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Colbaugh, R., Glass, K., Bauer, T..  2013.  Dynamic information-theoretic measures for security informatics. 2013 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics. :45–49.
Many important security informatics problems require consideration of dynamical phenomena for their solution; examples include predicting the behavior of individuals in social networks and distinguishing malicious and innocent computer network activities based on activity traces. While information theory offers powerful tools for analyzing dynamical processes, to date the application of information-theoretic methods in security domains has focused on static analyses (e.g., cryptography, natural language processing). This paper leverages information-theoretic concepts and measures to quantify the similarity of pairs of stochastic dynamical systems, and shows that this capability can be used to solve important problems which arise in security applications. We begin by presenting a concise review of the information theory required for our development, and then address two challenging tasks: 1.) characterizing the way influence propagates through social networks, and 2.) distinguishing malware from legitimate software based on the instruction sequences of the disassembled programs. In each application, case studies involving real-world datasets demonstrate that the proposed techniques outperform standard methods.
Bouzar-Benlabiod, L., Rubin, S. H., Belaidi, K., Haddar, N. E..  2020.  RNN-VED for Reducing False Positive Alerts in Host-based Anomaly Detection Systems. 2020 IEEE 21st International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration for Data Science (IRI). :17–24.
Host-based Intrusion Detection Systems HIDS are often based on anomaly detection. Several studies deal with anomaly detection by analyzing the system-call traces and get good detection rates but also a high rate off alse positives. In this paper, we propose a new anomaly detection approach applied on the system-call traces. The normal behavior learning is done using a Sequence to sequence model based on a Variational Encoder-Decoder (VED) architecture that integrates Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) cells. We exploit the semantics behind the invoking order of system-calls that are then seen as sentences. A preprocessing phase is added to structure and optimize the model input-data representation. After the learning step, a one-class classification is run to categorize the sequences as normal or abnormal. The architecture may be used for predicting abnormal behaviors. The tests are achieved on the ADFA-LD dataset.
Chauhan, R., Heydari, S. Shah.  2020.  Polymorphic Adversarial DDoS attack on IDS using GAN. 2020 International Symposium on Networks, Computers and Communications (ISNCC). :1–6.
Intrusion Detection systems are important tools in preventing malicious traffic from penetrating into networks and systems. Recently, Intrusion Detection Systems are rapidly enhancing their detection capabilities using machine learning algorithms. However, these algorithms are vulnerable to new unknown types of attacks that can evade machine learning IDS. In particular, they may be vulnerable to attacks based on Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN). GANs have been widely used in domains such as image processing, natural language processing to generate adversarial data of different types such as graphics, videos, texts, etc. We propose a model using GAN to generate adversarial DDoS attacks that can change the attack profile and can be undetected. Our simulation results indicate that by continuous changing of attack profile, defensive systems that use incremental learning will still be vulnerable to new attacks.
Bi, X., Liu, X..  2020.  Chinese Character Captcha Sequential Selection System Based on Convolutional Neural Network. 2020 International Conference on Computer Vision, Image and Deep Learning (CVIDL). :554—559.

To ensure security, Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart (CAPTCHA) is widely used in people's online lives. This paper presents a Chinese character captcha sequential selection system based on convolutional neural network (CNN). Captchas composed of English and digits can already be identified with extremely high accuracy, but Chinese character captcha recognition is still challenging. The task we need to complete is to identify Chinese characters with different colors and different fonts that are not on a straight line with rotation and affine transformation on pictures with complex backgrounds, and then perform word order restoration on the identified Chinese characters. We divide the task into several sub-processes: Chinese character detection based on Faster R-CNN, Chinese character recognition and word order recovery based on N-Gram. In the Chinese character recognition sub-process, we have made outstanding contributions. We constructed a single Chinese character data set and built a 10-layer convolutional neural network. Eventually we achieved an accuracy of 98.43%, and completed the task perfectly.

Hirlekar, V. V., Kumar, A..  2020.  Natural Language Processing based Online Fake News Detection Challenges – A Detailed Review. 2020 5th International Conference on Communication and Electronics Systems (ICCES). :748–754.
Online social media plays an important role during real world events such as natural calamities, elections, social movements etc. Since the social media usage has increased, fake news has grown. The social media is often used by modifying true news or creating fake news to spread misinformation. The creation and distribution of fake news poses major threats in several respects from a national security point of view. Hence Fake news identification becomes an essential goal for enhancing the trustworthiness of the information shared on online social network. Over the period of time many researcher has used different methods, algorithms, tools and techniques to identify fake news content from online social networks. The aim of this paper is to review and examine these methodologies, different tools, browser extensions and analyze the degree of output in question. In addition, this paper discuss the general approach of fake news detection as well as taxonomy of feature extraction which plays an important role to achieve maximum accuracy with the help of different Machine Learning and Natural Language Processing algorithms.
Koda, S., Kambara, Y., Oikawa, T., Furukawa, K., Unno, Y., Murakami, M..  2020.  Anomalous IP Address Detection on Traffic Logs Using Novel Word Embedding. 2020 IEEE 44th Annual Computers, Software, and Applications Conference (COMPSAC). :1504–1509.
This paper presents an anomalous IP address detection algorithm for network traffic logs. It is based on word embedding techniques derived from natural language processing to extract the representative features of IP addresses. However, the features extracted from vanilla word embeddings are not always compatible with machine learning-based anomaly detection algorithms. Therefore, we developed an algorithm that enables the extraction of more compatible features of IP addresses for anomaly detection than conventional methods. The proposed algorithm optimizes the objective functions of word embedding-based feature extraction and anomaly detection, simultaneously. According to the experimental results, the proposed algorithm outperformed conventional approaches; it improved the detection performance from 0.876 to 0.990 in the area under the curve criterion in a task of detecting the IP addresses of attackers from network traffic logs.
Bhagat, V., J, B. R..  2020.  Natural Language Processing on Diverse Data Layers Through Microservice Architecture. 2020 IEEE International Conference for Innovation in Technology (INOCON). :1–6.
With the rapid growth in Natural Language Processing (NLP), all types of industries find a need for analyzing a massive amount of data. Sentiment analysis is becoming a more exciting area for the businessmen and researchers in Text mining & NLP. This process includes the calculation of various sentiments with the help of text mining. Supplementary to this, the world is connected through Information Technology and, businesses are moving toward the next step of the development to make their system more intelligent. Microservices have fulfilled the need for development platforms which help the developers to use various development tools (Languages and applications) efficiently. With the consideration of data analysis for business growth, data security becomes a major concern in front of developers. This paper gives a solution to keep the data secured by providing required access to data scientists without disturbing the base system software. This paper has discussed data storage and exchange policies of microservices through common JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) response which performs the sentiment analysis of customer's data fetched from various microservices through secured APIs.
Si, Y., Zhou, W., Gai, J..  2020.  Research and Implementation of Data Extraction Method Based on NLP. 2020 IEEE 14th International Conference on Anti-counterfeiting, Security, and Identification (ASID). :11–15.
In order to accurately extract the data from unstructured Chinese text, this paper proposes a rule-based method based on natural language processing and regular expression. This method makes use of the language expression rules of the data in the text and other related knowledge to form the feature word lists and rule template to match the text. Experimental results show that the accuracy of the designed algorithm is 94.09%.
Alzahrani, A., Feki, J..  2020.  Toward a Natural Language-Based Approach for the Specification of Decisional-Users Requirements. 2020 3rd International Conference on Computer Applications Information Security (ICCAIS). :1–6.
The number of organizations adopting the Data Warehouse (DW) technology along with data analytics in order to improve the effectiveness of their decision-making processes is permanently increasing. Despite the efforts invested, the DW design remains a great challenge research domain. More accurately, the design quality of the DW depends on several aspects; among them, the requirement-gathering phase is a critical and complex task. In this context, we propose a Natural language (NL) NL-template based design approach, which is twofold; firstly, it facilitates the involvement of decision-makers in the early step of the DW design; indeed, using NL is a good and natural means to encourage the decision-makers to express their requirements as query-like English sentences. Secondly, our approach aims to generate a DW multidimensional schema from a set of gathered requirements (as OLAP: On-Line-Analytical-Processing queries, written according to the NL suggested templates). This approach articulates around: (i) two NL-templates for specifying multidimensional components, and (ii) a set of five heuristic rules for extracting the multidimensional concepts from requirements. Really, we are developing a software prototype that accepts the decision-makers' requirements then automatically identifies the multidimensional components of the DW model.
Martinelli, F., Marulli, F., Mercaldo, F., Marrone, S., Santone, A..  2020.  Enhanced Privacy and Data Protection using Natural Language Processing and Artificial Intelligence. 2020 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN). :1–8.

Artificial Intelligence systems have enabled significant benefits for users and society, but whilst the data for their feeding are always increasing, a side to privacy and security leaks is offered. The severe vulnerabilities to the right to privacy obliged governments to enact specific regulations to ensure privacy preservation in any kind of transaction involving sensitive information. In the case of digital and/or physical documents comprising sensitive information, the right to privacy can be preserved by data obfuscation procedures. The capability of recognizing sensitive information for obfuscation is typically entrusted to the experience of human experts, who are over-whelmed by the ever increasing amount of documents to process. Artificial intelligence could proficiently mitigate the effort of the human officers and speed up processes. Anyway, until enough knowledge won't be available in a machine readable format, automatic and effectively working systems can't be developed. In this work we propose a methodology for transferring and leveraging general knowledge across specific-domain tasks. We built, from scratch, specific-domain knowledge data sets, for training artificial intelligence models supporting human experts in privacy preserving tasks. We exploited a mixture of natural language processing techniques applied to unlabeled domain-specific documents corpora for automatically obtain labeled documents, where sensitive information are recognized and tagged. We performed preliminary tests just over 10.000 documents from the healthcare and justice domains. Human experts supported us during the validation. Results we obtained, estimated in terms of precision, recall and F1-score metrics across these two domains, were promising and encouraged us to further investigations.

Rivera, S., Fei, Z., Griffioen, J..  2020.  POLANCO: Enforcing Natural Language Network Policies. 2020 29th International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN). :1–9.
Network policies govern the use of an institution's networks, and are usually written in a high-level human-readable natural language. Normally these policies are enforced by low-level, technically detailed network configurations. The translation from network policies into network configurations is a tedious, manual and error-prone process. To address this issue, we propose a new intermediate language called POlicy LANguage for Campus Operations (POLANCO), which is a human-readable network policy definition language intended to approximate natural language. Because POLANCO is a high-level language, the translation from natural language policies to POLANCO is straightforward. Despite being a high-level human readable language, POLANCO can be used to express network policies in a technically precise way so that policies written in POLANCO can be automatically translated into a set of software defined networking (SDN) rules and actions that enforce the policies. Moreover, POLANCO is capable of incorporating information about the current network state, reacting to changes in the network and adjusting SDN rules to ensure network policies continue to be enforced correctly. We present policy examples found on various public university websites and show how they can be written as simplified human-readable statements using POLANCO and how they can be automatically translated into SDN rules that correctly enforce these policies.
Eftimie, S., Moinescu, R., Rǎcuciu, C..  2020.  Insider Threat Detection Using Natural Language Processing and Personality Profiles. 2020 13th International Conference on Communications (COMM). :325–330.
This work represents an interdisciplinary effort to proactively identify insider threats, using natural language processing and personality profiles. Profiles were developed for the relevant insider threat types using the five-factor model of personality and were used in a proof-of-concept detection system. The system employs a third-party cloud service that uses natural language processing to analyze personality profiles based on personal content. In the end, an assessment was made over the feasibility of the system using a public dataset.
[Anonymous].  Submitted.  Natural Language Processing Characterization of Recurring Calls in Public Security Services.
Extracting knowledge from unstructured data silos, a legacy of old applications, is mandatory for improving the governance of today's cities and fostering the creation of smart cities. Texts in natural language often compose such data. Nevertheless, the inference of useful information from a linguistic-computational analysis of natural language data is an open challenge. In this paper, we propose a clustering method to analyze textual data employing the unsupervised machine learning algorithms k-means and hierarchical clustering. We assess different vector representation methods for text, similarity metrics, and the number of clusters that best matches the data. We evaluate the methods using a real database of a public record service of security occurrences. The results show that the k-means algorithm using Euclidean distance extracts non-trivial knowledge, reaching up to 93% accuracy in a set of test samples while identifying the 12 most prevalent occurrence patterns.
Lansley, M., Kapetanakis, S., Polatidis, N..  2020.  SEADer++ v2: Detecting Social Engineering Attacks using Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning. 2020 International Conference on INnovations in Intelligent SysTems and Applications (INISTA). :1–6.
Social engineering attacks are well known attacks in the cyberspace and relatively easy to try and implement because no technical knowledge is required. In various online environments such as business domains where customers talk through a chat service with employees or in social networks potential hackers can try to manipulate other people by employing social attacks against them to gain information that will benefit them in future attacks. Thus, we have used a number of natural language processing steps and a machine learning algorithm to identify potential attacks. The proposed method has been tested on a semi-synthetic dataset and it is shown to be both practical and effective.
Zhang, J..  2020.  DeepMal: A CNN-LSTM Model for Malware Detection Based on Dynamic Semantic Behaviours. 2020 International Conference on Computer Information and Big Data Applications (CIBDA). :313–316.
Malware refers to any software accessing or being installed in a system without the authorisation of administrators. Various malware has been widely used for cyber-criminals to accomplish their evil intentions and goals. To combat the increasing amount and reduce the threat of malicious programs, a novel deep learning framework, which uses NLP techniques for reference, combines CNN and LSTM neurones to capture the locally spatial correlations and learn from sequential longterm dependency is proposed. Hence, high-level abstractions and representations are automatically extracted for the malware classification task. The classification accuracy improves from 0.81 (best one by Random Forest) to approximately 1.0.
Wu, L., Chen, X., Meng, L., Meng, X..  2020.  Multitask Adversarial Learning for Chinese Font Style Transfer. 2020 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN). :1–8.
Style transfer between Chinese fonts is challenging due to both the complexity of Chinese characters and the significant difference between fonts. Existing algorithms for this task typically learn a mapping between the reference and target fonts for each character. Subsequently, this mapping is used to generate the characters that do not exist in the target font. However, the characters available for training are unlikely to cover all fine-grained parts of the missing characters, leading to the overfitting problem. As a result, the generated characters of the target font may suffer problems of incomplete or even radicals and dirty dots. To address this problem, this paper presents a multi-task adversarial learning approach, termed MTfontGAN, to generate more vivid Chinese characters. MTfontGAN learns to transfer a reference font to multiple target ones simultaneously. An alignment is imposed on the encoders of different tasks to make them focus on the important parts of the characters in general style transfer. Such cross-task interactions at the feature level effectively improve the generalization capability of MTfontGAN. The performance of MTfontGAN is evaluated on three Chinese font datasets. Experimental results show that MTfontGAN outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms in a single-task setting. More importantly, increasing the number of tasks leads to better performance in all of them.
He, H. Y., Yang, Z. Guo, Chen, X. N..  2020.  PERT: Payload Encoding Representation from Transformer for Encrypted Traffic Classification. 2020 ITU Kaleidoscope: Industry-Driven Digital Transformation (ITU K). :1—8.

Traffic identification becomes more important yet more challenging as related encryption techniques are rapidly developing nowadays. In difference to recent deep learning methods that apply image processing to solve such encrypted traffic problems, in this paper, we propose a method named Payload Encoding Representation from Transformer (PERT) to perform automatic traffic feature extraction using a state-of-the-art dynamic word embedding technique. Based on this, we further provide a traffic classification framework in which unlabeled traffic is utilized to pre-train an encoding network that learns the contextual distribution of traffic payload bytes. Then, the downward classification reuses the pre-trained network to obtain an enhanced classification result. By implementing experiments on a public encrypted traffic data set and our captured Android HTTPS traffic, we prove the proposed method can achieve an obvious better effectiveness than other compared baselines. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time the encrypted traffic classification with the dynamic word embedding alone with its pre-training strategy has been addressed.

Dabas, K., Madaan, N., Arya, V., Mehta, S., Chakraborty, T., Singh, G..  2019.  Fair Transfer of Multiple Style Attributes in Text. 2019 Grace Hopper Celebration India (GHCI). :1—5.

To preserve anonymity and obfuscate their identity on online platforms users may morph their text and portray themselves as a different gender or demographic. Similarly, a chatbot may need to customize its communication style to improve engagement with its audience. This manner of changing the style of written text has gained significant attention in recent years. Yet these past research works largely cater to the transfer of single style attributes. The disadvantage of focusing on a single style alone is that this often results in target text where other existing style attributes behave unpredictably or are unfairly dominated by the new style. To counteract this behavior, it would be nice to have a style transfer mechanism that can transfer or control multiple styles simultaneously and fairly. Through such an approach, one could obtain obfuscated or written text incorporated with a desired degree of multiple soft styles such as female-quality, politeness, or formalness. To the best of our knowledge this work is the first that shows and attempt to solve the issues related to multiple style transfer. We also demonstrate that the transfer of multiple styles cannot be achieved by sequentially performing multiple single-style transfers. This is because each single style-transfer step often reverses or dominates over the style incorporated by a previous transfer step. We then propose a neural network architecture for fairly transferring multiple style attributes in a given text. We test our architecture on the Yelp dataset to demonstrate our superior performance as compared to existing one-style transfer steps performed in a sequence.

Han, H., Wang, Q., Chen, C..  2019.  Policy Text Analysis Based on Text Mining and Fuzzy Cognitive Map. 2019 15th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Security (CIS). :142—146.
With the introduction of computer methods, the amount of material and processing accuracy of policy text analysis have been greatly improved. In this paper, Text mining(TM) and latent semantic analysis(LSA) were used to collect policy documents and extract policy elements from them. Fuzzy association rule mining(FARM) technique and partial association test (PA) were used to discover the causal relationships and impact degrees between elements, and a fuzzy cognitive map (FCM) was developed to deduct the evolution of elements through a soft computing method. This non-interventionist approach avoids the validity defects caused by the subjective bias of researchers and provides policy makers with more objective policy suggestions from a neutral perspective. To illustrate the accuracy of this method, this study experimented by taking the state-owned capital layout adjustment related policies as an example, and proved that this method can effectively analyze policy text.
Su, Jinsong, Zeng, Jiali, Xiong, Deyi, Liu, Yang, Wang, Mingxuan, Xie, Jun.  2018.  A Hierarchy-to-Sequence Attentional Neural Machine Translation Model. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing. 26:623—632.

Although sequence-to-sequence attentional neural machine translation (NMT) has achieved great progress recently, it is confronted with two challenges: learning optimal model parameters for long parallel sentences and well exploiting different scopes of contexts. In this paper, partially inspired by the idea of segmenting a long sentence into short clauses, each of which can be easily translated by NMT, we propose a hierarchy-to-sequence attentional NMT model to handle these two challenges. Our encoder takes the segmented clause sequence as input and explores a hierarchical neural network structure to model words, clauses, and sentences at different levels, particularly with two layers of recurrent neural networks modeling semantic compositionality at the word and clause level. Correspondingly, the decoder sequentially translates segmented clauses and simultaneously applies two types of attention models to capture contexts of interclause and intraclause for translation prediction. In this way, we can not only improve parameter learning, but also well explore different scopes of contexts for translation. Experimental results on Chinese-English and English-German translation demonstrate the superiorities of the proposed model over the conventional NMT model.

Liu, Donglei, Niu, Zhendong, Zhang, Chunxia, Zhang, Jiadi.  2019.  Multi-Scale Deformable CNN for Answer Selection. IEEE Access. 7:164986—164995.

The answer selection task is one of the most important issues within the automatic question answering system, and it aims to automatically find accurate answers to questions. Traditional methods for this task use manually generated features based on tf-idf and n-gram models to represent texts, and then select the right answers according to the similarity between the representations of questions and the candidate answers. Nowadays, many question answering systems adopt deep neural networks such as convolutional neural network (CNN) to generate the text features automatically, and obtained better performance than traditional methods. CNN can extract consecutive n-gram features with fixed length by sliding fixed-length convolutional kernels over the whole word sequence. However, due to the complex semantic compositionality of the natural language, there are many phrases with variable lengths and be composed of non-consecutive words in natural language, such as these phrases whose constituents are separated by other words within the same sentences. But the traditional CNN is unable to extract the variable length n-gram features and non-consecutive n-gram features. In this paper, we propose a multi-scale deformable convolutional neural network to capture the non-consecutive n-gram features by adding offset to the convolutional kernel, and also propose to stack multiple deformable convolutional layers to mine multi-scale n-gram features by the means of generating longer n-gram in higher layer. Furthermore, we apply the proposed model into the task of answer selection. Experimental results on public dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed model in answer selection.

Perry, Lior, Shapira, Bracha, Puzis, Rami.  2019.  NO-DOUBT: Attack Attribution Based On Threat Intelligence Reports. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics (ISI). :80—85.

The task of attack attribution, i.e., identifying the entity responsible for an attack, is complicated and usually requires the involvement of an experienced security expert. Prior attempts to automate attack attribution apply various machine learning techniques on features extracted from the malware's code and behavior in order to identify other similar malware whose authors are known. However, the same malware can be reused by multiple actors, and the actor who performed an attack using a malware might differ from the malware's author. Moreover, information collected during an incident may contain many clues about the identity of the attacker in addition to the malware used. In this paper, we propose a method of attack attribution based on textual analysis of threat intelligence reports, using state of the art algorithms and models from the fields of machine learning and natural language processing (NLP). We have developed a new text representation algorithm which captures the context of the words and requires minimal feature engineering. Our approach relies on vector space representation of incident reports derived from a small collection of labeled reports and a large corpus of general security literature. Both datasets have been made available to the research community. Experimental results show that the proposed representation can attribute attacks more accurately than the baselines' representations. In addition, we show how the proposed approach can be used to identify novel previously unseen threat actors and identify similarities between known threat actors.

Traylor, Terry, Straub, Jeremy, Gurmeet, Snell, Nicholas.  2019.  Classifying Fake News Articles Using Natural Language Processing to Identify In-Article Attribution as a Supervised Learning Estimator. 2019 IEEE 13th International Conference on Semantic Computing (ICSC). :445—449.

Intentionally deceptive content presented under the guise of legitimate journalism is a worldwide information accuracy and integrity problem that affects opinion forming, decision making, and voting patterns. Most so-called `fake news' is initially distributed over social media conduits like Facebook and Twitter and later finds its way onto mainstream media platforms such as traditional television and radio news. The fake news stories that are initially seeded over social media platforms share key linguistic characteristics such as making excessive use of unsubstantiated hyperbole and non-attributed quoted content. In this paper, the results of a fake news identification study that documents the performance of a fake news classifier are presented. The Textblob, Natural Language, and SciPy Toolkits were used to develop a novel fake news detector that uses quoted attribution in a Bayesian machine learning system as a key feature to estimate the likelihood that a news article is fake. The resultant process precision is 63.333% effective at assessing the likelihood that an article with quotes is fake. This process is called influence mining and this novel technique is presented as a method that can be used to enable fake news and even propaganda detection. In this paper, the research process, technical analysis, technical linguistics work, and classifier performance and results are presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of how the current system will evolve into an influence mining system.

Khomytska, Iryna, Teslyuk, Vasyl.  2019.  Mathematical Methods Applied for Authorship Attribution on the Phonological Level. 2019 IEEE 14th International Conference on Computer Sciences and Information Technologies (CSIT). 3:7—11.

The proposed combination of statistical methods has proved efficient for authorship attribution. The complex analysis method based on the proposed combination of statistical methods has made it possible to minimize the number of phoneme groups by which the authorial differentiation of texts has been done.

Jafariakinabad, Fereshteh, Hua, Kien A..  2019.  Style-Aware Neural Model with Application in Authorship Attribution. 2019 18th IEEE International Conference On Machine Learning And Applications (ICMLA). :325—328.

Writing style is a combination of consistent decisions associated with a specific author at different levels of language production, including lexical, syntactic, and structural. In this paper, we introduce a style-aware neural model to encode document information from three stylistic levels and evaluate it in the domain of authorship attribution. First, we propose a simple way to jointly encode syntactic and lexical representations of sentences. Subsequently, we employ an attention-based hierarchical neural network to encode the syntactic and semantic structure of sentences in documents while rewarding the sentences which contribute more to capturing the writing style. Our experimental results, based on four benchmark datasets, reveal the benefits of encoding document information from all three stylistic levels when compared to the baseline methods in the literature.