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2021-06-24
Habib ur Rehman, Muhammad, Mukhtar Dirir, Ahmed, Salah, Khaled, Svetinovic, Davor.  2020.  FairFed: Cross-Device Fair Federated Learning. 2020 IEEE Applied Imagery Pattern Recognition Workshop (AIPR). :1–7.
Federated learning (FL) is the rapidly developing machine learning technique that is used to perform collaborative model training over decentralized datasets. FL enables privacy-preserving model development whereby the datasets are scattered over a large set of data producers (i.e., devices and/or systems). These data producers train the learning models, encapsulate the model updates with differential privacy techniques, and share them to centralized systems for global aggregation. However, these centralized models are always prone to adversarial attacks (such as data-poisoning and model poisoning attacks) due to a large number of data producers. Hence, FL methods need to ensure fairness and high-quality model availability across all the participants in the underlying AI systems. In this paper, we propose a novel FL framework, called FairFed, to meet fairness and high-quality data requirements. The FairFed provides a fairness mechanism to detect adversaries across the devices and datasets in the FL network and reject their model updates. We use a Python-simulated FL framework to enable large-scale training over MNIST dataset. We simulate a cross-device model training settings to detect adversaries in the training network. We used TensorFlow Federated and Python to implement the fairness protocol, the deep neural network, and the outlier detection algorithm. We thoroughly test the proposed FairFed framework with random and uniform data distributions across the training network and compare our initial results with the baseline fairness scheme. Our proposed work shows promising results in terms of model accuracy and loss.
2020-11-04
Liang, Y., He, D., Chen, D..  2019.  Poisoning Attack on Load Forecasting. 2019 IEEE Innovative Smart Grid Technologies - Asia (ISGT Asia). :1230—1235.

Short-term load forecasting systems for power grids have demonstrated high accuracy and have been widely employed for commercial use. However, classic load forecasting systems, which are based on statistical methods, are subject to vulnerability from training data poisoning. In this paper, we demonstrate a data poisoning strategy that effectively corrupts the forecasting model even in the presence of outlier detection. To the best of our knowledge, poisoning attack on short-term load forecasting with outlier detection has not been studied in previous works. Our method applies to several forecasting models, including the most widely-adapted and best-performing ones, such as multiple linear regression (MLR) and neural network (NN) models. Starting with the MLR model, we develop a novel closed-form solution to quickly estimate the new MLR model after a round of data poisoning without retraining. We then employ line search and simulated annealing to find the poisoning attack solution. Furthermore, we use the MLR attacking solution to generate a numerical solution for other models, such as NN. The effectiveness of our algorithm has been tested on the Global Energy Forecasting Competition (GEFCom2012) data set with the presence of outlier detection.

2020-10-14
Song, Yufei, Yu, Zongchao, Liu, Xuan, Tian, Jianwei, CHEN, Mu.  2019.  Isolation Forest based Detection for False Data Attacks in Power Systems. 2019 IEEE Innovative Smart Grid Technologies - Asia (ISGT Asia). :4170—4174.
Power systems become a primary target of cyber attacks because of the vulnerability of the integrated communication networks. An attacker is able to manipulate the integrity of real-time data by maliciously modifying the readings of meters transmitted to the control center. Moreover, it is demonstrated that such attack can escape the bad data detection in state estimation if the topology and network information of the entire power grid is known to the attacker. In this paper, we propose an isolation forest (IF) based detection algorithm as a countermeasure against false data attack (FDA). This method requires no tedious pre-training procedure to obtain the labels of outliers. In addition, comparing with other algorithms, the IF based detection method can find the outliers quickly. The performance of the proposed detection method is verified using the simulation results on the IEEE 118-bus system.
2020-05-11
Nagamani, Ch., Chittineni, Suneetha.  2018.  Network Intrusion Detection Mechanisms Using Outlier Detection. 2018 Second International Conference on Inventive Communication and Computational Technologies (ICICCT). :1468–1473.
The recognition of intrusions has increased impressive enthusiasm for information mining with the acknowledgment that anomalies can be the key disclosure to be produced using extensive network databases. Intrusions emerge because of different reasons, for example, mechanical deficiencies, changes in framework conduct, fake conduct, human blunder and instrument mistake. Surely, for some applications the revelation of Intrusions prompts more intriguing and helpful outcomes than the disclosure of inliers. Discovery of anomalies can prompt recognizable proof of framework blames with the goal that executives can take preventive measures previously they heighten. A network database framework comprises of a sorted out posting of pages alongside programming to control the network information. This database framework has been intended to empower network operations, oversee accumulations of information, show scientific outcomes and to get to these information utilizing networks. It likewise empowers network clients to gather limitless measure of information on unbounded territories of utilization, break down it and return it into helpful data. Network databases are ordinarily used to help information control utilizing dynamic capacities on sites or for putting away area subordinate data. This database holds a surrogate for each network route. The formation of these surrogates is called ordering and each network database does this errand in an unexpected way. In this paper, a structure for compelling access control and Intrusion Detection using outliers has been proposed and used to give viable Security to network databases. The design of this framework comprises of two noteworthy subsystems to be specific, Access Control Subsystem and Intrusion Detection Subsystem. In this paper preprocessing module is considered which clarifies the preparing of preprocessing the accessible information. And rain forest method is discussed which is used for intrusion detection.
2019-02-18
Nazari, Zahra, Yu, Seong-Mi, Kang, Dongshik, Kawachi, Yousuke.  2018.  Comparative Study of Outlier Detection Algorithms for Machine Learning. Proceedings of the 2018 2Nd International Conference on Deep Learning Technologies. :47–51.
Outliers are unusual data points which are inconsistent with other observations. Human error, mechanical faults, fraudulent behavior, instrument error, and changes in the environment are some reasons to arise outliers. Several types of outlier detection algorithms are developed and a number of surveys and overviews are performed to distinguish their advantages and disadvantages. Multivariate outlier detection algorithms are widely used among other types, therefore we concentrate on this type. In this work a comparison between effects of multivariate outlier detection algorithms on machine learning problems is performed. For this purpose, three multivariate outlier detection algorithms namely distance based, statistical based and clustering based are evaluated. Benchmark datasets of Heart disease, Breast cancer and Liver disorder are used for the experiments. To identify the effectiveness of mentioned algorithms, the above datasets are classified by Support Vector Machines (SVM) before and after outlier detection. Finally a comparative review is performed to distinguish the advantages and disadvantages of each algorithm and their respective effects on accuracy of SVM classifiers.
2018-06-20
Yadav, S., Trivedi, M. C., Singh, V. K., Kolhe, M. L..  2017.  Securing AODV routing protocol against black hole attack in MANET using outlier detection scheme. 2017 4th IEEE Uttar Pradesh Section International Conference on Electrical, Computer and Electronics (UPCON). :1–4.

Imposing security in MANET is very challenging and hot topic of research science last two decades because of its wide applicability in applications like defense. Number of efforts has been made in this direction. But available security algorithms, methods, models and framework may not completely solve this problem. Motivated from various existing security methods and outlier detection, in this paper novel simple but efficient outlier detection scheme based security algorithm is proposed to protect the Ad hoc on demand distance vector (AODV) reactive routing protocol from Black hole attack in mobile ad hoc environment. Simulation results obtained from network simulator tool evident the simplicity, robustness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm over the original AODV protocol and existing methods.

2018-03-05
Toulouse, Michel, Nguyen, Phuong Khanh.  2017.  Protecting Consensus Seeking NIDS Modules Against Multiple Attackers. Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Information and Communication Technology. :226–233.

This work concerns distributed consensus algorithms and application to a network intrusion detection system (NIDS) [21]. We consider the problem of defending the system against multiple data falsification attacks (Byzantine attacks), a vulnerability of distributed peer-to-peer consensus algorithms that has not been widely addressed in its practicality. We consider both naive (independent) and colluding attackers. We test three defense strategy implementations, two classified as outlier detection methods and one reputation-based method. We have narrowed our attention to outlier and reputation-based methods because they are relatively light computationally speaking. We have left out control theoretic methods which are likely the most effective methods, however their computational cost increase rapidly with the number of attackers. We compare the efficiency of these three implementations for their computational cost, detection performance, convergence behavior and possible impacts on the intrusion detection accuracy of the NIDS. Tests are performed based on simulations of distributed denial of service attacks using the KSL-KDD data set.

2017-05-22
Liang, Jiongqian, Parthasarathy, Srinivasan.  2016.  Robust Contextual Outlier Detection: Where Context Meets Sparsity. Proceedings of the 25th ACM International on Conference on Information and Knowledge Management. :2167–2172.

Outlier detection is a fundamental data science task with applications ranging from data cleaning to network security. Recently, a new class of outlier detection algorithms has emerged, called contextual outlier detection, and has shown improved performance when studying anomalous behavior in a specific context. However, as we point out in this article, such approaches have limited applicability in situations where the context is sparse (i.e., lacking a suitable frame of reference). Moreover, approaches developed to date do not scale to large datasets. To address these problems, here we propose a novel and robust approach alternative to the state-of-the-art called RObust Contextual Outlier Detection (ROCOD). We utilize a local and global behavioral model based on the relevant contexts, which is then integrated in a natural and robust fashion. We run ROCOD on both synthetic and real-world datasets and demonstrate that it outperforms other competitive baselines on the axes of efficacy and efficiency. We also drill down and perform a fine-grained analysis to shed light on the rationale for the performance gains of ROCOD and reveal its effectiveness when handling objects with sparse contexts.

2017-04-20
Wurzenberger, Markus, Skopik, Florian, Fiedler, Roman, Kastner, Wolfgang.  2016.  Discovering Insider Threats from Log Data with High-Performance Bioinformatics Tools. Proceedings of the 8th ACM CCS International Workshop on Managing Insider Security Threats. :109–112.

Since the number of cyber attacks by insider threats and the damage caused by them has been increasing over the last years, organizations are in need for specific security solutions to counter these threats. To limit the damage caused by insider threats, the timely detection of erratic system behavior and malicious activities is of primary importance. We observed a major paradigm shift towards anomaly-focused detection mechanisms, which try to establish a baseline of system behavior – based on system logging data – and report any deviations from this baseline. While these approaches are promising, they usually have to cope with scalability issues. As the amount of log data generated during IT operations is exponentially growing, high-performance security solutions are required that can handle this huge amount of data in real time. In this paper, we demonstrate how high-performance bioinformatics tools can be leveraged to tackle this issue, and we demonstrate their application to log data for outlier detection, to timely detect anomalous system behavior that points to insider attacks.

2017-03-08
Çeker, H., Upadhyaya, S..  2015.  Enhanced recognition of keystroke dynamics using Gaussian mixture models. MILCOM 2015 - 2015 IEEE Military Communications Conference. :1305–1310.

Keystroke dynamics is a form of behavioral biometrics that can be used for continuous authentication of computer users. Many classifiers have been proposed for the analysis of acquired user patterns and verification of users at computer terminals. The underlying machine learning methods that use Gaussian density estimator for outlier detection typically assume that the digraph patterns in keystroke data are generated from a single Gaussian distribution. In this paper, we relax this assumption by allowing digraphs to fit more than one distribution via the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). We have conducted an experiment with a public data set collected in a controlled environment. Out of 30 users with dynamic text, we obtain 0.08% Equal Error Rate (EER) with 2 components by using GMM, while pure Gaussian yields 1.3% EER for the same data set (an improvement of EER by 93.8%). Our results show that GMM can recognize keystroke dynamics more precisely and authenticate users with higher confidence level.

2017-03-07
Liang, Jiongqian, Parthasarathy, Srinivasan.  2016.  Robust Contextual Outlier Detection: Where Context Meets Sparsity. Proceedings of the 25th ACM International on Conference on Information and Knowledge Management. :2167–2172.

Outlier detection is a fundamental data science task with applications ranging from data cleaning to network security. Recently, a new class of outlier detection algorithms has emerged, called contextual outlier detection, and has shown improved performance when studying anomalous behavior in a specific context. However, as we point out in this article, such approaches have limited applicability in situations where the context is sparse (i.e., lacking a suitable frame of reference). Moreover, approaches developed to date do not scale to large datasets. To address these problems, here we propose a novel and robust approach alternative to the state-of-the-art called RObust Contextual Outlier Detection (ROCOD). We utilize a local and global behavioral model based on the relevant contexts, which is then integrated in a natural and robust fashion. We run ROCOD on both synthetic and real-world datasets and demonstrate that it outperforms other competitive baselines on the axes of efficacy and efficiency. We also drill down and perform a fine-grained analysis to shed light on the rationale for the performance gains of ROCOD and reveal its effectiveness when handling objects with sparse contexts.

2015-05-06
Tong Liu, Qian Xu, Yuejun Li.  2014.  Adaptive filtering design for in-motion alignment of INS. Control and Decision Conference (2014 CCDC), The 26th Chinese. :2669-2674.

Misalignment angles estimation of strapdown inertial navigation system (INS) using global positioning system (GPS) data is highly affected by measurement noises, especially with noises displaying time varying statistical properties. Hence, adaptive filtering approach is recommended for the purpose of improving the accuracy of in-motion alignment. In this paper, a simplified form of Celso's adaptive stochastic filtering is derived and applied to estimate both the INS error states and measurement noise statistics. To detect and bound the influence of outliers in INS/GPS integration, outlier detection based on jerk tracking model is also proposed. The accuracy and validity of the proposed algorithm is tested through ground based navigation experiments.

Jian Wang, Lin Mei, Yi Li, Jian-Ye Li, Kun Zhao, Yuan Yao.  2014.  Variable Window for Outlier Detection and Impulsive Noise Recognition in Range Images. Cluster, Cloud and Grid Computing (CCGrid), 2014 14th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on. :857-864.

To improve comprehensive performance of denoising range images, an impulsive noise (IN) denoising method with variable windows is proposed in this paper. Founded on several discriminant criteria, the principles of dropout IN detection and outlier IN detection are provided. Subsequently, a nearest non-IN neighbors searching process and an Index Distance Weighted Mean filter is combined for IN denoising. As key factors of adapatablity of the proposed denoising method, the sizes of two windows for outlier INs detection and INs denoising are investigated. Originated from a theoretical model of invader occlusion, variable window is presented for adapting window size to dynamic environment of each point, accompanying with practical criteria of adaptive variable window size determination. Experiments on real range images of multi-line surface are proceeded with evaluations in terms of computational complexity and quality assessment with comparison analysis among a few other popular methods. It is indicated that the proposed method can detect the impulsive noises with high accuracy, meanwhile, denoise them with strong adaptability with the help of variable window.