Visible to the public Biblio

Filters: Keyword is Operating Systems Security  [Clear All Filters]
2021-10-04
Lu, Shuaibing, Kuang, Xiaohui, Nie, Yuanping, Lin, Zhechao.  2020.  A Hybrid Interface Recovery Method for Android Kernels Fuzzing. 2020 IEEE 20th International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security (QRS). :335–346.
Android kernel fuzzing is a research area of interest specifically for detecting kernel vulnerabilities which may allow attackers to obtain the root privilege. The number of Android mobile phones is increasing rapidly with the explosive growth of Android kernel drivers. Interface aware fuzzing is an effective technique to test the security of kernel driver. Existing researches rely on static analysis with kernel source code. However, in fact, there exist millions of Android mobile phones without public accessible source code. In this paper, we propose a hybrid interface recovery method for fuzzing kernels which can recover kernel driver interface no matter the source code is available or not. In white box condition, we employ a dynamic interface recover method that can automatically and completely identify the interface knowledge. In black box condition, we use reverse engineering to extract the key interface information and use similarity computation to infer argument types. We evaluate our hybrid algorithm on on 12 Android smartphones from 9 vendors. Empirical experimental results show that our method can effectively recover interface argument lists and find Android kernel bugs. In total, 31 vulnerabilities are reported in white and black box conditions. The vulnerabilities were responsibly disclosed to affected vendors and 9 of the reported vulnerabilities have been already assigned CVEs.
Moustafa, Nour, Keshky, Marwa, Debiez, Essam, Janicke, Helge.  2020.  Federated TONİoT Windows Datasets for Evaluating AI-Based Security Applications. 2020 IEEE 19th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom). :848–855.
Existing cyber security solutions have been basically developed using knowledge-based models that often cannot trigger new cyber-attack families. With the boom of Artificial Intelligence (AI), especially Deep Learning (DL) algorithms, those security solutions have been plugged-in with AI models to discover, trace, mitigate or respond to incidents of new security events. The algorithms demand a large number of heterogeneous data sources to train and validate new security systems. This paper presents the description of new datasets, the so-called ToNİoT, which involve federated data sources collected from Telemetry datasets of IoT services, Operating system datasets of Windows and Linux, and datasets of Network traffic. The paper introduces the testbed and description of TONİoT datasets for Windows operating systems. The testbed was implemented in three layers: edge, fog and cloud. The edge layer involves IoT and network devices, the fog layer contains virtual machines and gateways, and the cloud layer involves cloud services, such as data analytics, linked to the other two layers. These layers were dynamically managed using the platforms of software-Defined Network (SDN) and Network-Function Virtualization (NFV) using the VMware NSX and vCloud NFV platform. The Windows datasets were collected from audit traces of memories, processors, networks, processes and hard disks. The datasets would be used to evaluate various AI-based cyber security solutions, including intrusion detection, threat intelligence and hunting, privacy preservation and digital forensics. This is because the datasets have a wide range of recent normal and attack features and observations, as well as authentic ground truth events. The datasets can be publicly accessed from this link [1].
Yadav, Mohini, Shankar, Deepak, Jose, Tom.  2020.  Functional Safety for Braking System through ISO 26262, Operating System Security and DO 254. 2020 AIAA/IEEE 39th Digital Avionics Systems Conference (DASC). :1–8.
This paper presents an introduction to functional safety through ISO 26262 focusing on system, software and hardware possible failures that bring security threats and discussion on DO 254. It discusses the approach to bridge the gap between different other hazard level and system ability to identify the particular fault and resolve it minimum time span possible. Results are analyzed by designing models to check and avoid all the failures, loophole prior development.
2021-09-30
Serino, Anthony, Cheng, Liang.  2020.  Real-Time Operating Systems for Cyber-Physical Systems: Current Status and Future Research. 2020 International Conferences on Internet of Things (iThings) and IEEE Green Computing and Communications (GreenCom) and IEEE Cyber, Physical and Social Computing (CPSCom) and IEEE Smart Data (SmartData) and IEEE Congress on Cybermatics (Cybermatics). :419–425.
This paper studies the current status and future directions of RTOS (Real-Time Operating Systems) for time-sensitive CPS (Cyber-Physical Systems). GPOS (General Purpose Operating Systems) existed before RTOS but did not meet performance requirements for time sensitive CPS. Many GPOS have put forward adaptations to meet the requirements of real-time performance, and this paper compares RTOS and GPOS and shows their pros and cons for CPS applications. Furthermore, comparisons among select RTOS such as VxWorks, RTLinux, and FreeRTOS have been conducted in terms of scheduling, kernel, and priority inversion. Various tools for WCET (Worst-Case Execution Time) estimation are discussed. This paper also presents a CPS use case of RTOS, i.e. JetOS for avionics, and future advancements in RTOS such as multi-core RTOS, new RTOS architecture and RTOS security for CPS.
2021-08-17
Alenezi, Freeh, Tsokos, Chris P..  2020.  Machine Learning Approach to Predict Computer Operating Systems Vulnerabilities. 2020 3rd International Conference on Computer Applications Information Security (ICCAIS). :1—6.
Information security is everyone's concern. Computer systems are used to store sensitive data. Any weakness in their reliability and security makes them vulnerable. The Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) is a commonly used scoring system, which helps in knowing the severity of a software vulnerability. In this research, we show the effectiveness of common machine learning algorithms in predicting the computer operating systems security using the published vulnerability data in Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures and National Vulnerability Database repositories. The Random Forest algorithm has the best performance, compared to other algorithms, in predicting the computer operating system vulnerability severity levels based on precision, recall, and F-measure evaluation metrics. In addition, a predictive model was developed to predict whether a newly discovered computer operating system vulnerability would allow attackers to cause denial of service to the subject system.
2021-07-08
Talbot, Joshua, Pikula, Przemek, Sweetmore, Craig, Rowe, Samuel, Hindy, Hanan, Tachtatzis, Christos, Atkinson, Robert, Bellekens, Xavier.  2020.  A Security Perspective on Unikernels. 2020 International Conference on Cyber Security and Protection of Digital Services (Cyber Security). :1—7.
Cloud-based infrastructures have grown in popularity over the last decade leveraging virtualisation, server, storage, compute power and network components to develop flexible applications. The requirements for instantaneous deployment and reduced costs have led the shift from virtual machine deployment to containerisation, increasing the overall flexibility of applications and increasing performances. However, containers require a fully fleshed operating system to execute, increasing the attack surface of an application. Unikernels, on the other hand, provide a lightweight memory footprint, ease of application packaging and reduced start-up times. Moreover, Unikernels reduce the attack surface due to the self-contained environment only enabling low-level features. In this work, we provide an exhaustive description of the unikernel ecosystem; we demonstrate unikernel vulnerabilities and further discuss the security implications of Unikernel-enabled environments through different use-cases.
2021-06-24
Teplyuk, P.A., Yakunin, A.G., Sharlaev, E.V..  2020.  Study of Security Flaws in the Linux Kernel by Fuzzing. 2020 International Multi-Conference on Industrial Engineering and Modern Technologies (FarEastCon). :1–5.
An exceptional feature of the development of modern operating systems based on the Linux kernel is their leading use in cloud technologies, mobile devices and the Internet of things, which is accompanied by the emergence of more and more security threats at the kernel level. In order to improve the security of existing and future Linux distributions, it is necessary to analyze the existing approaches and tools for automated vulnerability detection and to conduct experimental security testing of some current versions of the kernel. The research is based on fuzzing - a software testing technique, which consists in the automated detection of implementation errors by sending deliberately incorrect data to the input of the fuzzer and analyzing the program's response at its output. Using the Syzkaller software tool, which implements a code coverage approach, vulnerabilities of the Linux kernel level were identified in stable versions used in modern distributions. The direction of this research is relevant and requires further development in order to detect zero-day vulnerabilities in new versions of the kernel, which is an important and necessary link in increasing the security of the Linux operating system family.
Stöckle, Patrick, Grobauer, Bernd, Pretschner, Alexander.  2020.  Automated Implementation of Windows-related Security-Configuration Guides. 2020 35th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering (ASE). :598—610.
Hardening is the process of configuring IT systems to ensure the security of the systems' components and data they process or store. The complexity of contemporary IT infrastructures, however, renders manual security hardening and maintenance a daunting task. In many organizations, security-configuration guides expressed in the SCAP (Security Content Automation Protocol) are used as a basis for hardening, but these guides by themselves provide no means for automatically implementing the required configurations. In this paper, we propose an approach to automatically extract the relevant information from publicly available security-configuration guides for Windows operating systems using natural language processing. In a second step, the extracted information is verified using the information of available settings stored in the Windows Administrative Template files, in which the majority of Windows configuration settings is defined. We show that our implementation of this approach can extract and implement 83% of the rules without any manual effort and 96% with minimal manual effort. Furthermore, we conduct a study with 12 state-of-the-art guides consisting of 2014 rules with automatic checks and show that our tooling can implement at least 97% of them correctly. We have thus significantly reduced the effort of securing systems based on existing security-configuration guides. In many organizations, security-configuration guides expressed in the SCAP (Security Content Automation Protocol) are used as a basis for hardening, but these guides by themselves provide no means for automatically implementing the required configurations. In this paper, we propose an approach to automatically extract the relevant information from publicly available security-configuration guides for Windows operating systems using natural language processing. In a second step, the extracted information is verified using the information of available settings stored in the Windows Administrative Template files, in which the majority of Windows configuration settings is defined. We show that our implementation of this approach can extract and implement 83% of the rules without any manual effort and 96% with minimal manual effort. Furthermore, we conduct a study with 12 state-of-the-art guides consisting of 2014 rules with automatic checks and show that our tooling can implement at least 97% of them correctly. We have thus significantly reduced the effort of securing systems based on existing security-configuration guides. In this paper, we propose an approach to automatically extract the relevant information from publicly available security-configuration guides for Windows operating systems using natural language processing. In a second step, the extracted information is verified using the information of available settings stored in the Windows Administrative Template files, in which the majority of Windows configuration settings is defined. We show that our implementation of this approach can extract and implement 83% of the rules without any manual effort and 96% with minimal manual effort. Furthermore, we conduct a study with 12 state-of-the-art guides consisting of 2014 rules with automatic checks and show that our tooling can implement at least 97% of them correctly. We have thus significantly reduced the effort of securing systems based on existing security-configuration guides. We show that our implementation of this approach can extract and implement 83% of the rules without any manual effort and 96% with minimal manual effort. Furthermore, we conduct a study with 12 state-of-the-art guides consisting of 2014 rules with automatic checks and show that our tooling can implement at least 97% of them correctly. We have thus significantly reduced the effort of securing systems based on existing security-configuration guides.
2021-05-05
Zhu, Zheng, Tian, Yingjie, Li, Fan, Yang, Hongshan, Ma, Zheng, Rong, Guoping.  2020.  Research on Edge Intelligence-based Security Analysis Method for Power Operation System. 2020 7th IEEE International Conference on Cyber Security and Cloud Computing (CSCloud)/2020 6th IEEE International Conference on Edge Computing and Scalable Cloud (EdgeCom). :258—263.

At present, the on-site safety problems of substations and critical power equipment are mainly through inspection methods. Still, manual inspection is difficult, time-consuming, and uninterrupted inspection is not possible. The current safety management is mainly guaranteed by rules and regulations and standardized operating procedures. In the on-site environment, it is very dependent on manual execution and confirmation, and the requirements for safety supervision and operating personnel are relatively high. However, the reliability, the continuity of control and patrol cannot be fully guaranteed, and it is easy to cause security vulnerabilities and cause security accidents due to personnel slackness. In response to this shortcoming, this paper uses edge computing and image processing techniques to discover security risks in time and designs a deep convolution attention mechanism network to perform image processing. Then the network is cropped and compressed so that it can be processed at the edge, and the results are aggregated to the cloud for unified management. A comprehensive security assessment module is designed in the cloud to conduct an overall risk assessment of the results reported by all edges, and give an alarm prompt. The experimental results in the real environment show the effectiveness of this method.

2021-04-29
Belim, S. V., Belim, S. Y..  2020.  The Security Policies Optimization Problem for Composite Information Systems. 2020 International Multi-Conference on Industrial Engineering and Modern Technologies (FarEastCon). :1—4.

The problem of optimizing the security policy for the composite information system is formulated. Subject-object model for information system is used. Combining different types of security policies is formalized. The target function for the optimization task is recorded. The optimization problem for combining two discretionary security policies is solved. The case of combining two mandatory security policies is studied. The main problems of optimization the composite security policy are formulated. +50 CHMBOJIOB‼!

2021-03-04
Widulinski, P., Wawryn, K..  2020.  A Human Immunity Inspired Intrusion Detection System to Search for Infections in an Operating System. 2020 27th International Conference on Mixed Design of Integrated Circuits and System (MIXDES). :187—191.

In the paper, an intrusion detection system to safeguard computer software is proposed. The detection is based on negative selection algorithm, inspired by the human immunity mechanism. It is composed of two stages, generation of receptors and anomaly detection. Experimental results of the proposed system are presented, analyzed, and concluded.

2020-11-17
Qian, K., Parizi, R. M., Lo, D..  2018.  OWASP Risk Analysis Driven Security Requirements Specification for Secure Android Mobile Software Development. 2018 IEEE Conference on Dependable and Secure Computing (DSC). :1—2.
The security threats to mobile applications are growing explosively. Mobile apps flaws and security defects open doors for hackers to break in and access sensitive information. Defensive requirements analysis should be an integral part of secure mobile SDLC. Developers need to consider the information confidentiality and data integrity, to verify the security early in the development lifecycle rather than fixing the security holes after attacking and data leaks take place. Early eliminating known security vulnerabilities will help developers increase the security of apps and reduce the likelihood of exploitation. However, many software developers lack the necessary security knowledge and skills at the development stage, and that's why Secure Mobile Software Development education is very necessary for mobile software engineers. In this paper, we propose a guided security requirement analysis based on OWASP Mobile Top ten security risk recommendations for Android mobile software development and its traceability of the developmental controls in SDLC. Building secure apps immune to the OWASP Mobile Top ten risks would be an effective approach to provide very useful mobile security guidelines.
Singh, M., Butakov, S., Jaafar, F..  2018.  Analyzing Overhead from Security and Administrative Functions in Virtual Environment. 2018 International Conference on Platform Technology and Service (PlatCon). :1—6.
The paper provides an analysis of the performance of an administrative component that helps the hypervisor to manage the resources of guest operating systems under fluctuation workload. The additional administrative component provides an extra layer of security to the guest operating systems and system as a whole. In this study, an administrative component was implemented by using Xen-hypervisor based para-virtualization technique and assigned some additional roles and responsibilities that reduce hypervisor workload. The study measured the resource utilizations of an administrative component when excessive input/output load passes passing through the system. Performance was measured in terms of bandwidth and CPU utilisation Based on the analysis of administrative component performance recommendations have been provided with the goal to improve system availability. Recommendations included detection of the performance saturation point that indicates the necessity to start load balancing procedures for the administrative component in the virtualized environment.
Jaiswal, M., Malik, Y., Jaafar, F..  2018.  Android gaming malware detection using system call analysis. 2018 6th International Symposium on Digital Forensic and Security (ISDFS). :1—5.
Android operating systems have become a prime target for attackers as most of the market is currently dominated by Android users. The situation gets worse when users unknowingly download or sideload cloning applications, especially gaming applications that look like benign games. In this paper, we present, a dynamic Android gaming malware detection system based on system call analysis to classify malicious and legitimate games. We performed the dynamic system call analysis on normal and malicious gaming applications while applications are in execution state. Our analysis reveals the similarities and differences between benign and malware game system calls and shows how dynamically analyzing the behavior of malicious activity through system calls during runtime makes it easier and is more effective to detect malicious applications. Experimental analysis and results shows the efficiency and effectiveness of our approach.
Maksutov, A. A., Dmitriev, S. O., Lysenkov, V. I., Valter, D. A..  2018.  Mobile bootloader with security features. 2018 IEEE Conference of Russian Young Researchers in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (EIConRus). :335—338.
Modern mobile operating systems store a lot of excessive information that can be used against its owner or organization, like a call history or various system logs. This article describes a universal way of preventing any mobile operating system or application from saving its data in device's internal storage without reducing their functionality. The goal of this work is creation of a software that solves the described problem and works on the bootloading stage. A general algorithm of the designed software, along with its main solutions and requirements, is presented in this paper. Hardware requirement, software testing results and general applications of this software are also listed in this paper.
Wang, H., Li, J., Liu, D..  2018.  Research on Operating Data Analysis for Enterprise Intranet Information Security Risk Assessment. 2018 12th IEEE International Conference on Anti-counterfeiting, Security, and Identification (ASID). :72—76.
Operating data analysis means to analyze the operating system logs, user operation logs, various types of alarms and security relevant configurations, etc. The purpose is to find whether there is an attack event, suspicious behaviors or improper configurations. It is an important part of risk assessment for enterprise intranet. However, due to the lack of information security knowledge or relevant experience, many people do not know how to properly implement it. In this article, we provided guidance on conducting operating data analysis and how to determine the security risk with the analysis results.
Benhani, E. M., Bossuet, L..  2018.  DVFS as a Security Failure of TrustZone-enabled Heterogeneous SoC. 2018 25th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (ICECS). :489—492.
Today, most embedded systems use Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS) to minimize energy consumption and maximize performance. The DVFS technique works by regulating the important parameters that govern the amount of energy consumed in a system, voltage and frequency. For the implementation of this technique, the operating system (OS) includes software applications that dynamically control a voltage regulator or a frequency regulator or both. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time a malicious use of the frequency regulator against a TrustZone-enabled System-on-Chip (SoC). We demonstrate a use of frequency scaling to create covert channel in a TrustZone-enabled heterogeneous SoC. We present four proofs of concept to transfer sensitive data from a secure entity in the SoC to a non-secure one. The first proof of concept is from a secure ARM core to outside of SoC. The second is from a secure ARM core to a non-secure one. The third is from a non-trusted third party IP embedded in the programmable logic part of the SoC to a non-secure ARM core. And the last proof of concept is from a secure third party IP to a non-secure ARM core.
2020-07-27
Dar, Muneer Ahmad, Nisar Bukhari, Syed, Khan, Ummer Iqbal.  2018.  Evaluation of Security and Privacy of Smartphone Users. 2018 Fourth International Conference on Advances in Electrical, Electronics, Information, Communication and Bio-Informatics (AEEICB). :1–4.

The growing use of smart phones has also given opportunity to the intruders to create malicious apps thereby the security and privacy concerns of a novice user has also grown. This research focuses on the privacy concerns of a user who unknowingly installs a malicious apps created by the programmer. In this paper we created an attack scenario and created an app capable of compromising the privacy of the users. After accepting all the permissions by the user while installing the app, the app allows us to track the live location of the Android device and continuously sends the GPS coordinates to the server. This spying app is also capable of sending the call log details of the user. This paper evaluates two leading smart phone operating systems- Android and IOS to find out the flexibility provided by the two operating systems to their programmers to create the malicious apps.

2019-07-01
Li, D., Zhang, Z., Liao, W., Xu, Z..  2018.  KLRA: A Kernel Level Resource Auditing Tool For IoT Operating System Security. 2018 IEEE/ACM Symposium on Edge Computing (SEC). :427-432.

Nowadays, the rapid development of the Internet of Things facilitates human life and work, while it also brings great security risks to the society due to the frequent occurrence of various security issues. IoT device has the characteristics of large-scale deployment and single responsibility application, which makes it easy to cause a chain reaction and results in widespread privacy leakage and system security problems when the software vulnerability is identified. It is difficult to guarantee that there is no security hole in the IoT operating system which is usually designed for MCU and has no kernel mode. An alternative solution is to identify the security issues in the first time when the system is hijacked and suspend the suspicious task before it causes irreparable damage. This paper proposes KLRA (A Kernel Level Resource Auditing Tool) for IoT Operating System Security This tool collects the resource-sensitive events in the kernel and audit the the resource consumption pattern of the system at the same time. KLRA can take fine-grained events measure with low cost and report the relevant security warning in the first time when the behavior of the system is abnormal compared with daily operations for the real responsibility of this device. KLRA enables the IoT operating system for MCU to generate the security early warning and thereby provides a self-adaptive heuristic security mechanism for the entire IoT system.

2019-05-09
Sokolov, A. N., Barinov, A. E., Antyasov, I. S., Skurlaev, S. V., Ufimtcev, M. S., Luzhnov, V. S..  2018.  Hardware-Based Memory Acquisition Procedure for Digital Investigations of Security Incidents in Industrial Control Systems. 2018 Global Smart Industry Conference (GloSIC). :1-7.

The safety of industrial control systems (ICS) depends not only on comprehensive solutions for protecting information, but also on the timing and closure of vulnerabilities in the software of the ICS. The investigation of security incidents in the ICS is often greatly complicated by the fact that malicious software functions only within the computer's volatile memory. Obtaining the contents of the volatile memory of an attacked computer is difficult to perform with a guaranteed reliability, since the data collection procedure must be based on a reliable code (the operating system or applications running in its environment). The paper proposes a new instrumental method for obtaining the contents of volatile memory, general rules for implementing the means of collecting information stored in memory. Unlike software methods, the proposed method has two advantages: firstly, there is no problem in terms of reading the parts of memory, blocked by the operating system, and secondly, the resulting contents are not compromised by such malicious software. The proposed method is relevant for investigating security incidents of ICS and can be used in continuous monitoring systems for the security of ICS.

2019-01-21
Dong, Xiaowan, Shen, Zhuojia, Criswell, John, Cox, Alan, Dwarkadas, Sandhya.  2018.  Spectres, Virtual Ghosts, and Hardware Support. Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Hardware and Architectural Support for Security and Privacy. :5:1–5:9.

Side-channel attacks, such as Spectre and Meltdown, that leverage speculative execution pose a serious threat to computing systems. Worse yet, such attacks can be perpetrated by compromised operating system (OS) kernels to bypass defenses that protect applications from the OS kernel. This work evaluates the performance impact of three different defenses against in-kernel speculation side-channel attacks within the context of Virtual Ghost, a system that protects user data from compromised OS kernels: Intel MPX bounds checks, which require a memory fence; address bit-masking and testing, which creates a dependence between the bounds check and the load/store; and the use of separate virtual address spaces for applications, the OS kernel, and the Virtual Ghost virtual machine, forcing a speculation boundary. Our results indicate that an instrumentation-based bit-masking approach to protection incurs the least overhead by minimizing speculation boundaries. Our work also highlights possible improvements to Intel MPX that could help mitigate speculation side-channel attacks at a lower cost.

2019-01-16
Horton, M., Samanta, B., Reid, C., Chen, L., Kadlec, C..  2018.  Development of a Secure, Heterogeneous Cloud Robotics Infrastructure: Implementing a Mesh VPN and Robotic File System Security Practices. SoutheastCon 2018. :1–8.

Robotics and the Internet of Things (IoT) are enveloping our society at an exponential rate due to lessening costs and better availability of hardware and software. Additionally, Cloud Robotics and Robot Operating System (ROS) can offset onboard processing power. However, strong and fundamental security practices have not been applied to fully protect these systems., partially negating the benefits of IoT. Researchers are therefore tasked with finding ways of securing communications and systems. Since security and convenience are oftentimes at odds, securing many heterogeneous components without compromising performance can be daunting. Protecting systems from attacks and ensuring that connections and instructions are from approved devices, all while maintaining the performance is imperative. This paper focuses on the development of security best practices and a mesh framework with an open-source, multipoint-to-multipoint virtual private network (VPN) that can tie Linux, Windows, IOS., and Android devices into one secure fabric, with heterogeneous mobile robotic platforms running ROSPY in a secure cloud robotics infrastructure.

2018-01-23
van der Veen, Victor, Andriesse, Dennis, Stamatogiannakis, Manolis, Chen, Xi, Bos, Herbert, Giuffrdia, Cristiano.  2017.  The Dynamics of Innocent Flesh on the Bone: Code Reuse Ten Years Later. Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :1675–1689.

In 2007, Shacham published a seminal paper on Return-Oriented Programming (ROP), the first systematic formulation of code reuse. The paper has been highly influential, profoundly shaping the way we still think about code reuse today: an attacker analyzes the "geometry" of victim binary code to locate gadgets and chains these to craft an exploit. This model has spurred much research, with a rapid progression of increasingly sophisticated code reuse attacks and defenses over time. After ten years, the common perception is that state-of-the-art code reuse defenses are effective in significantly raising the bar and making attacks exceedingly hard. In this paper, we challenge this perception and show that an attacker going beyond "geometry" (static analysis) and considering the "dynamics" (dynamic analysis) of a victim program can easily find function call gadgets even in the presence of state-of-the-art code-reuse defenses. To support our claims, we present Newton, a run-time gadget-discovery framework based on constraint-driven dynamic taint analysis. Newton can model a broad range of defenses by mapping their properties into simple, stackable, reusable constraints, and automatically generate gadgets that comply with these constraints. Using Newton, we systematically map and compare state-of-the-art defenses, demonstrating that even simple interactions with popular server programs are adequate for finding gadgets for all state-of-the-art code-reuse defenses. We conclude with an nginx case study, which shows that a Newton-enabled attacker can craft attacks which comply with the restrictions of advanced defenses, such as CPI and context-sensitive CFI.

Wang, Shuai, Wang, Wenhao, Bao, Qinkun, Wang, Pei, Wang, XiaoFeng, Wu, Dinghao.  2017.  Binary Code Retrofitting and Hardening Using SGX. Proceedings of the 2017 Workshop on Forming an Ecosystem Around Software Transformation. :43–49.

Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) is designed to deliver a safe execution environment for software systems. Intel Software Guard Extensions (SGX) provides isolated memory regions (i.e., SGX enclaves) to protect code and data from adversaries in the untrusted world. While existing research has proposed techniques to execute entire executable files inside enclave instances by providing rich sets of OS facilities, one notable limitation of these techniques is the unavoidably large size of Trusted Computing Base (TCB), which can potentially break the principle of least privilege. In this work, we describe techniques that provide practical and efficient protection of security sensitive code components in legacy binary code. Our technique dissects input binaries into multiple components which are further built into SGX enclave instances. We also leverage deliberately-designed binary editing techniques to retrofit the input binary code and preserve the original program semantics. Our tentative evaluations on hardening AES encryption and decryption procedures demonstrate the practicability and efficiency of the proposed technique.

Bianchi, Antonio, Gustafson, Eric, Fratantonio, Yanick, Kruegel, Christopher, Vigna, Giovanni.  2017.  Exploitation and Mitigation of Authentication Schemes Based on Device-Public Information. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Computer Security Applications Conference. :16–27.

Today's mobile applications increasingly rely on communication with a remote backend service to perform many critical functions, including handling user-specific information. This implies that some form of authentication should be used to associate a user with their actions and data. Since schemes involving tedious account creation procedures can represent "friction" for users, many applications are moving toward alternative solutions, some of which, while increasing usability, sacrifice security. This paper focuses on a new trend of authentication schemes based on what we call "device-public" information, which consists of properties and data that any application running on a device can obtain. While these schemes are convenient to users, since they require little to no interaction, they are vulnerable by design, since all the needed information to authenticate a user is available to any app installed on the device. An attacker with a malicious app on a user's device could easily hijack the user's account, steal private information, send (and receive) messages on behalf of the user, or steal valuable virtual goods. To demonstrate how easily these vulnerabilities can be weaponized, we developed a generic exploitation technique that first mines all relevant data from a victim's phone, and then transfers and injects them into an attacker's phone to fool apps into granting access to the victim's account. Moreover, we developed a dynamic analysis detection system to automatically highlight problematic apps. Using our tool, we analyzed 1,000 popular applications and found that 41 of them, including the popular messaging apps WhatsApp and Viber, were vulnerable. Finally, our work proposes solutions to this issue, based on modifications to the Android API.