Visible to the public Biblio

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Westland, T., Niu, N., Jha, R., Kapp, D., Kebede, T..  2020.  Relating the Empirical Foundations of Attack Generation and Vulnerability Discovery. 2020 IEEE 21st International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration for Data Science (IRI). :37–44.
Automatically generating exploits for attacks receives much attention in security testing and auditing. However, little is known about the continuous effect of automatic attack generation and detection. In this paper, we develop an analytic model to understand the cost-benefit tradeoffs in light of the process of vulnerability discovery. We develop a three-phased model, suggesting that the cumulative malware detection has a productive period before the rate of gain flattens. As the detection mechanisms co-evolve, the gain will likely increase. We evaluate our analytic model by using an anti-virus tool to detect the thousands of Trojans automatically created. The anti-virus scanning results over five months show the validity of the model and point out future research directions.
Crouch, Alfred L, Ley, Adam W.  2019.  A Role for Embedded Instrumentation in Real-Time Hardware Assurance and Online Monitoring against Cybersecurity Threats. 2019 IEEE AUTOTESTCON. :1–9.

Jeopardy to cybersecurity threats in electronic systems is persistent and growing. Such threats present in hardware, by means such as Trojans and counterfeits, and in software, by means such as viruses and other malware. Against such threats, we propose a range of embedded instruments that are capable of real-time hardware assurance and online monitoring.

Hu, Taifeng, Wu, Liji, Zhang, Xiangmin, Yin, Yanzhao, Yang, Yijun.  2019.  Hardware Trojan Detection Combine with Machine Learning: an SVM-based Detection Approach. 2019 IEEE 13th International Conference on Anti-counterfeiting, Security, and Identification (ASID). :202–206.
With the application of integrated circuits (ICs) appears in all aspects of life, whether an IC is security and reliable has caused increasing worry which is of significant necessity. An attacker can achieve the malicious purpose by adding or removing some modules, so called hardware Trojans (HTs). In this paper, we use side-channel analysis (SCA) and support vector machine (SVM) classifier to determine whether there is a Trojan in the circuit. We use SAKURA-G circuit board with Xilinx SPARTAN-6 to complete our experiment. Results show that the Trojan detection rate is up to 93% and the classification accuracy is up to 91.8475%.
Cozzi, M., Galliere, J., Maurine, P..  2018.  Exploiting Phase Information in Thermal Scans for Stealthy Trojan Detection. 2018 21st Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design (DSD). :573-576.

Infrared thermography has been recognized for its ability to investigate integrated circuits in a non destructive way. Coupled to lock-in correlation it has proven efficient in detecting thermal hot spots. Most of the state of the Art measurement systems are based on amplitude analysis. In this paper we propose to investigate weak thermal hot spots using the phase of infrared signals. We demonstrate that phase analysis is a formidable alternative to amplitude to detect small heat signatures. Finally, we apply our measurement platform and its detection method to the identification of stealthy hardware Trojans.

Yang, Ping-Lin, Marek-Sadowska, Malgorzata.  2016.  Making Split-fabrication More Secure. Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Computer-Aided Design. :91:1–91:8.

Today many design houses must outsource their design fabrication to a third party which is often an overseas foundry. Split-fabrication is proposed for combining the FEOL capabilities of an advanced but untrusted foundry with the BEOL capabilities of a trusted foundry. Hardware security in this business model relates directly to the front-end foundry's ability to interpret the partial circuit design it receives in order to reverse engineer or insert malicious circuits. The published experimental results indicate that a relatively large percentage of the split nets can be correctly guessed and there is no easy way of detecting the possibly inserted Trojans. In this paper, we propose a secure split-fabrication design methodology for the Vertical Slit Field Effect Transistor (VeSFET) based integrated circuits. We take advantage of the VeSFET's unique and powerful two-side accessibility and monolithic 3D integration capability. In our approach the design is manufactured by two independent foundries, both of which can be untrusted. We propose the design partition and piracy prevention, hardware Trojan insertion prevention, and Trojan detection methods. In the 3D designs, some transistors are physically hidden from the front-end foundry\_1's view, which causes that it is impossible for this foundry to reconstruct the circuit. We designed 10 MCNC benchmark circuits using the proposed flow and executed an attack by an in-house developed proximity attacker. With 5% nets manufactured by the back-end foundry\_2, the average percentage of the correctly reconstructed partitioned nets is less than 1%.

Le, Thao, Di, Jia, Tehranipoor, Mark, Forte, Domenic, Wang, Lei.  2016.  Tracking Data Flow at Gate-Level Through Structural Checking. Proceedings of the 26th Edition on Great Lakes Symposium on VLSI. :185–189.

The rapid growth of Internet-of-things and other electronic devices make a huge impact on how and where data travel. The confidential data (e.g., personal data, financial information) that travel through unreliable channels can be exposed to attackers. In hardware, the confidential data such as secret cipher keys are facing the same issue. This problem is even more serious when the IP is from a 3rd party and contains scan-chains. Thus, data flow tracking is important to analyze possible leakage channels in fighting against such hardware security threats. This paper introduces a method for tracking data flow and detecting potential hardware Trojans in gate-level soft IPs using assets and Structural Checking tool.

Bhunia, S., Hsiao, M.S., Banga, M., Narasimhan, S..  2014.  Hardware Trojan Attacks: Threat Analysis and Countermeasures. Proceedings of the IEEE. 102:1229-1247.

Security of a computer system has been traditionally related to the security of the software or the information being processed. The underlying hardware used for information processing has been considered trusted. The emergence of hardware Trojan attacks violates this root of trust. These attacks, in the form of malicious modifications of electronic hardware at different stages of its life cycle, pose major security concerns in the electronics industry. An adversary can mount such an attack with an objective to cause operational failure or to leak secret information from inside a chip-e.g., the key in a cryptographic chip, during field operation. Global economic trend that encourages increased reliance on untrusted entities in the hardware design and fabrication process is rapidly enhancing the vulnerability to such attacks. In this paper, we analyze the threat of hardware Trojan attacks; present attack models, types, and scenarios; discuss different forms of protection approaches, both proactive and reactive; and describe emerging attack modes, defenses, and future research pathways.