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Kazemi, Z., Fazeli, M., Hély, D., Beroulle, V..  2020.  Hardware Security Vulnerability Assessment to Identify the Potential Risks in A Critical Embedded Application. 2020 IEEE 26th International Symposium on On-Line Testing and Robust System Design (IOLTS). :1—6.

Internet of Things (IoT) is experiencing significant growth in the safety-critical applications which have caused new security challenges. These devices are becoming targets for different types of physical attacks, which are exacerbated by their diversity and accessibility. Therefore, there is a strict necessity to support embedded software developers to identify and remediate the vulnerabilities and create resilient applications against such attacks. In this paper, we propose a hardware security vulnerability assessment based on fault injection of an embedded application. In our security assessment, we apply a fault injection attack by using our clock glitch generator on a critical medical IoT device. Furthermore, we analyze the potential risks of ignoring these attacks in this embedded application. The results will inform the embedded software developers of various security risks and the required steps to improve the security of similar MCU-based applications. Our hardware security assessment approach is easy to apply and can lead to secure embedded IoT applications against fault attacks.

Vliegen, Jo, Rabbani, Md Masoom, Conti, Mauro, Mentens, Nele.  2019.  SACHa: Self-Attestation of Configurable Hardware. 2019 Design, Automation Test in Europe Conference Exhibition (DATE). :746–751.
Device attestation is a procedure to verify whether an embedded device is running the intended application code. This way, protection against both physical attacks and remote attacks on the embedded software is aimed for. With the wide adoption of Field-Programmable Gate Arrays or FPGAs, hardware also became configurable, and hence susceptible to attacks (just like software). In addition, an upcoming trend for hardware-based attestation is the use of configurable FPGA hardware. Therefore, in order to attest a whole system that makes use of FPGAs, the status of both the software and the hardware needs to be verified, without the availability of a tamper-resistant hardware module.In this paper, we propose a solution in which a prover core on the FPGA performs an attestation of the entire FPGA, including a self-attestation. This way, the FPGA can be used as a tamper-resistant hardware module to perform hardware-based attestation of a processor, resulting in a protection of the entire hardware/software system against malicious code updates.
Mace, J.C., Morisset, C., Pierce, K., Gamble, C., Maple, C., Fitzgerald, J..  2018.  A multi-modelling based approach to assessing the security of smart buildings. Living in the Internet of Things: Cybersecurity of the IoT – 2018. :1—10.

Smart buildings are controlled by multiple cyber-physical systems that provide critical services such as heating, ventilation, lighting and access control. These building systems are becoming increasingly vulnerable to both cyber and physical attacks. We introduce a multi-model methodology for assessing the security of these systems, which utilises INTO-CPS, a suite of modelling, simulation, and analysis tools for designing cyber-physical systems. Using a fan coil unit case study we show how its security can be systematically assessed when subjected to Man-in-the-Middle attacks on the data connections between system components. We suggest our methodology would enable building managers and security engineers to design attack countermeasures and refine their effectiveness.

Zhang, Yihan, Wu, Jiajing, Chen, Zhenhao, Huang, Yuxuan, Zheng, Zibin.  2019.  Sequential Node/Link Recovery Strategy of Power Grids Based on Q-Learning Approach. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS). :1–5.

Cascading failure, which can be triggered by both physical and cyber attacks, is among the most critical threats to the security and resilience of power grids. In current literature, researchers investigate the issue of cascading failure on smart grids mainly from the attacker's perspective. From the perspective of a grid defender or operator, however, it is also an important issue to restore the smart grid suffering from cascading failure back to normal operation as soon as possible. In this paper, we consider cascading failure in conjunction with the restoration process involving repairing of the failed nodes/links in a sequential fashion. Based on a realistic power flow cascading failure model, we exploit a Q-learning approach to develop a practical and effective policy to identify the optimal way of sequential restorations for large-scale smart grids. Simulation results on three power grid test benchmarks demonstrate the learning ability and the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

Jiang, Qi, Zhang, Xin, Zhang, Ning, Tian, Youliang, Ma, Xindi, Ma, Jianfeng.  2019.  Two-Factor Authentication Protocol Using Physical Unclonable Function for IoV. 2019 IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China (ICCC). :195–200.
As an extension of Internet of Things (IoT) in transportation sector, the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) can greatly facilitate vehicle management and route planning. With ever-increasing penetration of IoV, the security and privacy of driving data should be guaranteed. Moreover, since vehicles are often left unattended with minimum human interventions, the onboard sensors are vulnerable to physical attacks. Therefore, the physically secure authentication and key agreement (AKA) protocol is urgently needed for IoV to implement access control and information protection. In this paper, physical unclonable function (PUF) is introduced in the AKA protocol to ensure that the system is secure even if the user devices or sensors are compromised. Specifically, PUF, as a hardware fingerprint generator, eliminates the storage of any secret information in user devices or vehicle sensors. By combining password with PUF, the user device cannot be used by someone else to be successfully authenticated as the user. By resorting to public key cryptography, the proposed protocol can provide anonymity and desynchronization resilience. Finally, the elaborate security analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is free from the influence of known attacks and can achieve expected security properties, and the performance evaluation indicates the efficiency of our protocol.
Facon, Adrien, Guilley, Sylvain, Ngo, Xuan-Thuy, Perianin, Thomas.  2019.  Hardware-enabled AI for Embedded Security: A New Paradigm. 2019 3rd International Conference on Recent Advances in Signal Processing, Telecommunications Computing (SigTelCom). :80–84.

As chips become more and more connected, they are more exposed (both to network and to physical attacks). Therefore one shall ensure they enjoy a sufficient protection level. Security within chips is accordingly becoming a hot topic. Incident detection and reporting is one novel function expected from chips. In this talk, we explain why it is worthwhile to resort to Artificial Intelligence (AI) for security event handling. Drivers are the need to aggregate multiple and heterogeneous security sensors, the need to digest this information quickly to produce exploitable information, and so while maintaining a low false positive detection rate. Key features are adequate learning procedures and fast and secure classification accelerated by hardware. A challenge is to embed such security-oriented AI logic, while not compromising chip power budget and silicon area. This talk accounts for the opportunities permitted by the symbiotic encounter between chip security and AI.

Bukasa, Sebanjila K., Lashermes, Ronan, Lanet, Jean-Louis, Leqay, Axel.  2018.  Let's Shock Our IoT's Heart: ARMv7-M Under (Fault) Attacks. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security. :33:1-33:6.

A fault attack is a well-known technique where the behaviour of a chip is voluntarily disturbed by hardware means in order to undermine the security of the information handled by the target. In this paper, we explore how Electromagnetic fault injection (EMFI) can be used to create vulnerabilities in sound software, targeting a Cortex-M3 microcontroller. Several use-cases are shown experimentally: control flow hijacking, buffer overflow (even with the presence of a canary), covert backdoor insertion and Return Oriented Programming can be achieved even if programs are not vulnerable in a software point of view. These results suggest that the protection of any software against vulnerabilities must take hardware into account as well.

Ferres, E., Immler, V., Utz, A., Stanitzki, A., Lerch, R., Kokozinski, R..  2018.  Capacitive Multi-Channel Security Sensor IC for Tamper-Resistant Enclosures. 2018 IEEE SENSORS. :1–4.
Physical attacks are a serious threat for embedded devices. Since these attacks are based on physical interaction, sensing technology is a key aspect in detecting them. For highest security levels devices in need of protection are placed into tamper-resistant enclosures. In this paper we present a capacitive multi-channel security sensor IC in a 350 nm CMOS technology. This IC measures more than 128 capacitive sensor nodes of such an enclosure with an SNR of 94.6 dB across a 16×16 electrode matrix in just 19.7 ms. The theoretical sensitivity is 35 aF which is practically limited by noise to 460 aF. While this is similar to capacitive touch technology, it outperforms available solutions of this domain with respect to precision and speed.
Dr\u agoi, V., Richmond, T., Bucerzan, D., Legay, A..  2018.  Survey on Cryptanalysis of Code-Based Cryptography: From Theoretical to Physical Attacks. 2018 7th International Conference on Computers Communications and Control (ICCCC). :215-223.
Nowadays public-key cryptography is based on number theory problems, such as computing the discrete logarithm on an elliptic curve or factoring big integers. Even though these problems are considered difficult to solve with the help of a classical computer, they can be solved in polynomial time on a quantum computer. Which is why the research community proposed alternative solutions that are quantum-resistant. The process of finding adequate post-quantum cryptographic schemes has moved to the next level, right after NIST's announcement for post-quantum standardization. One of the oldest quantum-resistant proposition goes back to McEliece in 1978, who proposed a public-key cryptosystem based on coding theory. It benefits of really efficient algorithms as well as a strong mathematical background. Nonetheless, its security has been challenged many times and several variants were cryptanalyzed. However, some versions remain unbroken. In this paper, we propose to give some background on coding theory in order to present some of the main flawless in the protocols. We analyze the existing side-channel attacks and give some recommendations on how to securely implement the most suitable variants. We also detail some structural attacks and potential drawbacks for new variants.
Ahmed, Chuadhry Mujeeb, Ochoa, Martin, Zhou, Jianying, Mathur, Aditya P., Qadeer, Rizwan, Murguia, Carlos, Ruths, Justin.  2018.  NoisePrint: Attack Detection Using Sensor and Process Noise Fingerprint in Cyber Physical Systems. Proceedings of the 2018 on Asia Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :483–497.

An attack detection scheme is proposed to detect data integrity attacks on sensors in Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs). A combined fingerprint for sensor and process noise is created during the normal operation of the system. Under sensor spoofing attack, noise pattern deviates from the fingerprinted pattern enabling the proposed scheme to detect attacks. To extract the noise (difference between expected and observed value) a representative model of the system is derived. A Kalman filter is used for the purpose of state estimation. By subtracting the state estimates from the real system states, a residual vector is obtained. It is shown that in steady state the residual vector is a function of process and sensor noise. A set of time domain and frequency domain features is extracted from the residual vector. Feature set is provided to a machine learning algorithm to identify the sensor and process. Experiments are performed on two testbeds, a real-world water treatment (SWaT) facility and a water distribution (WADI) testbed. A class of zero-alarm attacks, designed for statistical detectors on SWaT are detected by the proposed scheme. It is shown that a multitude of sensors can be uniquely identified with accuracy higher than 90% based on the noise fingerprint.

Ahmed, Chuadhry Mujeeb, Zhou, Jianying, Mathur, Aditya P..  2018.  Noise Matters: Using Sensor and Process Noise Fingerprint to Detect Stealthy Cyber Attacks and Authenticate Sensors in CPS. Proceedings of the 34th Annual Computer Security Applications Conference. :566–581.
A novel scheme is proposed to authenticate sensors and detect data integrity attacks in a Cyber Physical System (CPS). The proposed technique uses the hardware characteristics of a sensor and physics of a process to create unique patterns (herein termed as fingerprints) for each sensor. The sensor fingerprint is a function of sensor and process noise embedded in sensor measurements. Uniqueness in the noise appears due to manufacturing imperfections of a sensor and due to unique features of a physical process. To create a sensor's fingerprint a system-model based approach is used. A noise-based fingerprint is created during the normal operation of the system. It is shown that under data injection attacks on sensors, noise pattern deviations from the fingerprinted pattern enable the proposed scheme to detect attacks. Experiments are performed on a dataset from a real-world water treatment (SWaT) facility. A class of stealthy attacks is designed against the proposed scheme and extensive security analysis is carried out. Results show that a range of sensors can be uniquely identified with an accuracy as high as 98%. Extensive sensor identification experiments are carried out on a set of sensors in SWaT testbed. The proposed scheme is tested on a variety of attack scenarios from the reference literature which are detected with high accuracy
Adomnicai, A., Fournier, J. J. A., Masson, L..  2018.  Hardware Security Threats Against Bluetooth Mesh Networks. 2018 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1–9.
Because major smartphone platforms are equipped with Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) capabilities, more and more smart devices have adopted BLE technologies to communicate with smartphones. In order to support the mesh topology in BLE networks, several proposals have been designed. Among them, the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) recently released a specification for Bluetooth mesh networks based upon BLE technology. This paper focuses on this standard solution and analyses its security protocol with hardware security in mind. As it is expected that internet of things (IoT) devices will be deployed everywhere, the risk of physical attacks must be assessed. First, we provide a comprehensive survey of the security features involved in Bluetooth mesh. Then, we introduce some physical attacks identified as serious threats for the IoT and discuss their relevance in the case of Bluetooth mesh networks. Finally, we briefly discuss possible countermeasures to reach a secure implementation.
Kumar, K. N., Nene, M. J..  2017.  Chip-Based symmetric and asymmetric key generation in hierarchical wireless sensors networks. 2017 International Conference on Inventive Systems and Control (ICISC). :1–6.
Realization of an application using Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) using Sensor Nodes (SNs) brings in profound advantages of ad-hoc and flexible network deployments. Implementation of these networks face immense challenges due to short wireless range; along with limited power, storage & computational capabilities of SNs. Also, due to the tiny physical attributes of the SNs in WSNs, they are prone to physical attacks. In the context of WSNs, the physical attacks may range from destroying, lifting, replacing and adding new SNs. The work in this paper addresses the threats induced due to physical attacks and, further proposes a methodology to mitigate it. The methodology incorporates the use of newly proposed secured and efficient symmetric and asymmetric key distribution technique based on the additional commodity hardware Trusted Platform Module (TPM). Further, the paper demonstrates the merits of the proposed methodology. With some additional economical cost for the hardware, the proposed technique can fulfill the security requirement of WSNs, like confidentiality, integrity, authenticity, resilience to attack, key connectivity and data freshness.
Proy, Julien, Heydemann, Karine, Berzati, Alexandre, Cohen, Albert.  2017.  Compiler-Assisted Loop Hardening Against Fault Attacks. ACM Trans. Archit. Code Optim.. 14:36:1–36:25.
Secure elements widely used in smartphones, digital consumer electronics, and payment systems are subject to fault attacks. To thwart such attacks, software protections are manually inserted requiring experts and time. The explosion of the Internet of Things (IoT) in home, business, and public spaces motivates the hardening of a wider class of applications and the need to offer security solutions to non-experts. This article addresses the automated protection of loops at compilation time, covering the widest range of control- and data-flow patterns, in both shape and complexity. The security property we consider is that a sensitive loop must always perform the expected number of iterations; otherwise, an attack must be reported. We propose a generic compile-time loop hardening scheme based on the duplication of termination conditions and of the computations involved in the evaluation of such conditions. We also investigate how to preserve the security property along the compilation flow while enabling aggressive optimizations. We implemented this algorithm in LLVM 4.0 at the Intermediate Representation (IR) level in the backend. On average, the compiler automatically hardens 95% of the sensitive loops of typical security benchmarks, and 98% of these loops are shown to be robust to simulated faults. Performance and code size overhead remain quite affordable, at 12.5% and 14%, respectively.
Ahmed, C. M., Mathur, A. P..  2017.  Hardware Identification via Sensor Fingerprinting in a Cyber Physical System. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion (QRS-C). :517–524.

A lot of research in security of cyber physical systems focus on threat models where an attacker can spoof sensor readings by compromising the communication channel. A little focus is given to attacks on physical components. In this paper a method to detect potential attacks on physical components in a Cyber Physical System (CPS) is proposed. Physical attacks are detected through a comparison of noise pattern from sensor measurements to a reference noise pattern. If an adversary has physically modified or replaced a sensor, the proposed method issues an alert indicating that a sensor is probably compromised or is defective. A reference noise pattern is established from the sensor data using a deterministic model. This pattern is referred to as a fingerprint of the corresponding sensor. The fingerprint so derived is used as a reference to identify measured data during the operation of a CPS. Extensive experimentation with ultrasonic level sensors in a realistic water treatment testbed point to the effectiveness of the proposed fingerprinting method in detecting physical attacks.

Jyotiyana, D., Saxena, V. P..  2016.  Fault attack for scalar multiplication over finite field (E(Fq)) on Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm. 2016 International Conference on Recent Advances and Innovations in Engineering (ICRAIE). :1–4.

Elliptic Curve Cryptosystems are very much delicate to attacks or physical attacks. This paper aims to correctly implementing the fault injection attack against Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm. More specifically, the proposed algorithm concerns to fault attack which is implemented to sufficiently alter signature against vigilant periodic sequence algorithm that supports the efficient speed up and security perspectives with most prominent and well known scalar multiplication algorithm for ECDSA. The purpose is to properly injecting attack whether any probable countermeasure threatening the pseudo code is determined by the attack model according to the predefined methodologies. We show the results of our experiment with bits acquire from the targeted implementation to determine the reliability of our attack.

Götzfried, Johannes, Müller, Tilo, Drescher, Gabor, Nürnberger, Stefan, Backes, Michael.  2016.  RamCrypt: Kernel-based Address Space Encryption for User-mode Processes. Proceedings of the 11th ACM on Asia Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :919–924.

We present RamCrypt, a solution that allows unmodified Linux processes to transparently work on encrypted data. RamCrypt can be deployed and enabled on a per-process basis without recompiling user-mode applications. In every enabled process, data is only stored in cleartext for the moment it is processed, and otherwise stays encrypted in RAM. In particular, the required encryption keys do not reside in RAM, but are stored in CPU registers only. Hence, RamCrypt effectively thwarts memory disclosure attacks, which grant unauthorized access to process memory, as well as physical attacks such as cold boot and DMA attacks. In its default configuration, RamCrypt exposes only up to 4 memory pages in cleartext at the same time. For the nginx web server serving encrypted HTTPS pages under heavy load, the necessary TLS secret key is hidden for 97% of its time.

Ibrahim, Ahmad, Sadeghi, Ahmad-Reza, Tsudik, Gene, Zeitouni, Shaza.  2016.  DARPA: Device Attestation Resilient to Physical Attacks. Proceedings of the 9th ACM Conference on Security & Privacy in Wireless and Mobile Networks. :171–182.

As embedded devices (under the guise of "smart-whatever") rapidly proliferate into many domains, they become attractive targets for malware. Protecting them from software and physical attacks becomes both important and challenging. Remote attestation is a basic tool for mitigating such attacks. It allows a trusted party (verifier) to remotely assess software integrity of a remote, untrusted, and possibly compromised, embedded device (prover). Prior remote attestation methods focus on software (malware) attacks in a one-verifier/one-prover setting. Physical attacks on provers are generally ruled out as being either unrealistic or impossible to mitigate. In this paper, we argue that physical attacks must be considered, particularly, in the context of many provers, e.g., a network, of devices. As- suming that physical attacks require capture and subsequent temporary disablement of the victim device(s), we propose DARPA, a light-weight protocol that takes advantage of absence detection to identify suspected devices. DARPA is resilient against a very strong adversary and imposes minimal additional hardware requirements. We justify and identify DARPA's design goals and evaluate its security and costs.

Armknecht, F., Maes, R., Sadeghi, A, Standaert, O.-X., Wachsmann, C..  2011.  A Formalization of the Security Features of Physical Functions. Security and Privacy (SP), 2011 IEEE Symposium on. :397-412.

Physical attacks against cryptographic devices typically take advantage of information leakage (e.g., side-channels attacks) or erroneous computations (e.g., fault injection attacks). Preventing or detecting these attacks has become a challenging task in modern cryptographic research. In this context intrinsic physical properties of integrated circuits, such as Physical(ly) Unclonable Functions (PUFs), can be used to complement classical cryptographic constructions, and to enhance the security of cryptographic devices. PUFs have recently been proposed for various applications, including anti-counterfeiting schemes, key generation algorithms, and in the design of block ciphers. However, currently only rudimentary security models for PUFs exist, limiting the confidence in the security claims of PUF-based security primitives. A useful model should at the same time (i) define the security properties of PUFs abstractly and naturally, allowing to design and formally analyze PUF-based security solutions, and (ii) provide practical quantification tools allowing engineers to evaluate PUF instantiations. In this paper, we present a formal foundation for security primitives based on PUFs. Our approach requires as little as possible from the physics and focuses more on the main properties at the heart of most published works on PUFs: robustness (generation of stable answers), unclonability (not provided by algorithmic solutions), and unpredictability. We first formally define these properties and then show that they can be achieved by previously introduced PUF instantiations. We stress that such a consolidating work allows for a meaningful security analysis of security primitives taking advantage of physical properties, becoming increasingly important in the development of the next generation secure information systems.

Chang Liu, Hicks, M., Shi, E..  2013.  Memory Trace Oblivious Program Execution. Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF), 2013 IEEE 26th. :51-65.

Cloud computing allows users to delegate data and computation to cloud service providers, at the cost of giving up physical control of their computing infrastructure. An attacker (e.g., insider) with physical access to the computing platform can perform various physical attacks, including probing memory buses and cold-boot style attacks. Previous work on secure (co-)processors provides hardware support for memory encryption and prevents direct leakage of sensitive data over the memory bus. However, an adversary snooping on the bus can still infer sensitive information from the memory access traces. Existing work on Oblivious RAM (ORAM) provides a solution for users to put all data in an ORAM; and accesses to an ORAM are obfuscated such that no information leaks through memory access traces. This method, however, incurs significant memory access overhead. This work is the first to leverage programming language techniques to offer efficient memory-trace oblivious program execution, while providing formal security guarantees. We formally define the notion of memory-trace obliviousness, and provide a type system for verifying that a program satisfies this property. We also describe a compiler that transforms a program into a structurally similar one that satisfies memory trace obliviousness. To achieve optimal efficiency, our compiler partitions variables into several small ORAM banks rather than one large one, without risking security. We use several example programs to demonstrate the efficiency gains our compiler achieves in comparison with the naive method of placing all variables in the same ORAM.