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2021-11-08
Zeng, Zitong, Li, Lei, Zhou, Wanting, Yang, Ji, He, Yuanhang.  2020.  IR-Drop Calibration for Hardware Trojan Detection. 2020 13th International Symposium on Computational Intelligence and Design (ISCID). :418–421.
Process variation is the critical issue in hardware Trojan detection. In the state-of-art works, ring oscillators are employed to address this problem. But ring oscillators are very sensitive to IR-drop effect, which exists ICs. In this paper, based on circuit theory, a IR-drop calibration method is proposed. The nominal power supply voltage and the others power supply voltage with a very small difference of the nominal power supply voltage are applied to the test chip. It is assumed that they have the same IR-drop $Δ$V. Combined with these measured data, the value of Vth + $Δ$V, can be obtained by mathematic analysis. The typical Vth from circuit simulation is used to compute $Δ$V. We studied the proposed method in a tested chip.
Nguyen, Luong N., Yilmaz, Baki Berkay, Prvulovic, Milos, Zajic, Alenka.  2020.  A Novel Golden-Chip-Free Clustering Technique Using Backscattering Side Channel for Hardware Trojan Detection. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Hardware Oriented Security and Trust (HOST). :1–12.
Over the past few years, malicious hardware modifications, a.k.a. hardware Trojans (HT), have emerged as a major security threat because integrated circuit (IC) companies have been fabricating chips at offshore foundries due to various factors including time-to-market, cost reduction demands, and the increased complexity of ICs. Among proposed hardware Trojan detection techniques, reverse engineering appears to be the most accurate and reliable one because it works for all circuits and Trojan types without a golden example of the chip. However, because reverse engineering is an extremely expensive, time-consuming, and destructive process, it is difficult to apply this technique for a large population of ICs in a real test environment. This paper proposes a novel golden-chip-free clustering method using backscattering side-channel to divide ICs into groups of Trojan-free and Trojan-infected boards. The technique requires no golden chip or a priori knowledge of the chip circuitry, and divides a large population of ICs into clusters based on how HTs (if existed) affect their backscattered signals. This significantly reduces the size of test vectors for reverse engineering based detection techniques, thus enables deployment of reverse engineering approaches to a large population of ICs in a real testing scenario. The results are collected on 100 different FPGA boards where boards are randomly chosen to be infected or not. The results show that we can cluster the boards with 100% accuracy and demonstrate that our technique can tolerate manufacturing variations among hardware instances to cluster all the boards accurately for 9 different dormant Trojan designs on 3 different benchmark circuits from Trusthub. We have also shown that we can detect dormant Trojan designs whose trigger size has shrunk to as small as 0.19% of the original circuit with 100% accuracy as well.
Sun, Chen, Cheng, Liye, Wang, Liwei, Huang, Yun.  2020.  Hardware Trojan Detection Based on SRC. 2020 35th Youth Academic Annual Conference of Chinese Association of Automation (YAC). :472–475.
The security of integrated circuits (IC) plays a very significant role on military, economy, communication and other industries. Due to the globalization of the integrated circuit (IC) from design to manufacturing process, the IC chip is vulnerable to be implanted malicious circuit, which is known as hardware Trojan (HT). When the HT is activated, it will modify the functionality, reduce the reliability of IC, and even leak confidential information about the system and seriously threatens national security. The HT detection theory and method is hotspot in the security of integrated circuit. However, most methods are focusing on the simulated data. Moreover, the measurement data of the real circuit are greatly affected by the measurement noise and process disturbances and few methods are available with small size of the Trojan circuit. In this paper, the problem of detection was cast as signal representation among multiple linear regression and sparse representation-based classifier (SRC) were first applied for Trojan detection. We assume that the training samples from a single class do lie on a subspace, and the test samples can be represented by the single class. The proposed SRC HT detection method on real integrated circuit shows high accuracy and efficiency.
Tang, Nan, Zhou, Wanting, Li, Lei, Yang, Ji, Li, Rui, He, Yuanhang.  2020.  Hardware Trojan Detection Method Based on the Frequency Domain Characteristics of Power Consumption. 2020 13th International Symposium on Computational Intelligence and Design (ISCID). :410–413.
Hardware security has long been an important issue in the current IC design. In this paper, a hardware Trojan detection method based on frequency domain characteristics of power consumption is proposed. For some HTs, it is difficult to detect based on the time domain characteristics, these types of hardware Trojan can be analyzed in the frequency domain, and Mahalanobis distance is used to classify designs with or without HTs. The experimental results demonstrate that taking 10% distance as the criterion, the hardware Trojan detection results in the frequency domain have almost no failure cases in all the tested designs.
Xu, Lan, Li, Jianwei, Dai, Li, Yu, Ningmei.  2020.  Hardware Trojans Detection Based on BP Neural Network. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Integrated Circuits, Technologies and Applications (ICTA). :149–150.
This paper uses side channel analysis to detect hardware Trojan based on back propagation neural network. First, a power consumption collection platform is built to collect power waveforms, and the amplifier is utilized to amplify power consumption information to improve the detection accuracy. Then the small difference between the power waveforms is recognized by the back propagation neural network to achieve the purpose of detection. This method is validated on Advanced Encryption Standard circuit. Results show this method is able to identify the circuits with a Trojan occupied 0.19% of Advanced Encryption Standard circuit. And the detection accuracy rate can reach 100%.
Monjur, Mezanur Rahman, Sunkavilli, Sandeep, Yu, Qiaoyan.  2020.  ADobf: Obfuscated Detection Method against Analog Trojans on I2C Master-Slave Interface. 2020 IEEE 63rd International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS). :1064–1067.
Hardware Trojan war is expanding from digital world to analog domain. Although hardware Trojans in digital integrated circuits have been extensively investigated, there still lacks study on the Trojans crossing the boundary between digital and analog worlds. This work uses Inter-integrated Circuit (I2C) as an example to demonstrate the potential security threats on its master-slave interface. Furthermore, an obfuscated Trojan detection method is proposed to monitor the abnormal behaviors induced by analog Trojans on the I2C interface. Experimental results confirm that the proposed method has a high sensitivity to the compromised clock signal and can mitigate the clock mute attack with a success rate of over 98%.
2021-09-30
Meraj Ahmed, M, Dhavlle, Abhijitt, Mansoor, Naseef, Sutradhar, Purab, Pudukotai Dinakarrao, Sai Manoj, Basu, Kanad, Ganguly, Amlan.  2020.  Defense Against on-Chip Trojans Enabling Traffic Analysis Attacks. 2020 Asian Hardware Oriented Security and Trust Symposium (AsianHOST). :1–6.
Interconnection networks for multi/many-core processors or server systems are the backbone of the system as they enable data communication among the processing cores, caches, memory and other peripherals. Given the criticality of the interconnects, the system can be severely subverted if the interconnection is compromised. The threat of Hardware Trojans (HTs) penetrating complex hardware systems such as multi/many-core processors are increasing due to the increasing presence of third party players in a System-on-chip (SoC) design. Even by deploying naïve HTs, an adversary can exploit the Network-on-Chip (NoC) backbone of the processor and get access to communication patterns in the system. This information, if leaked to an attacker, can reveal important insights regarding the application suites running on the system; thereby compromising the user privacy and paving the way for more severe attacks on the entire system. In this paper, we demonstrate that one or more HTs embedded in the NoC of a multi/many-core processor is capable of leaking sensitive information regarding traffic patterns to an external malicious attacker; who, in turn, can analyze the HT payload data with machine learning techniques to infer the applications running on the processor. Furthermore, to protect against such attacks, we propose a Simulated Annealing-based randomized routing algorithm in the system. The proposed defense is capable of obfuscating the attacker's data processing capabilities to infer the user profiles successfully. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed randomized routing algorithm could reduce the accuracy of identifying user profiles by the attacker from \textbackslashtextgreater98% to \textbackslashtextless; 15% in multi/many-core systems.
2021-06-28
Zhang, Ning, Lv, Zhiqiang, Zhang, Yanlin, Li, Haiyang, Zhang, Yixin, Huang, Weiqing.  2020.  Novel Design of Hardware Trojan: A Generic Approach for Defeating Testability Based Detection. 2020 IEEE 19th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom). :162–173.
Hardware design, especially the very large scale integration(VLSI) and systems on chip design(SOC), utilizes many codes from third-party intellectual property (IP) providers and former designers. Hardware Trojans (HTs) are easily inserted in this process. Recently researchers have proposed many HTs detection techniques targeting the design codes. State-of-art detections are based on the testability including Controllability and Observability, which are effective to all HTs from TrustHub, and advanced HTs like DeTrust. Meanwhile, testability based detections have advantages in the timing complexity and can be easily integrated into recently industrial verification. Undoubtedly, the adversaries will upgrade their designs accordingly to evade these detection techniques. Designing a variety of complex trojans is a significant way to perfect the existing detection, therefore, we present a novel design of HTs to defeat the testability based detection methods, namely DeTest. Our approach is simple and straight forward, yet it proves to be effective at adding some logic. Without changing HTs malicious function, DeTest decreases controllability and observability values to about 10% of the original, which invalidates distinguishers like clustering and support vector machines (SVM). As shown in our practical attack results, adversaries can easily use DeTest to upgrade their HTs to evade testability based detections. Combined with advanced HTs design techniques like DeTrust, DeTest can evade previous detecions, like UCI, VeriTrust and FANCI. We further discuss how to extend existing solutions to reduce the threat posed by DeTest.
Yao, Manting, Yuan, Weina, Wang, Nan, Zhang, Zeyu, Qiu, Yuan, Liu, Yichuan.  2020.  SS3: Security-Aware Vendor-Constrained Task Scheduling for Heterogeneous Multiprocessor System-on-Chips. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Networking, Sensing and Control (ICNSC). :1–6.
Design for trust approaches can protect an MPSoC system from hardware Trojan attack due to the high penetration of third-party intellectual property. However, this incurs significant design cost by purchasing IP cores from various IP vendors, and the IP vendors providing particular IP are always limited, making these approaches unable to be performed in practice. This paper treats IP vendor as constraint, and tasks are scheduled with a minimized security constraint violations, furthermore, the area of MPSoC is also optimized during scheduling. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm, by reducing 0.37% security constraint violations.
2021-05-26
Gayatri, R, Gayatri, Yendamury, Mitra, CP, Mekala, S, Priyatharishini, M.  2020.  System Level Hardware Trojan Detection Using Side-Channel Power Analysis and Machine Learning. 2020 5th International Conference on Communication and Electronics Systems (ICCES). :650—654.

Cyber physical systems (CPS) is a dominant technology in today's world due to its vast variety of applications. But in recent times, the alarmingly increasing breach of privacy and security in CPS is a matter of grave concern. Security and trust of CPS has become the need of the hour. Hardware Trojans are one such a malicious attack which compromises on the security of the CPS by changing its functionality or denial of services or leaking important information. This paper proposes the detection of Hardware Trojans at the system level in AES-256 decryption algorithm implemented in Atmel XMega Controller (Target Board) using a combination of side-channel power analysis and machine learning. Power analysis is done with help of ChipWhisperer-Lite board. The power traces of the golden algorithm (Hardware Trojan free) and Hardware Trojan infected algorithms are obtained and used to train the machine learning model using the 80/20 rule. The proposed machine learning model obtained an accuracy of 97%-100% for all the Trojans inserted.

2020-11-17
Benhani, E. M., Bossuet, L..  2018.  DVFS as a Security Failure of TrustZone-enabled Heterogeneous SoC. 2018 25th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (ICECS). :489—492.
Today, most embedded systems use Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS) to minimize energy consumption and maximize performance. The DVFS technique works by regulating the important parameters that govern the amount of energy consumed in a system, voltage and frequency. For the implementation of this technique, the operating system (OS) includes software applications that dynamically control a voltage regulator or a frequency regulator or both. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time a malicious use of the frequency regulator against a TrustZone-enabled System-on-Chip (SoC). We demonstrate a use of frequency scaling to create covert channel in a TrustZone-enabled heterogeneous SoC. We present four proofs of concept to transfer sensitive data from a secure entity in the SoC to a non-secure one. The first proof of concept is from a secure ARM core to outside of SoC. The second is from a secure ARM core to a non-secure one. The third is from a non-trusted third party IP embedded in the programmable logic part of the SoC to a non-secure ARM core. And the last proof of concept is from a secure third party IP to a non-secure ARM core.
2020-11-09
Mobaraki, S., Amirkhani, A., Atani, R. E..  2018.  A Novel PUF based Logic Encryption Technique to Prevent SAT Attacks and Trojan Insertion. 2018 9th International Symposium on Telecommunications (IST). :507–513.
The manufacturing of integrated circuits (IC) outside of the design houses makes it possible for the adversary to easily perform a reverse engineering attack against intellectual property (IP)/IC. The aim of this attack can be the IP piracy, overproduction, counterfeiting or inserting hardware Trojan (HT) throughout the supply chain of the IC. Preventing hardware Trojan insertion is a significant issue in the context of hardware security (HS) and has not been considered in most of the previous logic encryption methods. To eliminate this problem, in this paper an Anti-Trojan insertion algorithm is presented. The idea is based on the fact that reducing the signals with low-observability (LO) and low-controllability (LC) can prevent HT insertion significantly. The security of logic encryption methods depends on the algorithm and the encryption key. However, the security of these methods has been compromised by SAT attacks over recent years. SAT attacks, can decode the correct key from most logic encryption techniques. In this article, by using the PUF-based encryption, the applied key in the encryption is randomized and SAT attack cannot be performed. Based on the output of PUF, a unique encryption has been made for each chip that preventing from counterfeiting and IP piracy.
2020-11-02
Wang, Nan, Yao, Manting, Jiang, Dongxu, Chen, Song, Zhu, Yu.  2018.  Security-Driven Task Scheduling for Multiprocessor System-on-Chips with Performance Constraints. 2018 IEEE Computer Society Annual Symposium on VLSI (ISVLSI). :545—550.

The high penetration of third-party intellectual property (3PIP) brings a high risk of malicious inclusions and data leakage in products due to the planted hardware Trojans, and system level security constraints have recently been proposed for MPSoCs protection against hardware Trojans. However, secret communication still can be established in the context of the proposed security constraints, and thus, another type of security constraints is also introduced to fully prevent such malicious inclusions. In addition, fulfilling the security constraints incurs serious overhead of schedule length, and a two-stage performance-constrained task scheduling algorithm is then proposed to maintain most of the security constraints. In the first stage, the schedule length is iteratively reduced by assigning sets of adjacent tasks into the same core after calculating the maximum weight independent set of a graph consisting of all timing critical paths. In the second stage, tasks are assigned to proper IP vendors and scheduled to time periods with a minimization of cores required. The experimental results show that our work reduces the schedule length of a task graph, while only a small number of security constraints are violated.

Qin, Maoyuan, Hu, Wei, Mu, Dejun, Tai, Yu.  2018.  Property Based Formal Security Verification for Hardware Trojan Detection. 2018 IEEE 3rd International Verification and Security Workshop (IVSW). :62—67.

The design of modern computer hardware heavily relies on third-party intellectual property (IP) cores, which may contain malicious hardware Trojans that could be exploited by an adversary to leak secret information or take control of the system. Existing hardware Trojan detection methods either require a golden reference design for comparison or extensive functional testing to identify suspicious signals. In this paper, we propose a new formal verification method to verify the security of hardware designs. The proposed solution formalizes fine grained gate level information flow model for proving security properties of hardware designs in the Coq theorem prover environment. Compare with existing register transfer level (RTL) information flow security models, our model only needs to translate a small number of logic primitives to their formal representations without the need of supporting the rich RTL HDL semantics or dealing with complex conditional branch or loop structures. As a result, a gate level information flow model can be created at much lower complexity while achieving significantly higher precision in modeling the security behavior of hardware designs. We use the AES-T1700 benchmark from Trust-HUB to demonstrate the effectiveness of our solution. Experimental results show that our method can detect and pinpoint the Trojan.

2020-09-18
Kaji, Shugo, Kinugawa, Masahiro, Fujimoto, Daisuke, Hayashi, Yu-ichi.  2019.  Data Injection Attack Against Electronic Devices With Locally Weakened Immunity Using a Hardware Trojan. IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility. 61:1115—1121.
Intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI) of information and communication devices is based on high-power electromagnetic environments far exceeding the device immunity to electromagnetic interference. IEMI dramatically alters the electromagnetic environment throughout the device by interfering with the electromagnetic waves inside the device and destroying low-tolerance integrated circuits (ICs) and other elements, thereby reducing the availability of the device. In contrast, in this study, by using a hardware Trojan (HT) that is quickly mountable by physically accessing the devices, to locally weaken the immunity of devices, and then irradiating electromagnetic waves of a specific frequency, only the attack targets are intentionally altered electromagnetically. Therefore, we propose a method that uses these electromagnetic changes to rewrite or generate data and commands handled within devices. Specifically, targeting serial communication systems used inside and outside the devices, the installation of an HT on the communication channel weakens local immunity. This shows that it is possible to generate an electrical signal representing arbitrary data on the communication channel by applying electromagnetic waves of sufficiently small output compared with the conventional IEMI and letting the IC process the data. In addition, we explore methods for countering such attacks.
2020-05-15
Wang, Jian, Guo, Shize, Chen, Zhe, Zhang, Tao.  2019.  A Benchmark Suite of Hardware Trojans for On-Chip Networks. IEEE Access. 7:102002—102009.
As recently studied, network-on-chip (NoC) suffers growing threats from hardware trojans (HTs), leading to performance degradation or information leakage when it provides communication service in many/multi-core systems. Therefore, defense techniques against NoC HTs experience rapid development in recent years. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are few standard benchmarks developed for the defense techniques evaluation. To address this issue, in this paper, we design a suite of benchmarks which involves multiple NoCs with different HTs, so that researchers can compare various HT defense methods fairly by making use of them. We first briefly introduce the features of target NoC and its infected modules in our benchmarks, and then, detail the design of our NoC HTs in a one-by-one manner. Finally, we evaluate our benchmarks through extensive simulations and report the circuit cost of NoC HTs in terms of area and power consumption, as well as their effects on NoC performance. Besides, comprehensive experiments, including functional testing and side channel analysis are performed to assess the stealthiness of our HTs.
J.Y.V., Manoj Kumar, Swain, Ayas Kanta, Kumar, Sudeendra, Sahoo, Sauvagya Ranjan, Mahapatra, Kamalakanta.  2018.  Run Time Mitigation of Performance Degradation Hardware Trojan Attacks in Network on Chip. 2018 IEEE Computer Society Annual Symposium on VLSI (ISVLSI). :738—743.
Globalization of semiconductor design and manufacturing has led to several hardware security issues. The problem of Hardware Trojans (HT) is one such security issue discussed widely in industry and academia. Adversary design engineer can insert the HT to leak confidential data, cause a denial of service attack or any other intention specific to the design. HT in cryptographic modules and processors are widely discussed. HT in Multi-Processor System on Chips (MPSoC) are also catastrophic, as most of the military applications use MPSoCs. Network on Chips (NoC) are standard communication infrastructure in modern day MPSoC. In this paper, we present a novel hardware Trojan which is capable of inducing performance degradation and denial of service attacks in a NoC. The presence of the Hardware Trojan in a NoC can compromise the crucial details of packets communicated through NoC. The proposed Trojan is triggered by a particular complex bit pattern from input messages and tries to mislead the packets away from the destined addresses. A mitigation method based on bit shuffling mechanism inside the router with a key directly extracted from input message is proposed to limit the adverse effects of the Trojan. The performance of a 4×4 NoC is evaluated under uniform traffic with the proposed Trojan and mitigation method. Simulation results show that the proposed mitigation scheme is useful in limiting the malicious effect of hardware Trojan.
Daoud, Luka.  2018.  Secure Network-on-Chip Architectures for MPSoC: Overview and Challenges. 2018 IEEE 61st International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS). :542—543.
Network-on-Chip (NOC) is the heart of data communication between processing cores in Multiprocessor-based Systems on Chip (MPSoC). Packets transferred via the NoC are exposed to snooping, which makes NoC-based systems vulnerable to security attacks. Additionally, Hardware Trojans (HTs) can be deployed in some of the NoC nodes to apply security threats of extracting sensitive information or degrading the system performance. In this paper, an overview of some security attacks in NoC-based systems and the countermeasure techniques giving prominence on malicious nodes are discussed. Work in progress for secure routing algorithms is also presented.
2020-03-23
Daoud, Luka, Rafla, Nader.  2019.  Analysis of Black Hole Router Attack in Network-on-Chip. 2019 IEEE 62nd International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS). :69–72.

Network-on-Chip (NoC) is the communication platform of the data among the processing cores in Multiprocessors System-on-Chip (MPSoC). NoC has become a target to security attacks and by outsourcing design, it can be infected with a malicious Hardware Trojan (HT) to degrades the system performance or leaves a back door for sensitive information leaking. In this paper, we proposed a HT model that applies a denial of service attack by deliberately discarding the data packets that are passing through the infected node creating a black hole in the NoC. It is known as Black Hole Router (BHR) attack. We studied the effect of the BHR attack on the NoC. The power and area overhead of the BHR are analyzed. We studied the effect of the locations of BHRs and their distribution in the network as well. The malicious nodes has very small area and power overhead, 1.98% and 0.74% respectively, with a very strong violent attack.

2020-03-16
Tan, Jiatong, Feng, Jianhua, Lyu, Yinxuan.  2019.  Stealthy Trojan Detection Based on Feature Analysis of Circuit Structure. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Electron Devices and Solid-State Circuits (EDSSC). :1–3.
The design methods and the detection methods for Hardware Trojan develop rapidly. Existing trustiness verification methods are effective to obviously malicious HT but no effect on Stealthy Trojan. Stealthy Trojan is an advanced attack form and hard to be detected. In this paper, we analyze the characteristic of stealthy Trojan and propose a static detection method based on feature analysis. The results on ISCAS benchmarks show that the proposed method can detect the Stealthy Trojan node and is convenient to be implanted into other scalable verification framework.
2020-02-26
Kuo, Man-Hsuan, Hu, Chun-Ming, Lee, Kuen-Jong.  2019.  Time-Related Hardware Trojan Attacks on Processor Cores. 2019 IEEE International Test Conference in Asia (ITC-Asia). :43–48.

Real-time clock circuits are widely used in modern electronic systems to provide time information to the systems at the beginning of the system power-on. In this paper, we present two types of Hardware Trojan designs that employ the time information as the trigger conditions. One is a real-time based Trojan, which will attack a system at some specific realworld time. The other is a relative-time based Trojan, which will be triggered when a specific time period passes after the system is powered on. In either case when a Trojan is triggered its payload may corrupt the system or leakage internal information to the outside world. Experimental results show that the extra power consumption, area overhead and delay time are all quite small and thus the detection of the Trojans is difficult by using traditional side-channel detection methods.

Inaba, Koutaro, Yoneda, Tomohiro, Kanamoto, Toshiki, Kurokawa, Atsushi, Imai, Masashi.  2019.  Hardware Trojan Insertion and Detection in Asynchronous Circuits. 2019 25th IEEE International Symposium on Asynchronous Circuits and Systems (ASYNC). :134–143.

Hardware Trojan threats caused by malicious designers and untrusted manufacturers have become one of serious issues in modern VLSI systems. In this paper, we show some experimental results to insert hardware Trojans into asynchronous circuits. As a result, the overhead of hardware Trojan insertion in asynchronous circuits may be small for malicious designers who have enough knowledge about the asynchronous circuits. In addition, we also show several Trojan detection methods using deep learning schemes which have been proposed to detect synchronous hardware Trojan in the netlist level. We apply them to asynchronous hardware Trojan circuits and show their results. They have a great potential to detect a hardware Trojan in asynchronous circuits.

Gountia, Debasis, Roy, Sudip.  2019.  Checkpoints Assignment on Cyber-Physical Digital Microfluidic Biochips for Early Detection of Hardware Trojans. 2019 3rd International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Informatics (ICOEI). :16–21.

Present security study involving analysis of manipulation of individual droplets of samples and reagents by digital microfluidic biochip has remarked that the biochip design flow is vulnerable to piracy attacks, hardware Trojans attacks, overproduction, Denial-of-Service attacks, and counterfeiting. Attackers can introduce bioprotocol manipulation attacks against biochips used for medical diagnosis, biochemical analysis, and frequent diseases detection in healthcare industry. Among these attacks, hardware Trojans have created a major threatening issue in its security concern with multiple ways to crack the sensitive data or alter original functionality by doing malicious operations in biochips. In this paper, we present a systematic algorithm for the assignment of checkpoints required for error-recovery of available bioprotocols in case of hardware Trojans attacks in performing operations by biochip. Moreover, it can guide the placement and timing of checkpoints so that the result of an attack is reduced, and hence enhance the security concerns of digital microfluidic biochips. Comparative study with traditional checkpoint schemes demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithm without overhead of the bioprotocol completion time with higher error detection accuracy.

2020-02-10
Hu, Taifeng, Wu, Liji, Zhang, Xiangmin, Yin, Yanzhao, Yang, Yijun.  2019.  Hardware Trojan Detection Combine with Machine Learning: an SVM-based Detection Approach. 2019 IEEE 13th International Conference on Anti-counterfeiting, Security, and Identification (ASID). :202–206.
With the application of integrated circuits (ICs) appears in all aspects of life, whether an IC is security and reliable has caused increasing worry which is of significant necessity. An attacker can achieve the malicious purpose by adding or removing some modules, so called hardware Trojans (HTs). In this paper, we use side-channel analysis (SCA) and support vector machine (SVM) classifier to determine whether there is a Trojan in the circuit. We use SAKURA-G circuit board with Xilinx SPARTAN-6 to complete our experiment. Results show that the Trojan detection rate is up to 93% and the classification accuracy is up to 91.8475%.
2019-11-04
Daoud, Luka, Rafla, Nader.  2018.  Routing Aware and Runtime Detection for Infected Network-on-Chip Routers. 2018 IEEE 61st International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS). :775-778.

Network-on-Chip (NoC) architecture is the communication heart of the processing cores in Multiprocessors System-on-Chip (MPSoC), where messages are routed from a source to a destination through intermediate nodes. Therefore, NoC has become a target to security attacks. By experiencing outsourcing design, NoC can be infected with a malicious Hardware Trojans (HTs) which potentially degrade the system performance or leave a backdoor for secret key leaking. In this paper, we propose a HT model that applies a denial of service attack by misrouting the packets, which causes deadlock and consequently degrading the NoC performance. We present a secure routing algorithm that provides a runtime HT detection and avoiding scheme. Results show that our proposed model has negligible overhead in area and power, 0.4% and 0.6%, respectively.