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2021-11-29
AlShiab, Ismael, Leivadeas, Aris, Ibnkahla, Mohamed.  2021.  Virtual Sensing Networks and Dynamic RPL-Based Routing for IoT Sensing Services. ICC 2021 - IEEE International Conference on Communications. :1–6.
IoT applications are quickly evolving in scope and objectives while their focus is being shifted toward supporting dynamic users’ requirements. IoT users initiate applications and expect quick and reliable deployment without worrying about the underlying complexities of the required sensing and routing resources. On the other hand, IoT sensing nodes, sinks, and gateways are heterogeneous, have limited resources, and require significant cost and installation time. Sensing network-level virtualization through virtual Sensing Networks (VSNs) could play an important role in enabling the formation of virtual groups that link the needed IoT sensing and routing resources. These VSNs can be initiated on-demand with the goal to satisfy different IoT applications’ requirements. In this context, we present a joint algorithm for IoT Sensing Resource Allocation with Dynamic Resource-Based Routing (SRADRR). The SRADRR algorithm builds on the current distinguished empowerment of sensing networks using recent standards like RPL and 6LowPAN. The proposed algorithm suggests employing the RPL standard concepts to create DODAG routing trees that dynamically adapt according to the available sensing resources and the requirements of the running and arriving applications. Our results and implementation of the SRADRR reveal promising enhancements in the overall applications deployment rate.
Raich, Philipp, Kastner, Wolfgang.  2021.  A Computational Model for 6LoWPAN Multicast Routing. 2021 17th IEEE International Conference on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS). :143–146.
Reliable group communication is an important cornerstone for various applications in the domain of Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). Yet, despite various proposals, state-of- the-art (open) protocol stacks for IPv6-enabled Low Power and Lossy Networks (LLNs) have little to offer, regarding standardized or agreed-upon protocols for correct multicast routing, not to mention reliable multicast. We present an informal computational model, which allows us to analyze the respective candidates for multicast routing. Further, we focus on the IEEE 802.15.4/6LoWPAN stack and discuss prominent multicast routing protocols and how they fit into this model.
Setiawan, Dharma Yusuf, Naning Hertiana, Sofia, Negara, Ridha Muldina.  2021.  6LoWPAN Performance Analysis of IoT Software-Defined-Network-Based Using Mininet-Io. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Internet of Things and Intelligence System (IoTaIS). :60–65.
Software Defined Network (SDN) is a new paradigm in network architecture. The basic concept of SDN itself is to separate the control plane and forwarding plane explicitly. In the last few years, SDN technology has become one of the exciting topics for researchers, the development of SDN which was carried out, one of which was implementing the Internet of Things (IoT) devices in the SDN network architecture model. Mininet-IoT is developing the Mininet network emulator by adding virtualized IoT devices, 6LoWPAN based on wireless Linux standards, and 802.15.4 wireless simulation drivers. Mininet-IoT expands the Mininet code class by adding or modifying functions in it. This research will discuss the performance of the 6LoWPAN device on the internet of things (IoT) network by applying the SDN paradigm. We use the Mininet-IoT emulator and the Open Network Operating System (ONOS) controller using the internet of things (IoT) IPv6 forwarding. Performance testing by comparing some of the topologies of the addition of host, switch, and cluster. The test results of the two scenarios tested can be concluded; the throughput value obtained has decreased compared to the value of back-traffic traffic. While the packet loss value obtained is on average above 15%. Jitter value, delay, throughput, and packet loss are still in the category of enough, good, and very good based on TIPHON and ITU-T standards.
Nair, Devika S, BJ, Santhosh Kumar.  2021.  Identifying Rank Attacks and Alert Application in WSN. 2021 6th International Conference on Communication and Electronics Systems (ICCES). :798–802.
Routing protocol for low power and lossy networks (RPL) is a fundamental routing protocol of 6LoWPAN, a centre correspondence standard for the Internet of Things. RPL outplay other wireless sensor and ad hoc routing protocols in the aspect of service (QoS), device management, and energy-saving performance. The Rank definition in RPL addresses several issues, such as path optimization, loop avoidance, and power overhead management. RPL rank and version number attacks are two types of the most common forms of RPL attacks, may have crucial ramification for RPL networks. The research directed upon these attacks includes considerable vulnerabilities and efficiency issues. The rank attack on sensor networks is perhaps the utmost common, posing a challenge to network connectivity by falling data or disrupting routing routes. This work presents a rank attack detection system focusing on RPL. Considering many of such issues a method has been proposed using spatial correlation function (SCF) and Dijkstra's algorithm considering parameters like energy and throughput.
Paul, Arya, Pillai, Anju S.  2021.  A Review on RPL Objective Function Improvements for IoT Applications. 2021 2nd International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communication, Embedded and Secure Systems (ACCESS). :80–85.
The standard routing technique that was developed for satisfying low power IoT application needs is RPL which is a protocol in compliance with 6LoWPAN specification. RPL was created for addressing the issues and challenges of constrained and lossy network routing. However, RPL does not accomplish efficiency with respect to power and reliability altogether which are definitely needed in IoT applications. RPL runs on routing metrics and objective function which determines the optimal path in routing. This paper focuses on contributing a comprehensive survey on the improved objective functions proposed by several researchers for RPL. In addition, the paper concentrates on highlighting the strengths and shortcomings of the different approaches in designing the objective function. The approaches built on Fuzzy logic are found to be more efficient and the relevant works related to these are compared. Furthermore, we present the insights drawn from the survey and summarize the challenges which can be effectively utilized for future works.
Ching, Tan Woei, Aman, Azana Hafizah Mohd, Azamuddin, Wan Muhd Hazwan, Sallehuddin, Hasimi, Attarbashi, Zainab Senan.  2021.  Performance Analysis of Internet of Things Routing Protocol for Low Power and Lossy Networks (RPL): Energy, Overhead and Packet Delivery. 2021 3rd International Cyber Resilience Conference (CRC). :1–6.
In line with the rapid development of the Internet of Things (IoT) network, the challenges faced are ensuring the network performance is capable to support the communication of these IoT devices. As a result, the routing protocols can provide fast route discovery and network maintenance by considering the IoT network's resource constraints. This paper's main contributions are to identify compatible IoT routing protocol using qualitative method and factor that affect network performance. Routing Protocol for Low Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) is a proactive distance- vector routing protocol designed as a proposed standard to meet the requirements of the Low Power and Lossy Networks (LLN). In this project, four influential factors on the performance of RPL in Contiki OS are examined using the Cooja simulator and then RPL performance is assessed in terms of Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), Energy consumption and Overhead control message for the network. The project provides an insight into the implications of traffic patterns, transmission ranges, network size and node mobility for different scenarios. The results of the simulation show that the PDR and overhead ratio increases proportional to transmission distances increases but decreases while radio interference is increased. From the mobility aspect, PDR decreases by an average of 19.5% when the mobility nodes expand. On the other hand, energy consumption increases by an average of 63.7% and control message size increased up to 213% when the network consists of 40 percent of mobility nodes.
Taghanaki, Saeid Rafiei, Arzandeh, Shohreh Behnam, Bohlooli, Ali.  2021.  A Decentralized Method for Detecting Clone ID Attacks on the Internet of Things. 2021 5th International Conference on Internet of Things and Applications (IoT). :1–6.
One of the attacks in the RPL protocol is the Clone ID attack, that the attacker clones the node's ID in the network. In this research, a Clone ID detection system is designed for the Internet of Things (IoT), implemented in Contiki operating system, and evaluated using the Cooja emulator. Our evaluation shows that the proposed method has desirable performance in terms of energy consumption overhead, true positive rate, and detection speed. The overhead cost of the proposed method is low enough that it can be deployed in limited-resource nodes. The proposed method in each node has two phases, which are the steps of gathering information and attack detection. In the proposed scheme, each node detects this type of attack using control packets received from its neighbors and their information such as IP, rank, Path ETX, and RSSI, as well as the use of a routing table. The design of this system will contribute to the security of the IoT network.
Kareem, Mohammed Aman, Tayeb, Shahab.  2021.  ML-based NIDS to secure RPL from Routing Attacks. 2021 IEEE 11th Annual Computing and Communication Workshop and Conference (CCWC). :1000–1006.
Low power and lossy networks (LLNs) devices resource-constrained nature make it difficult to implement security mechanisms to defend against RPL routing attacks. RPLs inbuilt security functions are not efficient in preventing a wide majority of routing attacks. RPLs optional security schemes can defend against external attacks, but cannot mitigate internal attacks. Moreover, RPL does not have any mechanism to verify the integrity of control messages used to keep topology updated and route the traffic. All these factors play a major role in increasing the RPLs threat level against routing attacks. In this paper, a comparative literature review of various researchers suggesting security mechanisms to mitigate security attacks aimed at RPL has been performed and methods have been contrasted.
Bettoumi, Balkis, Bouallegue, Ridha.  2021.  Efficient Reduction of the Transmission Delay of the Authentication Based Elliptic Curve Cryptography in 6LoWPAN Wireless Sensor Networks in the Internet of Things. 2021 International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing (IWCMC). :1471–1476.
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is considered as the backbone of Internet of Things (IoT) networks. Authentication is the most important phase that guarantees secure access to such networks but it is more critical than that in traditional Internet because the communications are established between constrained devices that could not compute heavy cryptographic primitives. In this paper, we are studying with real experimentation the efficiency of HIP Diet EXchange header (HIP DEX) protocol over IPv6 over Low Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPAN) in IoT. The adopted application layer protocol is Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) and as a routing protocol, the Routing Protocol for Low power and lossy networks (RPL). The evaluation concerns the total End-to-End transmission delays during the authentication process between the communicating peers regarding the processing, propagation, and queuing times' overheads results. Most importantly, we propose an efficient handshake packets' compression header, and we detailed a comparison of the above evaluation's criteria before and after the proposed compression. Obtained results are very encouraging and reinforce the efficiency of HIP DEX in IoT networks during the handshake process of constrained nodes.
Kamal, Syed Osama, Muhammad Khan, Bilal.  2021.  Hardware Implementation of IP-Enabled Wireless Sensor Network Using 6LoWPAN. 2021 1st International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Data Analytics (CAIDA). :227–233.
Wireless sensor networks have become so popular in many applications such as vehicle tracking and monitoring, environmental measurements and radiation analysis. These applications can be ready to go for further processing by connecting it to remote servers through protocols that outside world used such as internet. This brings IPv6 over low power wireless sensor network (6LowPAN) into very important role to develop a bridge between internet and WSN network. Though a reliable communication demands many parameters such as data rate, effective data transmission, data security as well as packet size etc. A gateway between 6lowPAN network and IPV6 is needed where frame size compression is required in order to increase payload of data frame on hardware platform.
2020-12-21
Ayers, H., Crews, P., Teo, H., McAvity, C., Levy, A., Levis, P..  2020.  Design Considerations for Low Power Internet Protocols. 2020 16th International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems (DCOSS). :103–111.
Low-power wireless networks provide IPv6 connectivity through 6LoWPAN, a set of standards to aggressively compress IPv6 packets over small maximum transfer unit (MTU) links such as 802.15.4.The entire purpose of IP was to interconnect different networks, but we find that different 6LoWPAN implementations fail to reliably communicate with one another. These failures are due to stacks implementing different subsets of the standard out of concern for code size. We argue that this failure stems from 6LoWPAN's design, not implementation, and is due to applying traditional Internet protocol design principles to low- power networks.We propose three design principles for Internet protocols on low-power networks, designed to prevent similar failures in the future. These principles are based around the importance of providing flexible tradeoffs between code size and energy efficiency. We apply these principles to 6LoWPAN and show that the modified protocol provides a wide range of implementation strategies while allowing implementations with different strategies to reliably communicate.
Portaluri, G., Giordano, S..  2020.  Gambling on fairness: a fair scheduler for IIoT communications based on the shell game. 2020 IEEE 25th International Workshop on Computer Aided Modeling and Design of Communication Links and Networks (CAMAD). :1–6.
The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) paradigm represents nowadays the cornerstone of the industrial automation since it has introduced new features and services for different environments and has granted the connection of industrial machine sensors and actuators both to local processing and to the Internet. One of the most advanced network protocol stack for IoT-IIoT networks that have been developed is 6LoWPAN which supports IPv6 on top of Low-power Wireless Personal Area Networks (LoWPANs). 6LoWPAN is usually coupled with the IEEE 802.15.4 low-bitrate and low-energy MAC protocol that relies on the time-slotted channel hopping (TSCH) technique. In TSCH networks, a coordinator node synchronizes all end-devices and specifies whether (and when) they can transmit or not in order to improve their energy efficiency. In this scenario, the scheduling strategy adopted by the coordinator plays a crucial role that impacts dramatically on the network performance. In this paper, we present a novel scheduling strategy for time-slot allocation in IIoT communications which aims at the improvement of the overall network fairness. The proposed strategy mimics the well-known shell game turning the totally unfair mechanics of this game into a fair scheduling strategy. We compare our proposal with three allocation strategies, and we evaluate the fairness of each scheduler showing that our allocator outperforms the others.
Sanila, A., Mahapatra, B., Turuk, A. K..  2020.  Performance Evaluation of RPL protocol in a 6LoWPAN based Smart Home Environment. 2020 International Conference on Computer Science, Engineering and Applications (ICCSEA). :1–6.
The advancement in technologies like IoT, device-to-device communication lead to concepts like smart home and smart cities, etc. In smart home architecture, different devices such as home appliances, personal computers, surveillance cameras, etc. are connected to the Internet and enable the user to monitor and control irrespective of time and location. IPv6-enabled 6LoWPAN is a low-power, low-range communication protocol designed and developed for the short-range IoT applications. 6LoWPAN is based on IEEE 802.15.4 protocol and IPv6 network protocol for low range wireless applications. Although 6LoWPAN supports different routing protocols, RPL is the widely used routing protocol for low power and lossy networks. In this work, we have taken an IoT enabled smart home environment, in which 6LoWPAN is used as a communication and RPL as a routing protocol. The performance of this proposed network model is analyzed based on the different performance metrics such as latency, PDR, and throughput. The proposed model is simulated using Cooja simulator running over the Contiki OS. Along with the Cooja simulator, the network analyzer tool Wireshark is used to analyze the network behaviors.
Yang, B., Liu, F., Yuan, L., Zhang, Y..  2020.  6LoWPAN Protocol Based Infrared Sensor Network Human Target Locating System. 2020 15th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA). :1773–1779.
This paper proposes an infrared sensor human target locating system for the Internet of Things. In this design, the wireless sensor network is designed and developed to detect human targets by using 6LoWPAN protocol and pyroelectric infrared (PIR) sensors. Based on the detection data acquired by multiple sensor nodes, K-means++ clustering algorithm combined with cost function is applied to complete human target location in a 10m×10m detection area. The experimental results indicate the human locating system works well and the user can view the location information on the terminal devices.
Seliem, M., Elgazzar, K..  2020.  LPA-SDP: A Lightweight Privacy-Aware Service Discovery Protocol for IoT Environments. 2020 IEEE 6th World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT). :1–7.
Latest forecasts show that 50 billion devices will be connected to the Internet by 2020. These devices will provide ubiquitous data access and enable smarter interactions in all aspects of our everyday life, including vital domains such as healthcare and battlefields, where privacy is a key requirement. With the increasing adoption of IoT and the explosion of these resource-constrained devices, manual discovery and configuration become significantly challenging. Despite there is a number of resource discovery protocols that can be efficiently used in IoT deployments, none of these protocols provides any privacy consideration. This paper presents LPA-SDT, a novel technique for service discovery that builds privacy into the design from the ground up. Performance evaluation demonstrates that LPA-SDT outperforms state-of-the-art discovery techniques for resource-constrained environments while preserving user and data privacy.
Bediya, A. K., Kumar, R..  2020.  Real Time DDoS Intrusion Detection and Monitoring Framework in 6LoWPAN for Internet of Things. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Computing, Power and Communication Technologies (GUCON). :824–828.
The Internet of things is an extremely enormous space and still, IoT is spreading over a wide range of zones of development with very fast speed. The IoT is going to create a new world of efficient services. IoT is a collective system consisting of hardware like sensors, Radio Frequency Identification RFID, Bluetooth devices, Near Field Communication (NFC) devices, etc. and software that provides data queries, exchange, repository and exchanges, etc. Security of the IoT network is also a big and important issue of concern. This paper reviews the DDoS attack impact on IoT network and its mitigation methods for IoT in network, also discusses CoAP protocol, RPL protocol and 6LoWPAN network. This paper also represents the security framework to detect and monitor the DDoS attack for low power devices based IoT network.
Samuel, C., Alvarez, B. M., Ribera, E. Garcia, Ioulianou, P. P., Vassilakis, V. G..  2020.  Performance Evaluation of a Wormhole Detection Method using Round-Trip Times and Hop Counts in RPL-Based 6LoWPAN Networks. 2020 12th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP). :1–6.
The IPv6 over Low-power Wireless Personal Area Network (6LoWPAN) has been standardized to support IP over lossy networks. RPL (Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks) is the common routing protocol for 6LoWPAN. Among various attacks on RPL-based networks, the wormhole attack may cause severe network disruption and is one of the hardest to detect. We have designed and implemented in ContikiOS a wormhole detection technique for 6LoWPAN, that uses round-trip times and hop counts. In addition, the performance of this technique has been evaluated in terms of power, CPU, memory, and communication overhead.
Karthiga, K., Balamurugan, G., Subashri, T..  2020.  Computational Analysis of Security Algorithm on 6LowPSec. 2020 International Conference on Communication and Signal Processing (ICCSP). :1437–1442.
In order to the development of IoT, IETF developed a standard named 6LoWPAN for increase the usage of IPv6 to the tiny and smart objects with low power. Generally, the 6LoWPAN radio link needs end to end (e2e) security for its IPv6 communication process. 6LoWPAN requires light weight variant of security solutions in IPSec. A new security approach of 6LoWPAN at adaptation layer to provide e2e security with light weight IPSec. The existing security protocol IPsec is not suitable for its 6LoWPAN IoT environment because it has heavy restrictions on memory, power, duty cycle, additional overhead transmission. The IPSec had packet overhead problem due to share the secret key between two communicating peers by IKE (Internet Key Exchange) protocol. Hence the existing security protocol IPSec solutions are not suitable for lightweight-based security need in 6LoWPAN IoT. This paper describes 6LowPSec protocol with AES-CCM (Cipher block chaining Message authentication code with Counter mode) cryptographic algorithm with key size of 128 bits with minimum power consumption and duty cycle.
Kasah, N. b H., Aman, A. H. b M., Attarbashi, Z. S. M., Fazea, Y..  2020.  Investigation on 6LoWPAN Data Security for Internet of Things. 2020 2nd International Conference on Computer and Information Sciences (ICCIS). :1–5.
Low-power wireless network technology is one of the main key characteristics in communication systems that are needed by the Internet of Things (IoT). Nowadays, the 6LoWPAN standard is one of the communication protocols which has been identified as an important protocol in IoT applications. Networking technology in 6LoWPAN transfer IPv6 packets efficiently in link-layer framework that is well-defined by IEEE 802.14.5 protocol. 6Lo WPAN development is still having problems such as threats and entrust crises. The most important part when developing this new technology is the challenge to secure the network. Data security is viewed as a major consideration in this network communications. Many researchers are working to secure 6LoWPAN communication by analyzing the architecture and network features. 6LoWPAN security weakness or vulnerability is exposed to various forms of network attack. In this paper, the security solutions for 6LoWPAN have been investigated. The requirements of safety in 6LoWPAN are also presented.
Preda, M., Patriciu, V..  2020.  Simulating RPL Attacks in 6lowpan for Detection Purposes. 2020 13th International Conference on Communications (COMM). :239–245.
The Internet of Things (IoT) integrates the Internet and electronic devices belonging to different domains, such as smart home automation, industrial processes, military applications, health, and environmental monitoring. Usually, IoT devices have limited resources and Low Power and Lossy Networks (LLNs) are being used to interconnect such devices. Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) is one of the preferred routing protocols for this type of network, since it was specially developed for LLNs, also known as IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPAN). In this paper the most well-known routing attacks against 6LoWPAN networks were studied and implemented through simulation, conducting a behavioral analysis of network components (resources, topology, and data traffic) under attack condition. In order to achieve a better understanding on how attacks in 6LoWPAN work, we first conducted a study on 6LoWPAN networks and RPL protocol functioning. Furthermore, we also studied a series of well-known routing attacks against this type of Wireless Sensor Networks and these attacks were then simulated using Cooja simulator provided by Contiki operating system. The results obtained after the simulations are discussed along with other previous researches. This analysis may be of real interest when it comes to identify indicators of compromise for each type of attack and appropriate countermeasures for prevention and detection of these attacks.
2020-05-26
Sahay, Rashmi, Geethakumari, G., Mitra, Barsha, Thejas, V..  2018.  Exponential Smoothing based Approach for Detection of Blackhole Attacks in IoT. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Advanced Networks and Telecommunications Systems (ANTS). :1–6.
Low power and lossy network (LLN) comprising of constrained devices like sensors and RFIDs, is a major component in the Internet of Things (IoT) environment as these devices provide global connectivity to physical devices or “Things”. LLNs are tied to the Internet or any High Performance Computing environment via an adaptation layer called 6LoWPAN (IPv6 over Low power Personal Area Network). The routing protocol used by 6LoWPAN is RPL (IPv6 Routing Protocol over LLN). Like many other routing protocols, RPL is susceptible to blackhole attacks which cause topological isolation for a subset of nodes in the LLN. A malicious node instigating the blackhole attack drops received packets from nodes in its subtree which it is supposed to forward. Thus, the malicious node successfully isolates nodes in its subtree from the rest of the network. In this paper, we propose an algorithm based on the concept of exponential smoothing to detect the topological isolation of nodes due to blackhole attack. Exponential smoothing is a technique for smoothing time series data using the exponential window function and is used for short, medium and long term forecasting. In our proposed algorithm, exponential smoothing is used to estimate the next arrival time of packets at the sink node from every other node in the LLN. Using this estimation, the algorithm is designed to identify the malicious nodes instigating blackhole attack in real time.
2020-01-13
Li, Nan, Varadharajan, Vijay, Nepal, Surya.  2019.  Context-Aware Trust Management System for IoT Applications with Multiple Domains. 2019 IEEE 39th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS). :1138–1148.
The Internet of Things (IoT) provides connectivity between heterogeneous devices in different applications, such as smart wildlife, supply chain and traffic management. Trust management system (TMS) assesses the trustworthiness of service with respect to its quality. Under different context information, a service provider may be trusted in one context but not in another. The existing context-aware trust models usually store trust values under different contexts and search the closest (to a given context) record to evaluate the trustworthiness of a service. However, it is not suitable for distributed resource-constrained IoT devices which have small memory and low power. Reputation systems are applied in many trust models where trustor obtains recommendations from others. In context-based trust evaluation, it requires interactive queries to find relevant information from remote devices. The communication overhead and energy consumption are issues in low power networks like 6LoWPAN. In this paper, we propose a new context-aware trust model for lightweight IoT devices. The proposed model provides a trustworthiness overview of a service provider without storing past behavior records, that is, constant size storage. The proposed model allows a trustor to decide the significance of context items. This could result in distinctive decisions under the same trustworthiness record. We also show the performance of the proposed model under different attacks.
Verma, Abhishek, Ranga, Virender.  2019.  ELNIDS: Ensemble Learning based Network Intrusion Detection System for RPL based Internet of Things. 2019 4th International Conference on Internet of Things: Smart Innovation and Usages (IoT-SIU). :1–6.
Internet of Things is realized by a large number of heterogeneous smart devices which sense, collect and share data with each other over the internet in order to control the physical world. Due to open nature, global connectivity and resource constrained nature of smart devices and wireless networks the Internet of Things is susceptible to various routing attacks. In this paper, we purpose an architecture of Ensemble Learning based Network Intrusion Detection System named ELNIDS for detecting routing attacks against IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks. We implement four different ensemble based machine learning classifiers including Boosted Trees, Bagged Trees, Subspace Discriminant and RUSBoosted Trees. To evaluate proposed intrusion detection model we have used RPL-NIDDS17 dataset which contains packet traces of Sinkhole, Blackhole, Sybil, Clone ID, Selective Forwarding, Hello Flooding and Local Repair attacks. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed architecture. We observe that ensemble of Boosted Trees achieve the highest Accuracy of 94.5% while Subspace Discriminant method achieves the lowest Accuracy of 77.8 % among classifier validation methods. Similarly, an ensemble of RUSBoosted Trees achieves the highest Area under ROC value of 0.98 while lowest Area under ROC value of 0.87 is achieved by an ensemble of Subspace Discriminant among all classifier validation methods. All the implemented classifiers show acceptable performance results.
Gopaluni, Jitendra, Unwala, Ishaq, Lu, Jiang, Yang, Xiaokun.  2019.  Graphical User Interface for OpenThread. 2019 IEEE 16th International Conference on Smart Cities: Improving Quality of Life Using ICT IoT and AI (HONET-ICT). :235–237.
This paper presents an implementation of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) for the OpenThread software. OpenThread is a software package for Thread. Thread is a networking protocol for Internet of Things (IoT) designed for home automation. OpenThread package was released by Nest Labs as an open source implementation of the Thread specification v1.1.1. The OpenThread includes IPv6, 6LoWPAN, IEEE 802.15.4 with MAC security, Mesh Link Establishment, and Mesh Routing. OpenThread includes all Thread supported device types and supports both SOC and NCP implementations. OpenThread runs on Linux and allows the users to use it as a simulator with a command line interface. This research is focused on adding a Graphical User Interface (GUI) to the OpenThread. The GUI package is implemented in TCL/Tk (Tool Control Language). OpenThread with a GUI makes working with OpenThread much easier for researchers and students. The GUI also makes it easier to visualize the Thread network and its operations.
Farzaneh, Behnam, Montazeri, Mohammad Ali, Jamali, Shahram.  2019.  An Anomaly-Based IDS for Detecting Attacks in RPL-Based Internet of Things. 2019 5th International Conference on Web Research (ICWR). :61–66.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is a concept that allows the networking of various objects of everyday life and communications on the Internet without human interaction. The IoT consists of Low-Power and Lossy Networks (LLN) which for routing use a special protocol called Routing over Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL). Due to the resource-constrained nature of RPL networks, they may be exposed to a variety of internal attacks. Neighbor attack and DIS attack are the specific internal attacks at this protocol. This paper presents an anomaly-based lightweight Intrusion Detection System (IDS) based on threshold values for detecting attacks on the RPL protocol. The results of the simulation using Cooja show that the proposed model has a very high True Positive Rate (TPR) and in some cases, it can be 100%, while the False Positive Rate (FPR) is very low. The results show that the proposed model is fully effective in detecting attacks and applicable to large-scale networks.