Visible to the public Biblio

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Guo, Yihao, Guo, Chuangxin, Yang, Jie.  2022.  A Resource Allocation Method for Attacks on Power Systems Under Extreme Weather. 2022 IEEE/IAS Industrial and Commercial Power System Asia (I&CPS Asia). :165—169.
This paper addresses the allocation method of offensive resources for man-made attacks on power systems considering extreme weather conditions, which can help the defender identify the most vulnerable components to protect in this adverse situation. The problem is formulated as an attacker-defender model. The attacker at the upper level intends to maximize the expected damage considering all possible line failure scenarios. These scenarios are characterized by the combinations of failed transmission lines under extreme weather. Once the disruption is detected, the defender at the lower level alters the generation and consumption in the power grid using DC optimal power flow technique to minimize the damage. Then the original bi-level problem is transformed into an equivalent single-level mixed-integer linear program through strong duality theorem and Big-M method. The proposed attack resource allocation method is applied on IEEE 39-bus system and its effectiveness is demonstrated by the comparative case studies.
Chen, Yuhang, Long, Yue, Li, Tieshan.  2022.  Attacks Detection and Security Control Against False Data Injection Attacks Based on Interval Type-2 Fuzzy System. IECON 2022 – 48th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. :1—6.
This paper is concered with the nonlinear cyber physical system (CPS) with uncertain parameters under false data injection (FDI) attacks. The interval type-2 (IT2) fuzzy model is utilized to approximate the nonlinear system, then the nonlinear system can be represented as a convex combination of linear systems. To detect the FDI attacks, a novel robust fuzzy extended state observer with H∞ preformance is proposed, where the fuzzy rules are utilized to the observer to estimate the FDI attacks. Utilizing the observation of the FDI attacks, a security control scheme is proposed in this paper, in which a compensator is designed to offset the FDI attacks. Simulation examples are given to illustrate the effecitveness of the proposed security scheme.
Gao, Xiao.  2022.  Sliding Mode Control Based on Disturbance Observer for Cyber-Physical Systems Security. 2022 4th International Conference on Control and Robotics (ICCR). :275—279.
In this paper, a sliding mode control (SMC) based on nonlinear disturbance observer and intermittent control is proposed to maximize the security of cyber-physical systems (CPSs), aiming at the cyber-attacks and physical uncertainties of cyber-physical systems. In the CPSs, the transmission of information data and control signals to the remote end through the network may lead to cyber attacks, and there will be uncertainties in the physical system. Therefore, this paper establishes a CPSs model that includes network attacks and physical uncertainties. Secondly, according to the analysis of the mathematical model, an adaptive SMC based on disturbance observer and intermittent control is designed to keep the CPSs stable in the presence of network attacks and physical uncertainties. In this strategy, the adaptive strategy suppresses the controller The chattering of the output. Intermittent control breaks the limitations of traditional continuous control to ensure efficient use of resources. Finally, to prove the control performance of the controller, numerical simulation results are given.
Hussaini, Adamu, Qian, Cheng, Liao, Weixian, Yu, Wei.  2022.  A Taxonomy of Security and Defense Mechanisms in Digital Twins-based Cyber-Physical Systems. 2022 IEEE International Conferences on Internet of Things (iThings) and IEEE Green Computing & Communications (GreenCom) and IEEE Cyber, Physical & Social Computing (CPSCom) and IEEE Smart Data (SmartData) and IEEE Congress on Cybermatics (Cybermatics). :597—604.
The (IoT) paradigm’s fundamental goal is to massively connect the “smart things” through standardized interfaces, providing a variety of smart services. Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) include both physical and cyber components and can apply to various application domains (smart grid, smart transportation, smart manufacturing, etc.). The Digital Twin (DT) is a cyber clone of physical objects (things), which will be an essential component in CPS. This paper designs a systematic taxonomy to explore different attacks on DT-based CPS and how they affect the system from a four-layer architecture perspective. We present an attack space for DT-based CPS on four layers (i.e., object layer, communication layer, DT layer, and application layer), three attack objects (i.e., confidentiality, integrity, and availability), and attack types combined with strength and knowledge. Furthermore, some selected case studies are conducted to examine attacks on representative DT-based CPS (smart grid, smart transportation, and smart manufacturing). Finally, we propose a defense mechanism called Secured DT Development Life Cycle (SDTDLC) and point out the importance of leveraging other enabling techniques (intrusion detection, blockchain, modeling, simulation, and emulation) to secure DT-based CPS.
Pan, Aiqiang, Fang, Xiaotao, Yan, Zheng, Dong, Zhen, Xu, Xiaoyuan, Wang, Han.  2022.  Risk-Based Power System Resilience Assessment Considering the Impacts of Hurricanes. 2022 IEEE/IAS Industrial and Commercial Power System Asia (I&CPS Asia). :1714—1718.
In this paper, a novel method is proposed to assess the power system resilience considering the impacts of hurricanes. Firstly, the transmission line outage model correlated to wind speed is developed. Then, Probability Load Flow (PLF) considering the random outage of lines and the variation of loads is designed, and Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) is used to improve the efficiency of Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) in solving PLF. Moreover, risk indices, including line overloading, node voltage exceeding limit, load shedding and system collapse, are established to assess the resilience of power systems during hurricanes. The method is tested with a modified IEEE 14-bus system, and simulation results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
G, Amritha, Kh, Vishakh, C, Jishnu Shankar V, Nair, Manjula G.  2022.  Autoencoder Based FDI Attack Detection Scheme For Smart Grid Stability. 2022 IEEE 19th India Council International Conference (INDICON). :1—5.
One of the major concerns in the real-time monitoring systems in a smart grid is the Cyber security threat. The false data injection attack is emerging as a major form of attack in Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). A False data Injection Attack (FDIA) can lead to severe issues like insufficient generation, physical damage to the grid, power flow imbalance as well as economical loss. The recent advancements in machine learning algorithms have helped solve the drawbacks of using classical detection techniques for such attacks. In this article, we propose to use Autoencoders (AE’s) as a novel Machine Learning approach to detect FDI attacks without any major modifications. The performance of the method is validated through the analysis of the simulation results. The algorithm achieves optimal accuracy owing to the unsupervised nature of the algorithm.
Aljohani, Nader, Bretas, Arturo, Bretas, Newton G.  2022.  Two-Stage Optimization Framework for Detecting and Correcting Parameter Cyber-Attacks in Power System State Estimation. 2022 IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2022 IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe (EEEIC / I&CPS Europe). :1—5.
One major tool of Energy Management Systems for monitoring the status of the power grid is State Estimation (SE). Since the results of state estimation are used within the energy management system, the security of the power system state estimation tool is most important. The research in this area is targeting detection of False Data Injection attacks on measurements. Though this aspect is crucial, SE also depends on database that are used to describe the relationship between measurements and systems' states. This paper presents a two-stage optimization framework to not only detect, but also correct cyber-attacks pertaining the measurements' model parameters used by the SE routine. In the first stage, an estimate of the line parameters ratios are obtained. In the second stage, the estimated ratios from stage I are used in a Bi-Level model for obtaining a final estimate of the measurements' model parameters. Hence, the presented framework does not only unify the detection and correction in a single optimization run, but also provide a monitoring scheme for the SE database that is typically considered static. In addition, in the two stages, linear programming framework is preserved. For validation, the IEEE 118 bus system is used for implementation. The results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed model for detecting attacks in the database used in the state estimation process.
Vega-Martinez, Valeria, Cooper, Austin, Vera, Brandon, Aljohani, Nader, Bretas, Arturo.  2022.  Hybrid Data-Driven Physics-Based Model Framework Implementation: Towards a Secure Cyber-Physical Operation of the Smart Grid. 2022 IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2022 IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe (EEEIC / I&CPS Europe). :1—5.
False data injection cyber-attack detection models on smart grid operation have been much explored recently, considering analytical physics-based and data-driven solutions. Recently, a hybrid data-driven physics-based model framework for monitoring the smart grid is developed. However, the framework has not been implemented in real-time environment yet. In this paper, the framework of the hybrid model is developed within a real-time simulation environment. OPAL-RT real-time simulator is used to enable Hardware-in-the-Loop testing of the framework. IEEE 9-bus system is considered as a testing grid for gaining insight. The process of building the framework and the challenges faced during development are presented. The performance of the framework is investigated under various false data injection attacks.
Wu, Jingyi, Guo, Jinkang, Lv, Zhihan.  2022.  Deep Learning Driven Security in Digital Twins of Drone Network. ICC 2022 - IEEE International Conference on Communications. :1—6.
This study aims to explore the security issues and computational intelligence of drone information system based on deep learning. Targeting at the security issues of the drone system when it is attacked, this study adopts the improved long short-term memory (LSTM) network to analyze the cyber physical system (CPS) data for prediction from the perspective of predicting the control signal data of the system before the attack occurs. At the same time, the differential privacy frequent subgraph (DPFS) is introduced to keep data privacy confidential, and the digital twins technology is used to map the operating environment of the drone in the physical space, and an attack prediction model for drone digital twins CPS is constructed based on differential privacy-improved LSTM. Finally, the tennessee eastman (TE) process is undertaken as a simulation platform to simulate the constructed model so as to verify its performance. In addition, the proposed model is compared with the Bidirectional LSTM (BiLSTM) and Attention-BiLSTM models proposed by other scholars. It was found that the root mean square error (RMSE) of the proposed model is the smallest (0.20) when the number of hidden layer nodes is 26. Comparison with the actual flow value shows that the proposed algorithm is more accurate with better fitting. Therefore, the constructed drone attack prediction model can achieve higher prediction accuracy and obvious better robustness under the premise of ensuring errors, which can provide experimental basis for the later security and intelligent development of drone system.
Neema, Himanshu, Roth, Thomas, Wang, Chenli, Guo, Wenqi Wendy, Bhattacharjee, Anirban.  2022.  Integrating Multiple HLA Federations for Effective Simulation-Based Evaluations of CPS. 2022 IEEE Workshop on Design Automation for CPS and IoT (DESTION). :19—26.
Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) are complex systems of computational, physical, and human components integrated to achieve some function over one or more networks. The use of distributed simulation, or co-simulation, is one method often used to analyze the behavior and properties of these systems. High-Level Architecture (HLA) is an IEEE co-simulation standard that supports the development and orchestration of distributed simulations. However, a simple HLA federation constructed with the component simulations (i.e., federates) does not satisfy several requirements that arise in real-world use cases such as the shared use of limited physical and computational resources, the need to selectively hide information from participating federates, the creation of reusable federates and federations for supporting configurable shared services, achieving performant distributed simulations, organizing federations across different model types or application concerns, and coordinating federations across organizations with different information technology policies. This paper describes these core requirements that necessitate the use of multiple HLA federations and presents various mechanisms for constructing such integrated HLA federations. An example use case is implemented using a model-based rapid simulation integration framework called the Universal CPS Environment for Federation (UCEF) to illustrate these requirements and demonstrate techniques for integrating multiple HLA federations.
Qingxue, Meng, Jiajun, Lin.  2014.  The Modeling and Simulation of Vehicle Distance Control Based on Cyber-Physical System. 2014 IEEE 7th Joint International Information Technology and Artificial Intelligence Conference. :341–345.
With the advent of motorization, result in traffic system more congested, how to make the traffic system more effective and also take safety into account, namely build a intelligent transportation system, has become a hot spot of society. The vehicle distance control system studied in this paper is an important function in intelligent transportation system, through introducing cyber-physical systems (CPS) technology into it, set up system model, make the vehicles maintain a preset safety distance, thereby not only help improve the effective utilization of traffic system, but also help avoid the collision due to the speed change. Finally, use Simulink software to simulate and analyze the performance of the system, the result shows that the model can effectively cope with the distance change which is due to speed change, and ensure the vehicles maintain a preset safety distance within a short period of time.
Junjie, Tang, Jianjun, Zhao, Jianwan, Ding, Liping, Chen, Gang, Xie, Bin, Gu, Mengfei, Yang.  2012.  Cyber-Physical Systems Modeling Method Based on Modelica. 2012 IEEE Sixth International Conference on Software Security and Reliability Companion. :188–191.
Cyber-physical systems (CPS) is an integration of computation with physical systems and physical processes. It is widely used in energy, health and other industrial areas. Modeling and simulation is of the greatest challenges in CPS research. Modelica has a great potentiality in the modeling and simulation of CPS. We analyze the characteristics and requirements of CPS modeling, and also the features of Modelica in the paper. In respect of information model, physical model and model interface, this paper introduces a unified modeling method for CPS, based on Modelica. The method provides a reliable foundation for the design, analysis and verification of CPS.
Jun, Shen, Cuibo, Yu.  2013.  The Study on the Self-Similarity and Simulation of CPS Traffic. 2013 IEEE 11th International Conference on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing. :215–219.
CPS traffic characteristics is one of key techniques of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). A deep research of CPS network traffic characteristics can help to better plan and design CPS networks. A brief overview of the key concepts of CPS is firstly presented. Then CPS application scenarios are analyzed in details and classified. The characteristics of CPS traffic is analyzed theoretically for different CPS application scenarios. At last, the characteristics of CPS traffic is verified using NS-2 simulation.
Falcone, Alberto, Garro, Alfredo.  2020.  Pitfalls and Remedies in Modeling and Simulation of Cyber Physical Systems. 2020 IEEE/ACM 24th International Symposium on Distributed Simulation and Real Time Applications (DS-RT). :1–5.
The ever-growing advances in science and technology have led to a rapid increase in the complexity of most engineered systems. Cyber-physical Systems (CPSs) are the result of this technology advancement that involves new paradigms, architectures and functionalities derived from different engineering domains. Due to the nature of CPSs, which are composed of many heterogeneous components that constantly interact one another and with the environment, it is difficult to study, explain hypothesis and evaluate design alternatives without using Modeling and Simulation (M&S) approaches. M&S is increasingly used in the CPS domain with different objectives; however, its adoption is not easy and straightforward but can lead to pitfalls that need to be recognized and addressed. This paper identifies some important pitfalls deriving from the application of M&S approaches to the CPS study and presents remedies, which are already available in the literature, to prevent and face them.
Wang, Yuying, Zhou, Xingshe, Liang, Dongfang.  2012.  Study on Integrated Modeling Methods toward Co-Simulation of Cyber-Physical System. 2012 IEEE 14th International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communication 2012 IEEE 9th International Conference on Embedded Software and Systems. :1736–1740.
Cyber-physical systems are particularly difficult to model and simulate because their components mix many different system modalities. In this paper we address the main technical challenges on system simulation taking into account by new characters of CPS, and provide a comprehensive view of the simulation modeling methods for integration of continuous-discrete model. Regards to UML and Simulink, two most widely accepted modeling methods in industrial designs, we study on three methods to perform the cooperation of these two kinds of heterogeneous models for co-simulation. The solution of an implementation of co-simulation method for CPS was designed under three levels architecture.
Zhang, Kailong, Li, Jiwei, Lu, Zhou, Luo, Mei, Wu, Xiao.  2013.  A Scene-Driven Modeling Reconfigurable Hardware-in-Loop Simulation Environment for the Verification of an Autonomous CPS. 2013 5th International Conference on Intelligent Human-Machine Systems and Cybernetics. 1:446–451.
Cyber-Physical System(CPS) is now a new evolutional morphology of embedded systems. With features of merging computation and physical processes together, the traditional verification and simulation methods have being challenged recently. After analyzed the state-of-art of related research, a new simulation environment is studied according to the characters of a special autonomous cyber-physical system-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, and designed to be scene-driven, modeling and reconfigurable. In this environment, a novel CPS-in-loop architecture, which can support simulations under different customized scenes, is studied firstly to ensure its opening and flexibility. And as another foundation, some dynamics models of CPS and atmospheric ones of relative sensors are introduced to simulate the motion of CPS and the change of its posture. On the basis above, the reconfigurable scene-driven mechanisms that are Based on hybrid events are mainly excogitated. Then, different scenes can be configured in terms of special verification requirements, and then each scene will be decomposed into a spatio-temporal event sequence and scheduled by a scene executor. With this environment, not only the posture of CPS, but also the autonomy of its behavior can be verified and observed. It will be meaningful for the design of such autonomous CPS.
Deschamps, Henrick, Cappello, Gerlando, Cardoso, Janette, Siron, Pierre.  2017.  Toward a Formalism to Study the Scheduling of Cyber-Physical Systems Simulations. 2017 IEEE/ACM 21st International Symposium on Distributed Simulation and Real Time Applications (DS-RT). :1–8.
This paper presents ongoing work on the formalism of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) simulations. These systems are distributed real-time systems, and their simulations might be distributed or not. In this paper, we propose a model to describe the modular components forming a simulation of a CPS. The main goal is to introduce a model of generic simulation distributed architecture, on which we are able to execute a logical architecture of simulation. This architecture of simulation allows the expression of structural and behavioural constraints on the simulation, abstracting its execution. We will propose two implementations of the execution architecture based on generic architectures of distributed simulation: $\cdot$ The High Level Architecture (HLA), an IEEE standard for distributed simulation, and one of its open-source implementation of RunTime Infrastructure (RTI): CERTI. $\cdot$ The Distributed Simulation Scheduler (DSS), an Airbus framework scheduling predefined models. Finally, we present the initial results obtained applying our formalism to the open-source case study from the ROSACE case study.
Cambeiro, João, Deantoni, Julien, Amaral, Vasco.  2021.  Supporting the Engineering of Multi-Fidelity Simulation Units With Simulation Goals. 2021 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems Companion (MODELS-C). :317–321.
To conceive a CPS is a complex and multidisciplinary endeavour involving different stakeholders, potentially using a plethora of different languages to describe their views of the system at different levels of abstraction. Model-Driven Engineering comes, precisely, as a methodological approach to tackle the complexity of systems development with models as first-class citizens in the development process. The measure of realism of these models with respect to the real (sub)system is called fidelity. Usually, different models with different fidelity are then developed during the development process. Additionally, it is very common that the development process of CPS includes an incremental (and collaborative) use of simulations to study the behaviour emerging from the heterogeneous models of the system. Currently, the different models, with different fidelity, are managed in an ad hoc manner. Consequently, when a (Co)simulation is used to study a specific property of the system, the choice of the different models and their setup is made manually in a non-tractable way. In this paper we propose a structured new vision to CPS development, where the notion of simulation goal and multi-fidelity simulation unit are first-class citizens. The goal is to make a clear link between the system requirements, the system properties, the simulation goal and the multi-fidelity simulation unit. The outcome of this framework is a way to automatically determine the model at an adequate fidelity level suitable for answering a specific simulation goal.
Anubi, Olugbenga Moses, Konstantinou, Charalambos, Wong, Carlos A., Vedula, Satish.  2020.  Multi-Model Resilient Observer under False Data Injection Attacks. 2020 IEEE Conference on Control Technology and Applications (CCTA). :1–8.

In this paper, we present the concept of boosting the resiliency of optimization-based observers for cyber-physical systems (CPS) using auxiliary sources of information. Due to the tight coupling of physics, communication and computation, a malicious agent can exploit multiple inherent vulnerabilities in order to inject stealthy signals into the measurement process. The problem setting considers the scenario in which an attacker strategically corrupts portions of the data in order to force wrong state estimates which could have catastrophic consequences. The goal of the proposed observer is to compute the true states in-spite of the adversarial corruption. In the formulation, we use a measurement prior distribution generated by the auxiliary model to refine the feasible region of a traditional compressive sensing-based regression problem. A constrained optimization-based observer is developed using l1-minimization scheme. Numerical experiments show that the solution of the resulting problem recovers the true states of the system. The developed algorithm is evaluated through a numerical simulation example of the IEEE 14-bus system.

Cai, Feiyang, Li, Jiani, Koutsoukos, Xenofon.  2020.  Detecting Adversarial Examples in Learning-Enabled Cyber-Physical Systems using Variational Autoencoder for Regression. 2020 IEEE Security and Privacy Workshops (SPW). :208–214.

Learning-enabled components (LECs) are widely used in cyber-physical systems (CPS) since they can handle the uncertainty and variability of the environment and increase the level of autonomy. However, it has been shown that LECs such as deep neural networks (DNN) are not robust and adversarial examples can cause the model to make a false prediction. The paper considers the problem of efficiently detecting adversarial examples in LECs used for regression in CPS. The proposed approach is based on inductive conformal prediction and uses a regression model based on variational autoencoder. The architecture allows to take into consideration both the input and the neural network prediction for detecting adversarial, and more generally, out-of-distribution examples. We demonstrate the method using an advanced emergency braking system implemented in an open source simulator for self-driving cars where a DNN is used to estimate the distance to an obstacle. The simulation results show that the method can effectively detect adversarial examples with a short detection delay.

Siritoglou, Petros, Oriti, Giovanna.  2020.  Distributed Energy Resources Design Method to Improve Energy Security in Critical Facilities. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2020 IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe (EEEIC / I CPS Europe). :1–6.

This paper presents a user-friendly design method for accurately sizing the distributed energy resources of a stand-alone microgrid to meet the critical load demands of a military, commercial, industrial, or residential facility when the utility power is not available. The microgrid combines renewable resources such as photovoltaics (PV) with an energy storage system to increase energy security for facilities with critical loads. The design tool's novelty includes compliance with IEEE standards 1562 and 1013 and addresses resilience, which is not taken into account in existing design methods. Several case studies, simulated with a physics-based model, validate the proposed design method. Additionally, the design and the simulations were validated by 24-hour laboratory experiments conducted on a microgrid assembled using commercial off the shelf components.

Zhu, Hong, Xia, Bing, Zhou, Dongxu, Zhang, Ming, Ma, Zhoujun.  2020.  Research on Integrated Model and Interactive Influence of Energy Internet Cyber Physical System. 2020 IEEE Sustainable Power and Energy Conference (iSPEC). :1667–1671.

Energy Internet is a typical cyber-physical system (CPS), in which the disturbance on cyber part may result in the operation risks on the physical part. In order to perform CPS assessment and research the interactive influence between cyber part and physical part, an integrated energy internet CPS model which adopts information flow matrix, energy control flow matrix and information energy hybrid flow matrix is proposed in this paper. The proposed model has a higher computational efficacy compared with simulation based approaches. Then, based on the proposed model, the influence of cyber disturbances such as data dislocation, data delay and data error on the physical part are studied. Finally, a 3 MW PET based energy internet CPS is built using PSCAD/EMTDC software. The simulation results prove the validity of the proposed model and the correctness of the interactive influence analysis.

Bogosyan, Seta, Gokasan, Metin.  2020.  Novel Strategies for Security-hardened BMS for Extremely Fast Charging of BEVs. 2020 IEEE 23rd International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC). :1–7.

The increased power capacity and networking requirements in Extremely Fast Charging (XFC) systems for battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and the resulting increase in the adversarial attack surface call for security measures to be taken in the involved cyber-physical system (CPS). Within this system, the security of the BEV's battery management system (BMS) is of critical importance as the BMS is the first line of defense between the vehicle and the charge station. This study proposes an optimal control and moving-target defense (MTD) based novel approach for the security of the vehicle BMS) focusing on the charging process, during which a compromised vehicle may contaminate the XFC station and the whole grid. This paper is part of our ongoing research, which is one of the few, if not the first, reported studies in the literature on security-hardened BMS, aiming to increase the security and performance of operations between the charging station, the BMS and the battery system of electric vehicles. The developed MTD based switching strategy makes use of redundancies in the controller and feedback design. The performed simulations demonstrate an increased unpredictability and acceptable charging performance under adversarial attacks.

Ravikumar, Gelli, Hyder, Burhan, Govindarasu, Manimaran.  2020.  Efficient Modeling of IEC-61850 Logical Nodes in IEDs for Scalability in CPS Security Testbed. 2020 IEEE/PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition (T D). :1–5.

Though the deep penetration of cyber systems across the smart grid sub-domains enrich the operation of the wide-area protection, control, and smart grid applications, the stochastic nature of cyber-attacks by adversaries inflict their performance and the system operation. Various hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) cyber-physical system (CPS) testbeds have attempted to evaluate the cyberattack dynamics and power system perturbations for robust wide-area protection algorithms. However, physical resource constraints and modular integration designs have been significant barriers while modeling large-scale grid models (scalability) and have limited many of the CPS testbeds to either small-scale HIL environment or complete simulation environments. This paper proposes a meticulous design and efficient modeling of IEC-61850 logical nodes in physical relays to simulate large-scale grid models in a HIL real-time digital simulator environment integrated with industry-grade hardware and software systems for wide-area power system applications. The proposed meticulous design includes multi-breaker emulation in the physical relays, which extends the capacity of a physical relay to accommodate more number of CPS interfaces in the HIL CPS security testbed environment. We have used our existing HIL CPS security testbed to demonstrate scalability by the real-time performance of ten simultaneous IEEE-39 CPS grid models. The experiments demonstrated significant results by 100% real-time performance with zero overruns, and low latency while receiving and executing control signals from physical SEL relays via IEC-61850 and DNP-3 protocols to real-time digital simulator, substation remote terminal unit (RTU) software and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) software at control center.

Tahsini, A., Dunstatter, N., Guirguis, M., Ahmed, C. M..  2020.  DeepBLOC: A Framework for Securing CPS through Deep Reinforcement Learning on Stochastic Games. 2020 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1–9.

One important aspect in protecting Cyber Physical System (CPS) is ensuring that the proper control and measurement signals are propagated within the control loop. The CPS research community has been developing a large set of check blocks that can be integrated within the control loop to check signals against various types of attacks (e.g., false data injection attacks). Unfortunately, it is not possible to integrate all these “checks” within the control loop as the overhead introduced when checking signals may violate the delay constraints of the control loop. Moreover, these blocks do not completely operate in isolation of each other as dependencies exist among them in terms of their effectiveness against detecting a subset of attacks. Thus, it becomes a challenging and complex problem to assign the proper checks, especially with the presence of a rational adversary who can observe the check blocks assigned and optimizes her own attack strategies accordingly. This paper tackles the inherent state-action space explosion that arises in securing CPS through developing DeepBLOC (DB)-a framework in which Deep Reinforcement Learning algorithms are utilized to provide optimal/sub-optimal assignments of check blocks to signals. The framework models stochastic games between the adversary and the CPS defender and derives mixed strategies for assigning check blocks to ensure the integrity of the propagated signals while abiding to the real-time constraints dictated by the control loop. Through extensive simulation experiments and a real implementation on a water purification system, we show that DB achieves assignment strategies that outperform other strategies and heuristics.