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Hamadeh, H., Tyagi, A..  2019.  Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) Entangled Trusted Computing Base. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Smart Electronic Systems (iSES) (Formerly iNiS). :177–180.
The center-piece of this work is a software measurement physical unclonable function (PUF). It measures processor chip ALU silicon biometrics in a manner similar to all PUFs. Additionally, it composes the silicon measurement with the data-dependent delay of a particular program instruction in a way that is difficult to decompose through a mathematical model. This approach ensures that each software instruction is measured if computed. The SW-PUF measurements bind the execution of software to a specific processor with a corresponding certificate. This makes the SW-PUF a promising candidate for applications requiring Trusted Computing. For instance, it could measure the integrity of an execution path by generating a signature that is unique to the specific program execution path and the processor chip. We present an area and energy-efficient scheme based on the SW-PUF to provide a more robust root of trust for measurement than the existing trusted platform module (TPM). To explore the feasibility of the proposed design, the SW-PUF has been implemented in HSPICE using 45 nm technology and evaluated on the FPGA platform.
Sengupta, A., Roy, D., Mohanty, S. P..  2019.  Low-Overhead Robust RTL Signature for DSP Core Protection: New Paradigm for Smart CE Design. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE). :1–6.
The design process of smart Consumer Electronics (CE) devices heavily relies on reusable Intellectual Property (IP) cores of Digital Signal Processor (DSP) and Multimedia Processor (MP). On the other hand, due to strict competition and rivalry between IP vendors, the problem of ownership conflict and IP piracy is surging. Therefore, to design a secured smart CE device, protection of DSP/MP IP core is essential. Embedding a robust IP owner's signature can protect an IP core from ownership abuse and forgery. This paper presents a covert signature embedding process for DSP/MP IP core at Register-transfer level (RTL). The secret marks of the signature are distributed over the entire design such that it provides higher robustness. For example for 8th order FIR filter, it incurs only between 6% and 3% area overhead for maximum and minimum size signature respectively compared to the non-signature FIR RTL design but with significantly enhanced security.
Islam, S. A., Sah, L. K., Katkoori, S..  2019.  DLockout: A Design Lockout Technique for Key Obfuscated RTL IP Designs. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Smart Electronic Systems (iSES) (Formerly iNiS). :17–20.
Intellectual Property (IP) infringement including piracy and overproduction have emerged as significant threats in the semiconductor supply chain. Key-based obfuscation techniques (i.e., logic locking) are widely applied to secure legacy IP from such attacks. However, the fundamental question remains open whether an attacker is allowed an exponential amount of time to seek correct key or could it be useful to lock out the design in a non-destructive manner after several incorrect attempts. In this paper, we address this question with a robust design lockout technique. Specifically, we perform comparisons on obfuscation logic output that reflects the condition (correct or incorrect) of the applied key without changing the system behavior. The proposed approach, when combined with key obfuscation (logic locking) technique, increases the difficulty of reverse engineering key obfuscated RTL module. We provide security evaluation of DLockout against three common side-channel attacks followed by a quantitative assessment of the resilience. We conducted a set of experiments on four datapath intensive IPs and one crypto core for three different key lengths (32-, 64-, and 128-bit) under the typical design corner. On average, DLockout incurs negligible area, power, and delay overheads.
Mobaraki, S., Amirkhani, A., Atani, R. E..  2018.  A Novel PUF based Logic Encryption Technique to Prevent SAT Attacks and Trojan Insertion. 2018 9th International Symposium on Telecommunications (IST). :507–513.
The manufacturing of integrated circuits (IC) outside of the design houses makes it possible for the adversary to easily perform a reverse engineering attack against intellectual property (IP)/IC. The aim of this attack can be the IP piracy, overproduction, counterfeiting or inserting hardware Trojan (HT) throughout the supply chain of the IC. Preventing hardware Trojan insertion is a significant issue in the context of hardware security (HS) and has not been considered in most of the previous logic encryption methods. To eliminate this problem, in this paper an Anti-Trojan insertion algorithm is presented. The idea is based on the fact that reducing the signals with low-observability (LO) and low-controllability (LC) can prevent HT insertion significantly. The security of logic encryption methods depends on the algorithm and the encryption key. However, the security of these methods has been compromised by SAT attacks over recent years. SAT attacks, can decode the correct key from most logic encryption techniques. In this article, by using the PUF-based encryption, the applied key in the encryption is randomized and SAT attack cannot be performed. Based on the output of PUF, a unique encryption has been made for each chip that preventing from counterfeiting and IP piracy.
Patooghy, A., Aerabi, E., Rezaei, H., Mark, M., Fazeli, M., Kinsy, M. A..  2018.  Mystic: Mystifying IP Cores Using an Always-ON FSM Obfuscation Method. 2018 IEEE Computer Society Annual Symposium on VLSI (ISVLSI). :626–631.
The separation of manufacturing and design processes in the integrated circuit industry to tackle the ever increasing circuit complexity and time to market issues has brought with it some major security challenges. Chief among them is IP piracy by untrusted parties. Hardware obfuscation which locks the functionality and modifies the structure of an IP core to protect it from malicious modifications or piracy has been proposed as a solution. In this paper, we develop an efficient hardware obfuscation method, called Mystic (Mystifying IP Cores), to protect IP cores from reverse engineering, IP overproduction, and IP piracy. The key idea behind Mystic is to add additional state transitions to the original/functional FSM (Finite State Machine) that are taken only when incorrect keys are applied to the circuit. Using the proposed Mystic obfuscation approach, the underlying functionality of the IP core is locked and normal FSM transitions are only available to authorized chip users. The synthesis results of ITC99 circuit benchmarks for ASIC 45nm technology reveal that the Mystic protection method imposes on average 5.14% area overhead, 5.21% delay overhead, and 8.06% power consumption overheads while it exponentially lowers the probability that an unauthorized user will gain access to or derive the chip functionality.
Saeed, S. M., Cui, X., Zulehner, A., Wille, R., Drechsler, R., Wu, K., Karri, R..  2018.  IC/IP Piracy Assessment of Reversible Logic. 2018 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD). :1–8.
Reversible logic is a building block for adiabatic and quantum computing in addition to other applications. Since common functions are non-reversible, one needs to embed them into proper-size reversible functions by adding ancillary inputs and garbage outputs. We explore the Intellectual Property (IP) piracy of reversible circuits. The number of embeddings of regular functions in a reversible function and the percent of leaked ancillary inputs measure the difficulty of recovering the embedded function. To illustrate the key concepts, we study reversible logic circuits designed using reversible logic synthesis tools based on Binary Decision Diagrams and Quantum Multi-valued Decision Diagrams.
Wu, Chengjun, Shan, Weiwei, Xu, Jiaming.  2019.  Dynamic Adaptation of Approximate Bit-width for CNNs based on Quantitative Error Resilience. 2019 IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Nanoscale Architectures (NANOARCH). :1—6.

As an emerging paradigm for energy-efficiency design, approximate computing can reduce power consumption through simplification of logic circuits. Although calculation errors are caused by approximate computing, their impacts on the final results can be negligible in some error resilient applications, such as Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). Therefore, approximate computing has been applied to CNNs to reduce the high demand for computing resources and energy. Compared with the traditional method such as reducing data precision, this paper investigates the effect of approximate computing on the accuracy and power consumption of CNNs. To optimize the approximate computing technology applied to CNNs, we propose a method for quantifying the error resilience of each neuron by theoretical analysis and observe that error resilience varies widely across different neurons. On the basic of quantitative error resilience, dynamic adaptation of approximate bit-width and the corresponding configurable adder are proposed to fully exploit the error resilience of CNNs. Experimental results show that the proposed method further improves the performance of power consumption while maintaining high accuracy. By adopting the optimal approximate bit-width for each layer found by our proposed algorithm, dynamic adaptation of approximate bit-width reduces power consumption by more than 30% and causes less than 1% loss of the accuracy for LeNet-5.

Limaye, Nimisha, Sengupta, Abhrajit, Nabeel, Mohammed, Sinanoglu, Ozgur.  2019.  Is Robust Design-for-Security Robust Enough? Attack on Locked Circuits with Restricted Scan Chain Access 2019 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD). :1–8.
The security of logic locking has been called into question by various attacks, especially a Boolean satisfiability (SAT) based attack, that exploits scan access in a working chip. Among other techniques, a robust design-for-security (DFS) architecture was presented to restrict any unauthorized scan access, thereby, thwarting the SAT attack (or any other attack that relies on scan access). Nevertheless, in this work, we successfully break this technique by recovering the secret key despite the lack of scan access. Our security analysis on a few benchmark circuits protected by the robust DFS architecture demonstrates the effectiveness of our attack; on average 95% of the key bits are correctly recovered, and almost 100% in most cases. To overcome this and other prevailing attacks, we propose a defense by making fundamental changes to the robust DFS technique; the new defense can withstand all logic locking attacks. We observe, on average, lower area overhead ( 1.65%) than the robust DFS design ( 5.15%), and similar test coverage ( 99.88%).
Sengupta, Anirban, Roy, Dipanjan.  2018.  Reusable intellectual property core protection for both buyer and seller. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE). :1—3.
This paper presents a methodology for IP core protection of CE devices from both buyer's and seller's perspective. In the presented methodology, buyer fingerprint is embedded along seller watermark during architectural synthesis phase of IP core design. The buyer fingerprint is inserted during scheduling phase while seller watermark is implanted during register allocation phase of architectural synthesis process. The presented approach provides a robust mechanisms of IP core protection for both buyer and seller at zero area overhead, 1.1 % latency overhead and 0.95 % design cost overhead compared to a similar approach (that provides only protection to IP seller).
Lian, Mengyun, Wang, Jian, Lu, Jinzhi.  2018.  A New Hardware Logic Circuit for Evaluating Multi-Processor Chip Security. 2018 Eighth International Conference on Instrumentation Measurement, Computer, Communication and Control (IMCCC). :1571—1574.
NoC (Network-on-Chip) is widely considered and researched by academic communities as a new inter-core interconnection method that replaces the bus. Nowadays, the complexity of on-chip systems is increasing, requiring better communication performance and scalability. Therefore, the optimization of communication performance has become one of the research hotspots. While the NoC is rapidly developing, it is threatened by hardware Trojans inserted during the design or manufacturing processes. This leads to that the attackers can exploit NoC's vulnerability to attack the on-chip systems. To solve the problem, we design and implement a replay-type hardware Trojan inserted into the NoC, aiming to provide a benchmark test set to promote the defense strategies for NoC hardware security. The experiment proves that the power consumption of the designed Trojan accounts for less than one thousandth of the entire NoC power consumption and area. Besides, simulation experiments reveal that this replaytype hardware Trojan can reduce the network throughput.
Zhou, Hai, Rezaei, Amin, Shen, Yuanqi.  2019.  Resolving the Trilemma in Logic Encryption. 2019 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD). :1—8.

Logic encryption, a method to lock a circuit from unauthorized use unless the correct key is provided, is the most important technique in hardware IP protection. However, with the discovery of the SAT attack, all traditional logic encryption algorithms are broken. New algorithms after the SAT attack are all vulnerable to structural analysis unless a provable obfuscation is applied to the locked circuit. But there is no provable logic obfuscation available, in spite of some vague resorting to logic resynthesis. In this paper, we formulate and discuss a trilemma in logic encryption among locking robustness, structural security, and encryption efficiency, showing that pre-SAT approaches achieve only structural security and encryption efficiency, and post-SAT approaches achieve only locking robustness and encryption efficiency. There is also a dilemma between query complexity and error number in locking. We first develop a theory and solution to the dilemma in locking between query complexity and error number. Then, we provide a provable obfuscation solution to the dilemma between structural security and locking robustness. We finally present and discuss some results towards the resolution of the trilemma in logic encryption.

Das, Rakesh, Chattopadhyay, Anupam, Rahaman, Hafizur.  2019.  Optimizing Quantum Circuits for Modular Exponentiation. 2019 32nd International Conference on VLSI Design and 2019 18th International Conference on Embedded Systems (VLSID). :407–412.

Today's rapid progress in the physical implementation of quantum computers demands scalable synthesis methods to map practical logic designs to quantum architectures. There exist many quantum algorithms which use classical functions with superposition of states. Motivated by recent trends, in this paper, we show the design of quantum circuit to perform modular exponentiation functions using two different approaches. In the design phase, first we generate quantum circuit from a verilog implementation of exponentiation functions using synthesis tools and then apply two different Quantum Error Correction techniques. Finally the circuit is further optimized using the Linear Nearest Neighbor (LNN) Property. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by generating a set of networks for the reversible modular exponentiation function for a set of input values. At the end of the work, we have summarized the obtained results, where a cost analysis over our developed approaches has been made. Experimental results show that depending on the choice of different QECC methods the performance figures can vary by up to 11%, 10%, 8% in T-count, number of qubits, number of gates respectively.

Anitha, R., Vijayalakshmi, B..  2018.  SIMULATION OF QUANTUM ENCODER DECODER WITH FLIP BIT ERROR CORRECTION USING REVERSIBLE QUANTUM GATES. 2018 International Conference on Recent Trends in Electrical, Control and Communication (RTECC). :99–102.

Quantum technology is a new field of physics and engineering. In emerging areas like Quantum Cryptography, Quantum Computing etc, Quantum circuits play a key role. Quantum circuit is a model for Quantum computation, the computation process of Quantum gates are based on reversible logic. Encoder and Decoder are designed using Quantum gates, and synthesized in the QCAD simulator. Quantum error correction (QEC) is essential to protect quantum information from errors due to quantum noise and decoherence. It is also use to achieve fault-tolerant quantum computation that deals with noise on stored information, faulty quantum gates and faulty measurements.

Martin, H., Entrena, L., Dupuis, S., Natale, G. Di.  2018.  A Novel Use of Approximate Circuits to Thwart Hardware Trojan Insertion and Provide Obfuscation. 2018 IEEE 24th International Symposium on On-Line Testing And Robust System Design (IOLTS). :41-42.

Hardware Trojans have become in the last decade a major threat in the Integrated Circuit industry. Many techniques have been proposed in the literature aiming at detecting such malicious modifications in fabricated ICs. For the most critical circuits, prevention methods are also of interest. The goal of such methods is to prevent the insertion of a Hardware Trojan thanks to ad-hoc design rules. In this paper, we present a novel prevention technique based on approximation. An approximate logic circuit is a circuit that performs a possibly different but closely related logic function, so that it can be used for error detection or error masking where it overlaps with the original circuit. We will show how this technique can successfully detect the presence of Hardware Trojans, with a solution that has a smaller impact than triplication.

Zabib, D. Z., Levi, I., Fish, A., Keren, O..  2017.  Secured Dual-Rail-Precharge Mux-based (DPMUX) symmetric-logic for low voltage applications. 2017 IEEE SOI-3D-Subthreshold Microelectronics Technology Unified Conference (S3S). :1–2.

Hardware implementations of cryptographic algorithms may leak information through numerous side channels, which can be used to reveal the secret cryptographic keys, and therefore compromise the security of the algorithm. Power Analysis Attacks (PAAs) [1] exploit the information leakage from the device's power consumption (typically measured on the supply and/or ground pins). Digital circuits consume dynamic switching energy when data propagate through the logic in each new calculation (e.g. new clock cycle). The average power dissipation of a design can be expressed by: Ptot(t) = α · (Pd(t) + Ppvt(t)) (1) where α is the activity factor (the probability that the gate will switch) and depends on the probability distribution of the inputs to the combinatorial logic. This induces a linear relationship between the power and the processed data [2]. Pd is the deterministic power dissipated by the switching of the gate, including any parasitic and intrinsic capacitances, and hence can be evaluated prior to manufacturing. Ppvt is the change in expected power consumption due to nondeterministic parameters such as process variations, mismatch, temperature, etc. In this manuscript, we describe the design of logic gates that induce data-independent (constant) α and Pd.

Hossain, F. S., Yoneda, T., Shintani, M., Inoue, M., Orailoglo, A..  2017.  Intra-Die-Variation-Aware Side Channel Analysis for Hardware Trojan Detection. 2017 IEEE 26th Asian Test Symposium (ATS). :52–57.

High detection sensitivity in the presence of process variation is a key challenge for hardware Trojan detection through side channel analysis. In this work, we present an efficient Trojan detection approach in the presence of elevated process variations. The detection sensitivity is sharpened by 1) comparing power levels from neighboring regions within the same chip so that the two measured values exhibit a common trend in terms of process variation, and 2) generating test patterns that toggle each cell multiple times to increase Trojan activation probability. Detection sensitivity is analyzed and its effectiveness demonstrated by means of RPD (relative power difference). We evaluate our approach on ISCAS'89 and ITC'99 benchmarks and the AES-128 circuit for both combinational and sequential type Trojans. High detection sensitivity is demonstrated by analysis on RPD under a variety of process variation levels and experiments for Trojan inserted circuits.

Karam, R., Hoque, T., Ray, S., Tehranipoor, M., Bhunia, S..  2017.  MUTARCH: Architectural diversity for FPGA device and IP security. 2017 22nd Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference (ASP-DAC). :611–616.
Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are being increasingly deployed in diverse applications including the emerging Internet of Things (IoT), biomedical, and automotive systems. However, security of the FPGA configuration file (i.e. bitstream), especially during in-field reconfiguration, as well as effective safeguards against unauthorized tampering and piracy during operation, are notably lacking. The current practice of bitstreram encryption is only available in high-end FPGAs, incurs unacceptably high overhead for area/energy-constrained devices, and is susceptible to side channel attacks. In this paper, we present a fundamentally different and novel approach to FPGA security that can protect against all major attacks on FPGA, namely, unauthorized in-field reprogramming, piracy of FPGA intellectual property (IP) blocks, and targeted malicious modification of the bitstream. Our approach employs the security through diversity principle to FPGA, which is often used in the software domain. We make each device architecturally different from the others using both physical (static) and logical (time-varying) configuration keys, ensuring that attackers cannot use a priori knowledge about one device to mount an attack on another. It therefore mitigates the economic motivation for attackers to reverse engineering the bitstream and IP. The approach is compatible with modern remote upgrade techniques, and requires only small modifications to existing FPGA tool flows, making it an attractive addition to the FPGA security suite. Our experimental results show that the proposed approach achieves provably high security against tampering and piracy with worst-case 14% latency overhead and 13% area overhead.
Saeed, S., Mahendran, N., Zulehner, A., Wille, R., Karri, R..  2017.  Identifying Reversible Circuit Synthesis Approaches to Enable IP Piracy Attacks. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Computer Design (ICCD). :537–540.

Reversible circuits are vulnerable to intellectual property and integrated circuit piracy. To show these vulnerabilities, a detailed understanding on how to identify the function embedded in a reversible circuit is crucial. To obtain the embedded function, one needs to know the synthesis approach used to generate the reversible circuit in the first place. We present a machine learning based scheme to identify the synthesis approach using telltale signs in the design.

Yuankai Chen, Xuan Zeng, Hai Zhou.  2014.  Recovery-based resilient latency-insensitive systems. Design, Automation and Test in Europe Conference and Exhibition (DATE), 2014. :1-6.

As the interconnect delay is becoming a larger fraction of the clock cycle time, the conventional global stalling mechanism, which is used to correct error in general synchronous circuits, would be no longer feasible because of the expensive timing cost for the stalling signal to travel across the circuit. In this paper, we propose recovery-based resilient latency-insensitive systems (RLISs) that efficiently integrate error-recovery techniques with latency-insensitive design to replace the global stalling. We first demonstrate a baseline RLIS as the motivation of our work that uses additional output buffer which guarantees that only correct data can enter the output channel. However this baseline RLIS suffers from performance degradations even when errors do not occur. We propose a novel improved RLIS that allows erroneous data to propagate in the system. Equipped with improved queues that prevent accumulation of erroneous data, the improved RLIS retains the system performance. We provide theoretical study that analyzes the impact of errors on system performance and the queue sizing problem. We also theoretically prove that the improved RLIS performs no worse than the global stalling mechanism. Experimental results show that the improved RLIS has 40.3% and even 3.1% throughput improvements compared to the baseline RLIS and the infeasible global stalling mechanism respectively, with less than 10% hardware overhead.

Ramdas, A., Saeed, S.M., Sinanoglu, O..  2014.  Slack removal for enhanced reliability and trust. Design Technology of Integrated Systems In Nanoscale Era (DTIS), 2014 9th IEEE International Conference On. :1-4.

Timing slacks possibly lead to reliability issues and/or security vulnerabilities, as they may hide small delay defects and malicious circuitries injected during fabrication, namely, hardware Trojans. While possibly harmless immediately after production, small delay defects may trigger reliability problems as the part is being used in field, presenting a significant threat for mission-critical applications. Hardware Trojans remain dormant while the part is tested and validated, but then get activated to launch an attack when the chip is deployed in security-critical applications. In this paper, we take a deeper look into these problems and their underlying reasons, and propose a design technique to maximize the detection of small delay defects as well as the hardware Trojans. The proposed technique eliminates all slacks by judiciously inserting delay units in a small set of locations in the circuit, thereby rendering a simple set of transition fault patterns quite effective in catching parts with small delay defects or Trojans. Experimental results also justify the efficacy of the proposed technique in improving the quality of test while retaining the pattern count and care bit density intact.

Kumar, P., Srinivasan, R..  2014.  Detection of hardware Trojan in SEA using path delay. Electrical, Electronics and Computer Science (SCEECS), 2014 IEEE Students' Conference on. :1-6.

Detecting hardware Trojan is a difficult task in general. The context is that of a fabless design house that sells IP blocks as GDSII hard macros, and wants to check that final products have not been infected by Trojan during the foundry stage. In this paper we analyzed hardware Trojan horses insertion and detection in Scalable Encryption Algorithm (SEA) crypto. We inserted Trojan at different levels in the ASIC design flow of SEA crypto and most importantly we focused on Gate level and layout level Trojan insertions. We choose path delays in order to detect Trojan at both levels in design phase. Because the path delays detection technique is cost effective and efficient method to detect Trojan. The comparison of path delays makes small Trojan circuits significant from a delay point of view. We used typical, fast and slow 90nm libraries in order to estimate the efficiency of path delay technique in different operating conditions. The experiment's results show that the detection rate on payload Trojan is 100%.