2018.  An Enhanced Threshold Based Cryptography with Secrete Sharing and Particle Swarm Optimization for Data Sending in MANET. 2018 3rd Asia-Pacific Conference on Intelligent Robot Systems (ACIRS). :87-91.

There are two types of network architectures are presents those are wired network and wireless network. MANETs is one of the examples of wireless network. Each and every network has their own features which make them different from other types of network. Some of the features of MANETs are; infrastructure less network, mobility, dynamic network topology which make it different and more popular from wired network but these features also generate different problems for achieving security due to the absence of centralized authority inside network as well as sending of data due to its mobility features. Achieving security in wired network is little-bit easy compare to MANETs because in wired network user need to just protect main centralized authority for achieving security whereas in MANETs there is no centralized authority available so protecting server in MANETs is difficult compare to wired network. Data sending and receiving process is also easy in wired network but mobility features makes this data sending and receiving process difficult in MANETs. Protecting server or central repository without making use of secrete sharing in wired network will create so many challenges and problem in terms of security. The proposed system makes use of Secrete sharing method to protect server from malicious nodes and `A New particle Swarm Optimization Method for MANETs' (NPSOM) for performing data sending and receiving operation in optimization way. NPSOM technique get equated with the steady particle swarm optimizer (PSO) technique. PSO was essentially designed by Kennedy, Eberhart in 1995. These methods are based upon 4 dissimilar types of parameters. These techniques were encouraged by common performance of animals, some of them are bird assembling and fish tuition, ant colony. The proposed system converts this PSO in the form of MANETs where Particle is nothing but the nodes in the network, Swarm means collection of multiple nodes and Optimization means finding the best and nearer root to reach to destination. Each and every element study about their own previous best solution which they are having with them for the given optimization problem, likewise they see for the groups previous best solution which they got for the same problem and finally they correct its solution depending on these values. This same process gets repeated for finding of the best and optimal solutions value. NPSOM technique, used in proposed system there every element changes its location according to the solution which they got previously and which is poorest as well as their collection's earlier poorest solution for finding best, optimal value. In this proposed system we are concentrating on, sidestepping element's and collections poorest solution which they got before.

Tonane, P., Deshpande, S..  2018.  Trust Based Certificate Revocation and Attacks in MANETs. 2018 Second International Conference on Inventive Communication and Computational Technologies (ICICCT). :1089-1093.

Due to the changing nature of Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET) security is an important concern and hence in this paper, we carryout vector-based trust mechanism, which is established on the behavior of nodes in forwarding and dropping the data packets determines the trust on each node and we are using the Enhanced Certificate Revocation scheme (ECR), which avoid the attacker by blacklisting the blackhole attacker. To enhance more security for node and network, we assign a unique key for every individual node which can avoid most of the attacks in MANET

Dholey, M. K., Saha, M. K..  2018.  A Security Mechanism in DSR Routing for MANET. 2018 2nd International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Informatics (ICOEI). :921-925.

Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is an autonomous collection of mobile nodes and communicate among them in their radio range. It is an infrastructure less, bandwidth constraint multi-hop wireless network. A various routing protocol is being evolved for MANET routing and also provide security mechanism to avoid security threads. Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), one of the popular reactive routing protocols for MANET, establishes path between source to destination before data communication take place using route request (RREQ) and route reply (RREP) control messages. Although in [1] authors propose to prevent route diversion due to a malicious node in the network using group Diffie-Hellman (GDH) key management applied over source address, but if any intermediate trusted node start to misbehave then there is no prevention mechanism. Here in this paper, we applied Hash function scheme over destination address to identify the misbehaving intermediate node that can provide wrong destination address. The path information towards the destination sent by the intermediate node through RREP is exactly for the intended required destination or not, here we can identified according to our proposed algorithm and pretend for further data transmission. Our proposed algorithm proves the authenticity of the destination and also prevent from misbehaving intermediate nodes.

Abdel-Fattah, F., Farhan, K. A., Al-Tarawneh, F. H., AlTamimi, F..  2019.  Security Challenges and Attacks in Dynamic Mobile Ad Hoc Networks MANETs. 2019 IEEE Jordan International Joint Conference on Electrical Engineering and Information Technology (JEEIT). :28-33.

Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET for short) is a new art of wireless technology that connect a group of mobile nodes in a dynamically decentralized fashion without the need of a base station, or a centralized administration, whereas each mobile node can work as a router. MANET topology changes frequently, because of the MANET dynamically formation nature, and freely to move randomly. MANET can function as standalone or can be connected to external networks. Mobile nodes are characterized with minimal human interaction, weight, less memory, and power. Despite all the pros of MANET and the widely spreading in many and critical industries, MANET has some cons and suffers from severe security issues. In this survey we emphasize on the different types of attacks at MANET protocol stack, and show how MANET is vulnerable to those attacks.

Kumar, M., Bhandari, R., Rupani, A., Ansari, J. H..  2018.  Trust-Based Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocol Design with Security and QoS over MANET. 2018 International Conference on Advances in Computing and Communication Engineering (ICACCE). :139-142.

Nowadays, The incorporation of different function of the network, as well as routing, administration, and security, is basic to the effective operation of a mobile circumstantial network these days, in MANET thought researchers manages the problems of QoS and security severally. Currently, each the aspects of security and QoS influence negatively on the general performance of the network once thought-about in isolation. In fact, it will influence the exceptionally operating of QoS and security algorithms and should influence the important and essential services needed within the MANET. Our paper outlines 2 accomplishments via; the accomplishment of security and accomplishment of quality. The direction towards achieving these accomplishments is to style and implement a protocol to suite answer for policy-based network administration, and methodologies for key administration and causing of IPsec in a very MANET.

Achichi, Boubakeur, Semchedine, Fouzi, Derdouri, Lakhdar.  2018.  Hybrid Approach for Congestion Control in VANETs. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Software Engineering and New Technologies. :4:1-4:4.

Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network, or VANETs, is a form of MANET, through which cars will exchange messages to detect dangerous situations and announce them to drivers. In VANETs, vehicles (nodes) are characterized by a high dynamics and high mobility, in addition to the high rate of topology change and density variability. Quality of service in VANETs represents a major challenge, not yet solved, due to the characteristics and strict constraints of VANETs. In order to improve the performance and reliability of message dissemination on VANETs, congestion control must be taken into account. Many studies asserted that proper congestion control algorithms are essential to ensure an efficient network operation. However, most of the existing congestion control solutions have limitations. In this paper, we propose congestion control algorithm as solution to avoid congestion in VANETs environment. The proposed solution is based on a combination of two approaches: the event-oriented and the measurement-based, with message scheduling. The proposed solution is to reduce congestion and increase reliability to VANETs by assigning higher priority to critical security message.

Yadav, Parul, Gaur, Manish.  2018.  A Behavioural Theory for Intrusion Detection System in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks. Proceedings of the 2Nd International Conference on High Performance Compilation, Computing and Communications. :51-60.

We propose a Calculi in process algebraic framework to formally model Intrusion Detection System (IDS) for secure routing in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks. The proposed calculi, named as dRi, is basically an extension of Distributed pi calculus (Dpi). The calculi models unicast, multicast & broadcast communication, node mobility, energy conservation at node and detection of malicious node(s) in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks. The Calculi has two syntactic categories: one for describing nodes and another for processes which reside in nodes. We also present two views of semantic reductions; one as reduction on configurations whereas another as LTSs (Labelled Transition Systems), behavioural semantics, where reduction on configurations are described on various actions. We present an example described using LTSs to show the capability of the proposed calculi. We define a bisimulation based equivalence between configurations. Further we define a touch-stone equivalence on its reduction semantics & also present prove outline for bisimulation based equivalence that can be recovered from its touch-stone equivalence and vice-versa.

Singh, Prateek Kumar, Kar, Koushik.  2018.  Countering Control Message Manipulation Attacks on OLSR. Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Distributed Computing and Networking. :22:1–22:9.

In this work we utilize a Reputation Routing Model (RRM), which we developed in an earlier work, to mitigate the impact of three different control message based blackhole attacks in Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). A malicious node can potentially introduce three types of blackhole attacks on OLSR, namely TC-Blackhole attack, HELLO-Blackhole attack and TC-HELLO-Blackhole attack, by modifying its TC and HELLO messages with false information and disseminating them in the network in order to fake its advertisement. This results in node(s) diverting their messages toward the malicious node, therefore posing great security risks. Our solution reduces the risk posed by such bad nodes in the network and tries to isolate such links by feeding correct link state information to OLSR. We evaluate the performance of our model by emulating network scenarios on Common Open Research Emulator (CORE) for static as well as dynamic topologies. From our findings, it is observed that our model diminishes the effect of all three blackhole attacks on OLSR protocol in terms of packet delivery rates, especially at static and low mobility.

Hussain, K., Hussain, S. J., Jhanjhi, N., Humayun, M..  2019.  SYN Flood Attack Detection based on Bayes Estimator (SFADBE) For MANET. 2019 International Conference on Computer and Information Sciences (ICCIS). :1–4.

SYN flood attack is a very serious cause for disturbing the normal traffic in MANET. SYN flood attack takes advantage of the congestion caused by populating a specific route with unwanted traffic that results in the denial of services. In this paper, we proposed an Adaptive Detection Mechanism using Artificial Intelligence technique named as SYN Flood Attack Detection Based on Bayes Estimator (SFADBE) for Mobile ad hoc Network (MANET). In SFADBE, every node will gather the current information of the available channel and the secure and congested free (Best Path) channel for the traffic is selected. Due to constant congestion, the availability of the data path can be the cause of SYN Flood attack. By using this AI technique, we experienced the SYN Flood detection probability more than the others did. Simulation results show that our proposed SFADBE algorithm is low cost and robust as compared to the other existing approaches.

Kamel, M. B. M., Alameri, I., Onaizah, A. N..  2017.  STAODV: A secure and trust based approach to mitigate blackhole attack on AODV based MANET. 2017 IEEE 2nd Advanced Information Technology, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (IAEAC). :1278–1282.

Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) is a type of networks that consists of autonomous nodes connecting directly without a top-down network architecture or central controller. Absence of base stations in MANET force the nodes to rely on their adjacent nodes in transmitting messages. The dynamic nature of MANET makes the relationship between nodes untrusted due to mobility of nodes. A malicious node may start denial of service attack at network layer to discard the packets instead of forwarding them to destination which is known as black hole attack. In this paper a secure and trust based approach based on ad hoc on demand distance vector (STAODV) has been proposed to improve the security of AODV routing protocol. The approach isolates the malicious nodes that try to attack the network depending on their previous information. A trust level is attached to each participating node to detect the level of trust of that node. Each incoming packet will be examined to prevent the black hole attack.

Shimada, Isamu, Higaki, Hiroaki.  2016.  Intentional Collisions for Secure Ad-Hoc Networks. Adjunct Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Computing Networking and Services. :183–188.

In ad-hoc networks, data messages are transmitted from a source wireless node to a destination one along a wireless multihop transmission route consisting of a sequence of intermediate wireless nodes. Each intermediate wireless node forwards data messages to its next-hop wireless node. Here, a wireless signal carrying the data message is broadcasted by using an omni antenna and it is not difficult for a eavesdropper wireless node to overhear the wireless signal to get the data message. Some researches show that it is useful to transmit noise wireless signal which collide to the data message wireless signal in order for interfering the overhearing. However, some special devices such as directional antennas and/or high computation power for complicated signal processing are required. For wireless multihop networks with huge number of wireless nodes, small and cheap wireless nodes are mandatory for construction of the network. This paper proposes the method for interfering the overhearing by the eavesdropper wireless nodes where routing protocol and data message transmission protocol with cooperative noise signal transmissions by 1-hop and 2-hop neighbor wireless nodes of each intermediate wireless node.

Zhang, Dajun, Yu, Fei Richard, Wei, Zhexiong, Boukerche, Azzedine.  2016.  Software-defined Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks with Trust Management. Proceedings of the 6th ACM Symposium on Development and Analysis of Intelligent Vehicular Networks and Applications. :41–49.

With the rising interest of expedient, safe, and high-efficient transportation, vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have turned into a critical technology in smart transportation systems. Because of the high mobility of nodes, VANETs are vulnerable to security attacks. In this paper, we propose a novel framework of software-defined VANETs with trust management. Specifically, we separate the forwarding plane in VANETs from the control plane, which is responsible for the control functionality, such as routing protocols and trust management in VANETs. Using the on-demand distance vector routing (TAODV) protocol as an example, we present a routing protocol named software-defined trust based ad hoc on-demand distance vector routing (SD-TAODV). Simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed software-defined VANETs with trust management.

Sterbenz, James P.G..  2016.  Drones in the Smart City and IoT: Protocols, Resilience, Benefits, and Risks. Proceedings of the 2Nd Workshop on Micro Aerial Vehicle Networks, Systems, and Applications for Civilian Use. :3–3.

Drones have quickly become ubiquitous for both recreational and serious use. As is frequently the case with new technology in general, their rapid adoption already far exceeds our legal, policy, and social ability to cope with such issues as privacy and interference with well-established commercial and military air space. While the FAA has issued rulings, they will almost certainly be challenged in court as disputes arise, for example, when property owners shoot drones down. It is clear that drones will provide a critical role in smart cities and be connected to, if not directly a part of the IoT (Internet of Things). Drones will provide an essential role in providing network relay connectivity and situational awareness, particularly in disaster assessment and recovery scenarios. As is typical for new network technologies, the deployment of the drone hardware far exceeds our research in protocols – extending our previous understanding of MANETs (mobile ad hoc networks) and DTNs (disruption tolerant networks) – and more importantly, management, control, resilience, security, and privacy concerns. This keynote address will discuss these challenges and consider future research directions.

Zhao, Dexin, Ma, Zhen, Zhang, Degan.  2016.  A Distributed and Adaptive Trust Evaluation Algorithm for MANET. Proceedings of the 12th ACM Symposium on QoS and Security for Wireless and Mobile Networks. :47–54.

We propose a distributed and adaptive trust evaluation algorithm (DATEA) to calculate the trust between nodes. First, calculate the communication trust by using the number of data packets between nodes, and predict the trust based on the trend of this value, calculate the comprehensive trust by combining the history trust with the predict value; calculate the energy trust based on the residual energy of nodes; calculate the direct trust by using the communication trust and energy trust. Second, calculate the recommendation trust based on the recommendation reliability and the recommendation familiarity; put forward the adaptively weighting method, and calculate the integrate direct trust by combining the direct trust with recommendation trust. Third, according to the integrate direct trust, considering the factor of trust propagation distance, the indirect trust between nodes is calculated. Simulation experiments show that the proposed algorithm can effectively avoid the attacks of malicious nodes, besides, the calculated direct trust and indirect trust about normal nodes are more conformable to the actual situation.

Xu, Guangwu, Yan, Zheng.  2016.  A Survey on Trust Evaluation in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. Proceedings of the 9th EAI International Conference on Mobile Multimedia Communications. :140–148.

Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a multi-hop temporary and autonomic network comprised of a set of mobile nodes. MANETs have the features of non-center, dynamically changing topology, multi-hop routing, mobile nodes, limited resources and so on, which make it face more threats. Trust evaluation is used to support nodes to cooperate in a secure and trustworthy way through evaluating the trust of participating nodes in MANETs. However, many trust evaluation models proposed for MANETs still have many problems and shortcomings. In this paper, we review the existing researches, then analyze and compare the proposed trust evaluation models by presenting and applying uniform criteria in order to point out a number of open issues and challenges and suggest future research trends.