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Joshi, V. B., Goudar, R. H..  2017.  Intrusion detection systems in MANETs using hybrid techniques. 2017 International Conference On Smart Technologies For Smart Nation (SmartTechCon). :534–538.

The use of self organized wireless technologies called as Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) has increased and these wireless devices can be deployed anywhere without any infrastructural support or without any base station, hence securing these networks and preventing from Intrusions is necessary. This paper describes a method for securing the MANETs using Hybrid cryptographic technique which uses RSA and AES algorithm along with SHA 256 Hashing technique. This hybrid cryptographic technique provides authentication to the data. To check whether there is any malicious node present, an Intrusion Detection system (IDS) technique called Enhanced Adaptive Acknowledgement (EAACK) is used, which checks for the acknowledgement packets to detect any malicious node present in the system. The routing of packets is done through two protocols AODV and ZRP and both the results are compared. The ZRP protocol when used for routing provides better performance as compared to AODV.

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Sumit, S., Mitra, D., Gupta, D..  2014.  Proposed Intrusion Detection on ZRP based MANET by effective k-means clustering method of data mining. Optimization, Reliabilty, and Information Technology (ICROIT), 2014 International Conference on. :156-160.

Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANET) consist of peer-to-peer infrastructure less communicating nodes that are highly dynamic. As a result, routing data becomes more challenging. Ultimately routing protocols for such networks face the challenges of random topology change, nature of the link (symmetric or asymmetric) and power requirement during data transmission. Under such circumstances both, proactive as well as reactive routing are usually inefficient. We consider, zone routing protocol (ZRP) that adds the qualities of the proactive (IARP) and reactive (IERP) protocols. In ZRP, an updated topological map of zone centered on each node, is maintained. Immediate routes are available inside each zone. In order to communicate outside a zone, a route discovery mechanism is employed. The local routing information of the zones helps in this route discovery procedure. In MANET security is always an issue. It is possible that a node can turn malicious and hamper the normal flow of packets in the MANET. In order to overcome such issue we have used a clustering technique to separate the nodes having intrusive behavior from normal behavior. We call this technique as effective k-means clustering which has been motivated from k-means. We propose to implement Intrusion Detection System on each node of the MANET which is using ZRP for packet flow. Then we will use effective k-means to separate the malicious nodes from the network. Thus, our Ad-Hoc network will be free from any malicious activity and normal flow of packets will be possible.

Sumit, S., Mitra, D., Gupta, D..  2014.  Proposed Intrusion Detection on ZRP based MANET by effective k-means clustering method of data mining. Optimization, Reliabilty, and Information Technology (ICROIT), 2014 International Conference on. :156-160.

Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANET) consist of peer-to-peer infrastructure less communicating nodes that are highly dynamic. As a result, routing data becomes more challenging. Ultimately routing protocols for such networks face the challenges of random topology change, nature of the link (symmetric or asymmetric) and power requirement during data transmission. Under such circumstances both, proactive as well as reactive routing are usually inefficient. We consider, zone routing protocol (ZRP) that adds the qualities of the proactive (IARP) and reactive (IERP) protocols. In ZRP, an updated topological map of zone centered on each node, is maintained. Immediate routes are available inside each zone. In order to communicate outside a zone, a route discovery mechanism is employed. The local routing information of the zones helps in this route discovery procedure. In MANET security is always an issue. It is possible that a node can turn malicious and hamper the normal flow of packets in the MANET. In order to overcome such issue we have used a clustering technique to separate the nodes having intrusive behavior from normal behavior. We call this technique as effective k-means clustering which has been motivated from k-means. We propose to implement Intrusion Detection System on each node of the MANET which is using ZRP for packet flow. Then we will use effective k-means to separate the malicious nodes from the network. Thus, our Ad-Hoc network will be free from any malicious activity and normal flow of packets will be possible.

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Oakley, I..  2020.  Solutions to Black Hole Attacks in MANETs. 2020 12th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP). :1–6.
Self-organising networks, such as mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs), are growing more and more in importance each day. However, due to their nature and constraints MANETs are vulnerable to a wide array of attacks, such as black hole attacks. Furthermore, there are numerous routing protocols in use in MANETs, and what works for one might not for another. In this paper, we present a review of previous surveys of black hole attack solutions, followed by a collation of recently published papers categorised by original routing protocol and evaluated on a set of common metrics. Finally, we suggest areas for further research.