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2021-06-30
Lim, Wei Yang Bryan, Xiong, Zehui, Niyato, Dusit, Huang, Jianqiang, Hua, Xian-Sheng, Miao, Chunyan.  2020.  Incentive Mechanism Design for Federated Learning in the Internet of Vehicles. 2020 IEEE 92nd Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2020-Fall). :1—5.
In the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) paradigm, a model owner is able to leverage on the enhanced capabilities of Intelligent Connected Vehicles (ICV) to develop promising Artificial Intelligence (AI) based applications, e.g., for traffic efficiency. However, in some cases, a model owner may have insufficient data samples to build an effective AI model. To this end, we propose a Federated Learning (FL) based privacy preserving approach to facilitate collaborative FL among multiple model owners in the IoV. Our system model enables collaborative model training without compromising data privacy given that only the model parameters instead of the raw data are exchanged within the federation. However, there are two main challenges of incentive mismatches between workers and model owners, as well as among model owners. For the former, we leverage on the self-revealing mechanism in contract theory under information asymmetry. For the latter, we use the coalitional game theory approach that rewards model owners based on their marginal contributions. The numerical results validate the performance efficiency of our proposed hierarchical incentive mechanism design.
Huang, Zhicai, Zhu, Huiqing.  2020.  Blockchain-based Data Security Management Mechanism for Power Terminals. 2020 International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing (IWCMC). :191—194.
In order to solve the problem of data leakage and tampering in end-to-end power data security management, this paper proposes a Blockchain-based power terminal data security management model, which includes power terminals and Blockchain nodes. Among them, the power terminal is responsible for the collection of front-end substation data; the Blockchain node is responsible for data verification and data storage. Secondly, the data security management mechanism of power terminal based on Blockchain is proposed, including data aggregation, data encryption and transmission, signature verification for single Blockchain, aggregation signature for main Blockchain nodes, and intelligent contract storage. Finally, by applying the mechanism to the data storage process and data request process analysis, the data management mechanism proposed in this paper has a good application effect.
2021-06-28
Mounnan, Oussama, Mouatasim, Abdelkrim El, Manad, Otman, Hidar, Tarik, El Kalam, Anas Abou, Idboufker, Noureddine.  2020.  Privacy-Aware and Authentication based on Blockchain with Fault Tolerance for IoT enabled Fog Computing. 2020 Fifth International Conference on Fog and Mobile Edge Computing (FMEC). :347–352.
Fog computing is a new distributed computing paradigm that extends the cloud to the network edge. Fog computing aims at improving quality of service, data access, networking, computation and storage. However, the security and privacy issues persist, even if many cloud solutions were proposed. Indeed, Fog computing introduces new challenges in terms of security and privacy, due to its specific features such as mobility, geo-distribution and heterogeneity etc. Blockchain is an emergent concept bringing efficiency in many fields. In this paper, we propose a new access control scheme based on blockchain technology for the fog computing with fault tolerance in the context of the Internet of Things. Blockchain is used to provide secure management authentication and access process to IoT devices. Each network entity authenticates in the blockchain via the wallet, which allows a secure communication in decentralized environment, hence it achieves the security objectives. In addition, we propose to establish a secure connection between the users and the IoT devices, if their attributes satisfy the policy stored in the blockchain by smart contract. We also address the blockchain transparency problem by the encryption of the users attributes both in the policy and in the request. An authorization token is generated if the encrypted attributes are identical. Moreover, our proposition offers higher scalability, availability and fault tolerance in Fog nodes due to the implementation of load balancing through the Min-Min algorithm.
2021-05-13
Feng, Liu, Jie, Yang, Deli, Kong, Jiayin, Qi.  2020.  A Secure Multi-party Computation Protocol Combines Pederson Commitment with Schnorr Signature for Blockchain. 2020 IEEE 20th International Conference on Communication Technology (ICCT). :57—63.

Blockchain is being pursued by a growing number of people with its characteristics of openness, transparency, and decentralization. At the same time, how to secure privacy protection in such an open and transparent ledger is an urgent issue to be solved for deep study. Therefore, this paper proposes a protocol based on Secure multi-party computation, which can merge and sign different transaction messages under the anonymous condition by using Pedersen commitment and Schnorr Signature. Through the rationality proof and security analysis, this paper demonstrates the private transaction is safe under the semi-honest model. And its computational cost is less than the equivalent multi-signature model. The research has made some innovative contributions to the privacy computing theory.

2021-05-03
Naik, Nikhil, Nuzzo, Pierluigi.  2020.  Robustness Contracts for Scalable Verification of Neural Network-Enabled Cyber-Physical Systems. 2020 18th ACM-IEEE International Conference on Formal Methods and Models for System Design (MEMOCODE). :1–12.
The proliferation of artificial intelligence based systems in all walks of life raises concerns about their safety and robustness, especially for cyber-physical systems including multiple machine learning components. In this paper, we introduce robustness contracts as a framework for compositional specification and reasoning about the robustness of cyber-physical systems based on neural network (NN) components. Robustness contracts can encompass and generalize a variety of notions of robustness which were previously proposed in the literature. They can seamlessly apply to NN-based perception as well as deep reinforcement learning (RL)-enabled control applications. We present a sound and complete algorithm that can efficiently verify the satisfaction of a class of robustness contracts on NNs by leveraging notions from Lagrangian duality to identify system configurations that violate the contracts. We illustrate the effectiveness of our approach on the verification of NN-based perception systems and deep RL-based control systems.
2021-04-27
Ritter, D..  2020.  Cost-efficient Integration Process Placement in Multiclouds. 2020 IEEE 24th International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference (EDOC). :115–124.
Integration as a service (INTaaS) is the centrepiece of current corporate, cloud and device integration processes. Thereby, compositions of integration patterns denote the required integration logic as integration processes, currently running in single-clouds. While multicloud settings gain importance, their promised freedom of selecting the best option for a specific problem is currently not realized as well as security constraints are handled in a cost-intensive manner for the INTaaS vendors, leading to security vs. costs goal conflicts.In this work, we propose a design-time placement for processes in multiclouds that is cost-optimal for the INTaaS vendors, and respects configurable security constraints of their customers. To make the solution tractable for larger, productive INTaaS processes, it is relaxed using local search heuristics. The approach is evaluated on real-world integration processes with respect to cost- and runtime-efficiency, and discusses interesting trade-offs.
Lekshmi, M. M., Subramanian, N..  2020.  Data Auditing in Cloud Storage using Smart Contract. 2020 Third International Conference on Smart Systems and Inventive Technology (ICSSIT). :999–1002.
In general, Cloud storage is considered as a distributed model. Here, the data is usually stored on remote servers to properly maintain, back up and make it accessible to clients over a network, whenever required. Cloud storage providers keep the data and processes to oversee it on capacity servers based on secure virtualization methods. A security framework is proposed for auditing the cloud data, which makes use of the proposed blockchain technology. This ensures to efficiently maintain the data integrity. The blockchain structure inspects the mutation of operational information and thereby ensures the data security. Usually, the data auditing scheme is widely used in a Third Party Auditor (TPA), which is a centralized entity that the client is forced to trust, even if the credibility is not guaranteed. To avoid the participation of TPA, a decentralised scheme is suggested, where it uses a smart contract for auditing the cloud data. The working of smart contracts is based on blockchain. Ethereum is used to deploy a smart contract thereby eliminating the need of a foreign source in the data auditing process.
Agirre, I., Onaindia, P., Poggi, T., Yarza, I., Cazorla, F. J., Kosmidis, L., Grüttner, K., Abuteir, M., Loewe, J., Orbegozo, J. M. et al..  2020.  UP2DATE: Safe and secure over-the-air software updates on high-performance mixed-criticality systems. 2020 23rd Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design (DSD). :344–351.
Following the same trend of consumer electronics, safety-critical industries are starting to adopt Over-The-Air Software Updates (OTASU) on their embedded systems. The motivation behind this trend is twofold. On the one hand, OTASU offer several benefits to the product makers and users by improving or adding new functionality and services to the product without a complete redesign. On the other hand, the increasing connectivity trend makes OTASU a crucial cyber-security demand to download latest security patches. However, the application of OTASU in the safety-critical domain is not free of challenges, specially when considering the dramatic increase of software complexity and the resulting high computing performance demands. This is the mission of UP2DATE, a recently launched project funded within the European H2020 programme focused on new software update architectures for heterogeneous high-performance mixed-criticality systems. This paper gives an overview of UP2DATE and its foundations, which seeks to improve existing OTASU solutions by considering safety, security and availability from the ground up in an architecture that builds around composability and modularity.
Tsai, W., Chou, T., Chen, J., Ma, Y., Huang, C..  2020.  Blockchain as a Platform for Secure Cloud Computing Services. 2020 22nd International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT). :155—158.
Problems related to privacy and cyber-attacks have increased in recent years as a result of the rapid development of cloud computing. This work concerns secure cloud computing services on a blockchain platform, called cloud@blockchain, which benefit from the anonymity and immutability of blockchain. Two functions- anonymous file sharing and inspections to find illegally uploaded files- on cloud@blockchain are designed. On cloud@blockchain, cloud users can access data through smart contracts, and recognize all users within the application layer. The performance of three architectures- a pure blockchain, a hybrid blockchain with cache and a traditional database in accessing data is analyzed. The results reveal the superiority of the hybrid blockchain with the cache over the pure blockchain and the traditional database, which it outperforms by 500% and 53.19%, respectively.
2021-03-29
Amin, A. H. M., Abdelmajid, N., Kiwanuka, F. N..  2020.  Identity-of-Things Model using Composite Identity on Permissioned Blockchain Network. 2020 Seventh International Conference on Software Defined Systems (SDS). :171—176.

The growing prevalence of Internet-of-Things (IoT) technology has led to an increase in the development of heterogeneous smart applications. Smart applications may involve a collaborative participation between IoT devices. Participation of IoT devices for specific application requires a tamper-proof identity to be generated and stored, in order to completely represent the device, as well as to eliminate the possibility of identity spoofing and presence of rogue devices in a network. In this paper, we present a composite Identity-of-Things (IDoT) approach on IoT devices with permissioned blockchain implementation for distributed identity management model. Our proposed approach considers both application and device domains in generating the composite identity. In addition, the use of permissioned blockchain for identity storage and verification allows the identity to be immutable. A simulation has been carried out to demonstrate the application of the proposed identity management model.

Gururaj, P..  2020.  Identity management using permissioned blockchain. 2020 International Conference on Mainstreaming Block Chain Implementation (ICOMBI). :1—3.

Authenticating a person's identity has always been a challenge. While attempts are being made by government agencies to address this challenge, the citizens are being exposed to a new age problem of Identity management. The sharing of photocopies of identity cards in order to prove our identity is a common sight. From score-card to Aadhar-card, the details of our identity has reached many unauthorized hands during the years. In India the identity thefts accounts for 77% [1] of the fraud cases, and the threats are trending. Programs like e-Residency by Estonia[2], Bitnation using Ethereum[3] are being devised for an efficient Identity Management. Even the US Home Land Security is funding a research with an objective of “Design information security and privacy concepts on the Blockchain to support identity management capabilities that increase security and productivity while decreasing costs and security risks for the Homeland Security Enterprise (HSE).” [4] This paper will discuss the challenges specific to India around Identity Management, and the possible solution that the Distributed ledger, hashing algorithms and smart contracts can offer. The logic of hashing the personal data, and controlling the distribution of identity using public-private keys with Blockchain technology will be discussed in this paper.

2021-03-15
Hwang, S., Ryu, S..  2020.  Gap between Theory and Practice: An Empirical Study of Security Patches in Solidity. 2020 IEEE/ACM 42nd International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE). :542–553.
Ethereum, one of the most popular blockchain platforms, provides financial transactions like payments and auctions through smart contracts. Due to the immense interest in smart contracts in academia, the research community of smart contract security has made a significant improvement recently. Researchers have reported various security vulnerabilities in smart contracts, and developed static analysis tools and verification frameworks to detect them. However, it is unclear whether such great efforts from academia has indeed enhanced the security of smart contracts in reality. To understand the security level of smart contracts in the wild, we empirically studied 55,046 real-world Ethereum smart contracts written in Solidity, the most popular programming language used by Ethereum smart contract developers. We first examined how many well-known vulnerabilities the Solidity compiler has patched, and how frequently the Solidity team publishes compiler releases. Unfortunately, we observed that many known vulnerabilities are not yet patched, and some patches are not even sufficient to avoid their target vulnerabilities. Subsequently, we investigated whether smart contract developers use the most recent compiler with vulnerabilities patched. We reported that developers of more than 98% of real-world Solidity contracts still use older compilers without vulnerability patches, and more than 25% of the contracts are potentially vulnerable due to the missing security patches. To understand actual impacts of the missing patches, we manually investigated potentially vulnerable contracts that are detected by our static analyzer and identified common mistakes by Solidity developers, which may cause serious security issues such as financial loss. We detected hundreds of vulnerable contracts and about one fourth of the vulnerable contracts are used by thousands of people. We recommend the Solidity team to make patches that resolve known vulnerabilities correctly, and developers to use the latest Solidity compiler to avoid missing security patches.
2021-03-09
Tikhomirov, S., Moreno-Sanchez, P., Maffei, M..  2020.  A Quantitative Analysis of Security, Anonymity and Scalability for the Lightning Network. 2020 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy Workshops (EuroS PW). :387—396.

Payment channel networks have been introduced to mitigate the scalability issues inherent to permissionless decentralized cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin. Launched in 2018, the Lightning Network (LN) has been gaining popularity and consists today of more than 5000 nodes and 35000 payment channels that jointly hold 965 bitcoins (9.2M USD as of June 2020). This adoption has motivated research from both academia and industryPayment channels suffer from security vulnerabilities, such as the wormhole attack [39], anonymity issues [38], and scalability limitations related to the upper bound on the number of concurrent payments per channel [28], which have been pointed out by the scientific community but never quantitatively analyzedIn this work, we first analyze the proneness of the LN to the wormhole attack and attacks against anonymity. We observe that an adversary needs to control only 2% of nodes to learn sensitive payment information (e.g., sender, receiver, and amount) or to carry out the wormhole attack. Second, we study the management of concurrent payments in the LN and quantify its negative effect on scalability. We observe that for micropayments, the forwarding capability of up to 50% of channels is restricted to a value smaller than the channel capacity. This phenomenon hinders scalability and opens the door for denial-of-service attacks: we estimate that a network-wide DoS attack costs within 1.6M USD, while isolating the biggest community costs only 238k USDOur findings should prompt the LN community to consider the issues studied in this work when educating users about path selection algorithms, as well as to adopt multi-hop payment protocols that provide stronger security, privacy and scalability guarantees.

2021-03-04
Cao, L., Wan, Z..  2020.  Anonymous scheme for blockchain atomic swap based on zero-knowledge proof. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Computer Applications (ICAICA). :371—374.
The blockchain's cross-chain atomic exchange uses smart contracts to replace trusted third parties, but atomic exchange cannot guarantee the anonymity of transactions, and it will inevitably increase the risk of privacy leakage. Therefore, this paper proposes an atom based on zero-knowledge proof. Improved methods of exchange to ensure the privacy of both parties in a transaction. The anonymous improvement scheme in this article uses the UTXO unconsumed model to add a new anonymous list in the blockchain. When sending assets to smart contracts, zero-knowledge proof is used to provide self-certification of ownership of the asset, and then the transaction is broken down. Only the hash value of the transaction is sent to the node, and the discarded list is used to verify the validity of the transaction, which achieves the effect of storing assets anonymously in the smart contract. At the same time, a smart contract is added when the two parties in the transaction communicate to exchange the contract address of the newly set smart contract between the two parties in the transaction. This can prevent the smart contract address information from being stolen when the two parties in the transaction communicate directly.
Hajizadeh, M., Afraz, N., Ruffini, M., Bauschert, T..  2020.  Collaborative Cyber Attack Defense in SDN Networks using Blockchain Technology. 2020 6th IEEE Conference on Network Softwarization (NetSoft). :487—492.

The legacy security defense mechanisms cannot resist where emerging sophisticated threats such as zero-day and malware campaigns have profoundly changed the dimensions of cyber-attacks. Recent studies indicate that cyber threat intelligence plays a crucial role in implementing proactive defense operations. It provides a knowledge-sharing platform that not only increases security awareness and readiness but also enables the collaborative defense to diminish the effectiveness of potential attacks. In this paper, we propose a secure distributed model to facilitate cyber threat intelligence sharing among diverse participants. The proposed model uses blockchain technology to assure tamper-proof record-keeping and smart contracts to guarantee immutable logic. We use an open-source permissioned blockchain platform, Hyperledger Fabric, to implement the blockchain application. We also utilize the flexibility and management capabilities of Software-Defined Networking to be integrated with the proposed sharing platform to enhance defense perspectives against threats in the system. In the end, collaborative DDoS attack mitigation is taken as a case study to demonstrate our approach.

2021-02-23
Fan, W., Chang, S.-Y., Emery, S., Zhou, X..  2020.  Blockchain-based Distributed Banking for Permissioned and Accountable Financial Transaction Processing. 2020 29th International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN). :1—9.

Distributed banking platforms and services forgo centralized banks to process financial transactions. For example, M-Pesa provides distributed banking service in the developing regions so that the people without a bank account can deposit, withdraw, or transfer money. The current distributed banking systems lack the transparency in monitoring and tracking of distributed banking transactions and thus do not support auditing of distributed banking transactions for accountability. To address this issue, this paper proposes a blockchain-based distributed banking (BDB) scheme, which uses blockchain technology to leverage its built-in properties to record and track immutable transactions. BDB supports distributed financial transaction processing but is significantly different from cryptocurrencies in its design properties, simplicity, and computational efficiency. We implement a prototype of BDB using smart contract and conduct experiments to show BDB's effectiveness and performance. We further compare our prototype with the Ethereum cryptocurrency to highlight the fundamental differences and demonstrate the BDB's superior computational efficiency.

Patil, A., Jha, A., Mulla, M. M., Narayan, D. G., Kengond, S..  2020.  Data Provenance Assurance for Cloud Storage Using Blockchain. 2020 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communication Materials (ICACCM). :443—448.

Cloud forensics investigates the crime committed over cloud infrastructures like SLA-violations and storage privacy. Cloud storage forensics is the process of recording the history of the creation and operations performed on a cloud data object and investing it. Secure data provenance in the Cloud is crucial for data accountability, forensics, and privacy. Towards this, we present a Cloud-based data provenance framework using Blockchain, which traces data record operations and generates provenance data. Initially, we design a dropbox like application using AWS S3 storage. The application creates a cloud storage application for the students and faculty of the university, thereby making the storage and sharing of work and resources efficient. Later, we design a data provenance mechanism for confidential files of users using Ethereum blockchain. We also evaluate the proposed system using performance parameters like query and transaction latency by varying the load and number of nodes of the blockchain network.

Cushing, R., Koning, R., Zhang, L., Laat, C. d, Grosso, P..  2020.  Auditable secure network overlays for multi-domain distributed applications. 2020 IFIP Networking Conference (Networking). :658—660.

The push for data sharing and data processing across organisational boundaries creates challenges at many levels of the software stack. Data sharing and processing rely on the participating parties agreeing on the permissible operations and expressing them into actionable contracts and policies. Converting these contracts and policies into a operational infrastructure is still a matter of research and therefore begs the question how should a digital data market place infrastructure look like? In this paper we investigate how communication fabric and applications can be tightly coupled into a multi-domain overlay network which enforces accountability. We prove our concepts with a prototype which shows how a simple workflow can run across organisational boundaries.

2021-02-01
Kfoury, E. F., Khoury, D., AlSabeh, A., Gomez, J., Crichigno, J., Bou-Harb, E..  2020.  A Blockchain-based Method for Decentralizing the ACME Protocol to Enhance Trust in PKI. 2020 43rd International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing (TSP). :461–465.
Blockchain technology is the cornerstone of digital trust and systems' decentralization. The necessity of eliminating trust in computing systems has triggered researchers to investigate the applicability of Blockchain to decentralize the conventional security models. Specifically, researchers continuously aim at minimizing trust in the well-known Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) model which currently requires a trusted Certificate Authority (CA) to sign digital certificates. Recently, the Automated Certificate Management Environment (ACME) was standardized as a certificate issuance automation protocol. It minimizes the human interaction by enabling certificates to be automatically requested, verified, and installed on servers. ACME only solved the automation issue, but the trust concerns remain as a trusted CA is required. In this paper we propose decentralizing the ACME protocol by using the Blockchain technology to enhance the current trust issues of the existing PKI model and to eliminate the need for a trusted CA. The system was implemented and tested on Ethereum Blockchain, and the results showed that the system is feasible in terms of cost, speed, and applicability on a wide range of devices including Internet of Things (IoT) devices.
2021-01-18
Huitzil, I., Fuentemilla, Á, Bobillo, F..  2020.  I Can Get Some Satisfaction: Fuzzy Ontologies for Partial Agreements in Blockchain Smart Contracts. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems (FUZZ-IEEE). :1–8.
This paper proposes a novel extension of blockchain systems with fuzzy ontologies. The main advantage is to let the users have flexible restrictions, represented using fuzzy sets, and to develop smart contracts where there is a partial agreement among the involved parts. We propose a general architecture based on four fuzzy ontologies and a process to develop and run the smart contracts, based on a reduction to a well-known fuzzy ontology reasoning task (Best Satisfiability Degree). We also investigate different operators to compute Pareto-optimal solutions and implement our approach in the Ethereum blockchain.
2020-12-21
Huang, H., Zhou, S., Lin, J., Zhang, K., Guo, S..  2020.  Bridge the Trustworthiness Gap amongst Multiple Domains: A Practical Blockchain-based Approach. ICC 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–6.
In isolated network domains, global trustworthiness (e.g., consistent network view) is critical to the multiple-domain business partners who aim to perform the trusted corporations depending on each isolated network view. However, to achieve such global trustworthiness across distributed network domains is a challenge. This is because when multiple-domain partners are required to exchange their local domain views with each other, it is difficult to ensure the data trustworthiness among them. In addition, the isolated domain view in each partner is prone to be destroyed by malicious falsification attacks. To this end, we propose a blockchain-based approach that can ensure the trustworthiness among multiple-party domains. In this paper, we mainly present the design and implementation of the proposed trustworthiness-protection system. A cloud-based prototype and a local testbed are developed based on Ethereum. Finally, experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed prototype and testbed.
2020-12-02
Narang, S., Byali, M., Dayama, P., Pandit, V., Narahari, Y..  2019.  Design of Trusted B2B Market Platforms using Permissioned Blockchains and Game Theory. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain and Cryptocurrency (ICBC). :385—393.

Trusted collaboration satisfying the requirements of (a) adequate transparency and (b) preservation of privacy of business sensitive information is a key factor to ensure the success and adoption of online business-to-business (B2B) collaboration platforms. Our work proposes novel ways of stringing together game theoretic modeling, blockchain technology, and cryptographic techniques to build such a platform for B2B collaboration involving enterprise buyers and sellers who may be strategic. The B2B platform builds upon three ideas. The first is to use a permissioned blockchain with smart contracts as the technical infrastructure for building the platform. Second, the above smart contracts implement deep business logic which is derived using a rigorous analysis of a repeated game model of the strategic interactions between buyers and sellers to devise strategies to induce honest behavior from buyers and sellers. Third, we present a formal framework that captures the essential requirements for secure and private B2B collaboration, and, in this direction, we develop cryptographic regulation protocols that, in conjunction with the blockchain, help implement such a framework. We believe our work is an important first step in the direction of building a platform that enables B2B collaboration among strategic and competitive agents while maximizing social welfare and addressing the privacy concerns of the agents.

Malvankar, A., Payne, J., Budhraja, K. K., Kundu, A., Chari, S., Mohania, M..  2019.  Malware Containment in Cloud. 2019 First IEEE International Conference on Trust, Privacy and Security in Intelligent Systems and Applications (TPS-ISA). :221—227.

Malware is pervasive and poses serious threats to normal operation of business processes in cloud. Cloud computing environments typically have hundreds of hosts that are connected to each other, often with high risk trust assumptions and/or protection mechanisms that are not difficult to break. Malware often exploits such weaknesses, as its immediate goal is often to spread itself to as many hosts as possible. Detecting this propagation is often difficult to address because the malware may reside in multiple components across the software or hardware stack. In this scenario, it is usually best to contain the malware to the smallest possible number of hosts, and it's also critical for system administration to resolve the issue in a timely manner. Furthermore, resolution often requires that several participants across different organizational teams scramble together to address the intrusion. In this vision paper, we define this problem in detail. We then present our vision of decentralized malware containment and the challenges and issues associated with this vision. The approach of containment involves detection and response using graph analytics coupled with a blockchain framework. We propose the use of a dominance frontier for profile nodes which must be involved in the containment process. Smart contracts are used to obtain consensus amongst the involved parties. The paper presents a basic implementation of this proposal. We have further discussed some open problems related to our vision.

2020-12-01
Tanana, D..  2019.  Decentralized Labor Record System Based on Wavelet Consensus Protocol. 2019 International Multi-Conference on Engineering, Computer and Information Sciences (SIBIRCON). :0496—0499.

The labor market involves several untrusted actors with contradicting objectives. We propose a blockchain based system for labor market, which provides benefits to all participants in terms of confidence, transparency, trust and tracking. Our system would handle employment data through new Wavelet blockchain platform. It would change the job market enabling direct agreements between parties without other participants, and providing new mechanisms for negotiating the employment conditions. Furthermore, our system would reduce the need in existing paper workflow as well as in major internet recruiting companies. The key differences of our work from other blockchain based labor record systems are usage of Wavelet blockchain platform, which features metastability, directed acyclic graph system and Turing complete smart contracts platform and introduction of human interaction inside the smart contracts logic, instead of automatic execution of contracts. The results are promising while inconclusive and we would further explore potential of blockchain solutions for labor market problems.

2020-11-16
Choudhury, O., Sylla, I., Fairoza, N., Das, A..  2019.  A Blockchain Framework for Ensuring Data Quality in Multi-Organizational Clinical Trials. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Healthcare Informatics (ICHI). :1–9.
The cost and complexity of conducting multi-site clinical trials have significantly increased over time, with site monitoring, data management, and Institutional Review Board (IRB) amendments being key drivers. Trial sponsors, such as pharmaceutical companies, are also increasingly outsourcing trial management to multiple organizations. Enforcing compliance with standard operating procedures, such as preserving data privacy for human subject protection, is crucial for upholding the integrity of a study and its findings. Current efforts to ensure quality of data collected at multiple sites and by multiple organizations lack a secure, trusted, and efficient framework for fragmented data capture. To address this challenge, we propose a novel data management infrastructure based on a permissioned blockchain with private channels, smart contracts, and distributed ledgers. We use an example multi-organizational clinical trial to design and implement a blockchain network: generate activity-specific private channels to segregate data flow for confidentiality, write channel-specific smart contracts to enforce regulatory guidelines, monitor the immutable transaction log to detect protocol breach, and auto-generate audit trail. Through comprehensive experimental study, we demonstrate that our system handles high-throughput transactions, exhibits low-latency, and constitutes a trusted, scalable solution.