Visible to the public Biblio

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2021-04-08
Vyetrenko, S., Khosla, A., Ho, T..  2009.  On combining information-theoretic and cryptographic approaches to network coding security against the pollution attack. 2009 Conference Record of the Forty-Third Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers. :788–792.
In this paper we consider the pollution attack in network coded systems where network nodes are computationally limited. We consider the combined use of cryptographic signature based security and information theoretic network error correction and propose a fountain-like network error correction code construction suitable for this purpose.
2021-02-23
Zheng, L., Jiang, J., Pan, W., Liu, H..  2020.  High-Performance and Range-Supported Packet Classification Algorithm for Network Security Systems in SDN. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC Workshops). :1—6.
Packet classification is a key function in network security systems in SDN, which detect potential threats by matching the packet header bits and a given rule set. It needs to support multi-dimensional fields, large rule sets, and high throughput. Bit Vector-based packet classification methods can support multi-field matching and achieve a very high throughput, However, the range matching is still challenging. To address issue, this paper proposes a Range Supported Bit Vector (RSBV) algorithm for processing the range fields. RSBV uses specially designed codes to store the pre-computed results in memory, and the result of range matching is derived through pipelined Boolean operations. Through a two-dimensional modular architecture, the RSBV can operate at a high clock frequency and line-rate processing can be guaranteed. Experimental results show that for a 1K and 512-bit OpenFlow rule set, the RSBV can sustain a throughput of 520 Million Packets Per Second.
Djordjevic, I. B..  2020.  Surface Codes Based Quantum Networking. 2020 22nd International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON). :1—5.
We propose a multipartite quantum communication network (QCN) based on surface codes (SCs). We describe how simultaneously to entangle multiple nodes in an arbitrary network topology by employing the SCs. We further describe how to extend the transmission distance between arbitrary two nodes by using the SCs as well. Finally, we describe how to operate the proposed QCN by employing the SDN concept.
Kaur, S., Singh, S..  2020.  Highly Secured all Optical DIM Codes using AND Gate. 2020 Indo – Taiwan 2nd International Conference on Computing, Analytics and Networks (Indo-Taiwan ICAN). :64—68.
Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) is an inevitable innovation to cope up with the impediments of regularly expanding information traffic and numerous user accesses in optical systems. In Spectral Amplitude Coding (SAC)-OCDMA systems cross correlation and Multiple Access Interference (MAI) are utmost concerns. For eliminating the cross correlation, reducing the MAI and to enhance the security, in this work, all optical Diagonal Identity Matrices codes (DIM) with Zero Cross-Correlation (ZCC) and optical gating are presented. Chip rate of the proposed work is 0.03 ns and total 60 users are considered with semiconductor optical amplifier based AND operation. Effects of optical gating are analyzed in the presence/absence of eavesdropper in terms of Q factor and received extinction ratio. Proposed system has advantages for service provider because this is mapping free technique and can be easily designed for large number of users.
Wang, L., Guo, D..  2020.  Secure Communication Based on Reliability-Based Hybrid ARQ and LDPC Codes. 2020 Prognostics and Health Management Conference (PHM-Besançon). :304—308.
This paper designs a re-transmission strategy to intensify the security of communication over the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) wire-tap channel. In this scheme, irregular low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes work with reliability-based hybrid automatic repeat-request (RB-HARQ). For irregular LDPC codes, the variable nodes have different degrees, which means miscellaneous protection for the nodes. In RB-HARQ protocol, the legitimate receiver calls for re-transmissions including the most unreliable bits at decoder's outputting. The bits' reliability can be evaluated by the average magnitude of a posteriori probability log-likelihood ratios (APP LLRs). Specifically, this scheme utilizes the bit-error rate (BER) to assess the secrecy performance. Besides, the paper gives close analyses of BER through theoretical arguments and simulations. Results of numerical example demonstrate that RB-HARQ protocol with irregular LDPC codes can hugely reinforce the security performance of the communication system.
Xie, L. F., Ho, I. W., Situ, Z., Li, P..  2020.  The Impact of CFO on OFDM based Physical-layer Network Coding with QPSK Modulation. 2020 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC). :1—6.
This paper studies Physical-layer Network Coding (PNC) in a two-way relay channel (TWRC) operated based on OFDM and QPSK modulation but with the presence of carrier frequency offset (CFO). CFO, induced by node motion and/or oscillator mismatch, causes inter-carrier interference (ICI) that impairs received signals in PNC. Our ultimate goal is to empower the relay in TWRC to decode network-coded information of the end users at a low bit error rate (BER) under CFO, as it is impossible to eliminate the CFO of both end users. For that, we first put forth two signal detection and channel decoding schemes at the relay in PNC. For signal detection, both schemes exploit the signal structure introduced by ICI, but they aim for different output, thus differing in the subsequent channel decoding. We then consider CFO compensation that adjusts the CFO values of the end nodes simultaneously and find that an optimal choice is to yield opposite CFO values in PNC. Particularly, we reveal that pilot insertion could play an important role against the CFO effect, indicating that we may trade more pilots for not just a better channel estimation but also a lower BER at the relay in PNC. With our proposed measures, we conduct simulation using repeat-accumulate (RA) codes and QPSK modulation to show that PNC can achieve a BER at the relay comparable to that of point-to-point transmissions for low to medium CFO levels.
Xia, H., Gao, N., Peng, J., Mo, J., Wang, J..  2020.  Binarized Attributed Network Embedding via Neural Networks. 2020 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN). :1—8.
Traditional attributed network embedding methods are designed to map structural and attribute information of networks jointly into a continuous Euclidean space, while recently a novel branch of them named binarized attributed network embedding has emerged to learn binary codes in Hamming space, aiming to save time and memory costs and to naturally fit node retrieval task. However, current binarized attributed network embedding methods are scarce and mostly ignore the local attribute similarity between each pair of nodes. Besides, none of them attempt to control the independency of each dimension(bit) of the learned binary representation vectors. As existing methods still need improving, we propose an unsupervised Neural-based Binarized Attributed Network Embedding (NBANE) approach. Firstly, we inherit the Weisfeiler-Lehman proximity matrix from predecessors to aggregate high-order features for each node. Secondly, we feed the aggregated features into an autoencoder with the attribute similarity penalizing term and the orthogonality term to make further dimension reduction. To solve the problem of integer optimization we adopt the relaxation-quantization method during the process of training neural networks. Empirically, we evaluate the performance of NBANE through node classification and clustering tasks on three real-world datasets and study a case on fast retrieval in academic networks. Our method achieves better performance over state- of-the-art baselines methods of various types.
Kabatiansky, G., Egorova, E..  2020.  Adversarial multiple access channels and a new model of multimedia fingerprinting coding. 2020 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1—5.

We consider different models of malicious multiple access channels, especially for binary adder channel and for A-channel, and show how they can be used for the reformulation of digital fingerprinting coding problems. In particular, we propose a new model of multimedia fingerprinting coding. In the new model, not only zeroes and plus/minus ones but arbitrary coefficients of linear combinations of noise-like signals for forming watermarks (digital fingerprints) can be used. This modification allows dramatically increase the possible number of users with the property that if t or less malicious users create a forge digital fingerprint then a dealer of the system can find all of them with zero-error probability. We show how arisen problems are related to the compressed sensing problem.

Kamal, A., Dahshan, H., Elbayoumy, A. D..  2020.  A New Homomorphic Message Authentication Code Scheme for Network Coding. 2020 3rd International Conference on Information and Computer Technologies (ICICT). :520—524.
Network coding (NC) can significantly increase network performance and make lossy networks more reliable. Since the middle nodes modify the packets during their path to destination, integrity of the original packets cannot be checked using classical methods (MACs, Signatures, etc). Though, pollution attacks are the most common threat to network coded systems, where an infected node can inject the data flow of a network with a number of false packets and ban the receiver from properly decoding the packets. A lot of work in the security of NC in resisting pollution attacks has been investigated in recent years, majority have the same security parameter 1/q. A Homomorphic MAC scheme is presented earlier to resist pollution attacks with a security level 1/qˆl, In this paper, we will show that the mentioned scheme is subject to known-plaintext attacks. This is due to that part of the key can be revealed in an initial process. Also, the whole key could be revealed if the key is used more than once. Then, a modification to the mentioned scheme is proposed to overcome this issue. Besides, the MAC length is adjustable according to the required security level and not variable according to the vector's length which will accordingly increase the performance and efficiency of the scheme.
Adat, V., Parsamehr, R., Politis, I., Tselios, C., Kotsopoulos, S..  2020.  Malicious user identification scheme for network coding enabled small cell environment. ICC 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1—6.
Reliable communication over the wireless network with high throughput is a major target for the next generation communication technologies. Network coding can significantly improve the throughput efficiency of the network in a cooperative environment. The small cell technology and device to device communication make network coding an ideal candidate for improved performance in the fifth generation of communication networks. However, the security concerns associated with network coding needs to be addressed before any practical implementations. Pollution attacks are considered one of the most threatening attacks in the network coding environment. Although there are different integrity schemes to detect polluted packets, identifying the exact adversary in a network coding environment is a less addressed challenge. This paper proposes a scheme for identifying and locating adversaries in a dense, network coding enabled environment of mobile nodes. It also discusses a non-repudiation protocol that will prevent adversaries from deceiving the network.
Savva, G., Manousakis, K., Ellinas, G..  2020.  Providing Confidentiality in Optical Networks: Metaheuristic Techniques for the Joint Network Coding-Routing and Spectrum Allocation Problem. 2020 22nd International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON). :1—4.
In this work, novel metaheuristic algorithms are proposed to address the network coding (NC)-based routing and spectrum allocation (RSA) problem in elastic optical networks, aiming to increase the level of security against eavesdropping attacks for the network's confidential connections. A modified simulated annealing, a genetic algorithm, as well as a combination of the two techniques are examined in terms of confidentiality and spectrum utilization. Performance results demonstrate that using metaheuristic techniques can improve the performance of NC-based RSA algorithms and thus can be utilized in real-world network scenarios.
2020-12-15
Ong, L., Vellambi, B. N..  2020.  Secure Network and Index Coding Equivalence: The Last Piece of the Puzzle. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT). :1735—1740.

An equivalence was shown between network coding and index coding. The equivalence allows for a network code for any given network-coding instance to be translated to an index code for a suitably constructed index-coding instance, and vice versa. The equivalence also holds for the opposite direction. A secure version of the equivalence in the presence of eavesdroppers was proven for the case where there is no decoding error and no information leakage to the eavesdroppers. For the case of non-zero decoding error and non-zero leakage, three out of the four directions required for an equivalence were proven. This paper proves the last direction, thereby completing the equivalence between secure network coding and secure index coding.

Li, C., He, J., Liu, S., Guo, D., Song, L..  2020.  On Secrecy Key of a class of Secure Asymmetric Multilevel Diversity Coding System. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT). :879—883.
With the explosive development of big data, it is necessary to sort the data according to their importance or priorities. The sources with different importance levels can be modeled by the multilevel diversity coding systems (MDCS). Another trend in future communication networks, say 5G wireless networks and Internet of Things, is that users may obtain their data from all available sources, even from devices belonging to other users. Then, the privacy of data becomes a crucial issue. In a recent work by Li et al., the secure asymmetric MDCS (S-AMDCS) with wiretap channels was investigated, where the wiretapped messages do not leak any information about the sources (i.e. perfect secrecy). It was shown that superposition (source-separate coding) is not optimal for the general S-AMDCS and the exact full secure rate region was proved for a class of S-AMDCS. In addition, a bound on the key size of the secure rate region was provided as well. As a further step on the SAMDCS problem, this paper mainly focuses on the key size characterization. Specifically, the constraints on the key size of superposition secure rate region are proved and a counterexample is found to show that the bound on the key size of the exact secure rate region provided by Li et al. is not tight. In contrast, tight necessary and sufficient constraints on the secrecy key size of the counterexample, which is the four-encoder S-AMDCS, are proved.
Prajapati, S. A., Deb, S., Gupta, M. K..  2020.  On Some Universally Good Fractional Repetition Codes. 2020 International Conference on COMmunication Systems NETworkS (COMSNETS). :404—411.
Data storage in Distributed Storage Systems (DSS) is a multidimensional optimization problem. Using network coding, one wants to provide reliability, scalability, security, reduced storage overhead, reduced bandwidth for repair and minimal disk I/O in such systems. Advances in the construction of optimal Fractional Repetition (FR) codes, a smart replication of encoded packets on n nodes which also provides optimized disk I/O and where a node failure can be repaired by contacting some specific set of nodes in the system, is in high demand. An attempt towards the construction of universally good FR codes using three different approaches is addressed in this work. In this paper, we present that the code constructed using the partial regular graph for heterogeneous DSS, where the number of packets on each node is different, is universally good. Further, we also encounter the list of parameters for which the ring construction and the T-construction results in universally good codes. In addition, we evaluate the FR code constructions meeting the minimum distance bound.
2020-09-08
Meenu, M, Raajan, N.R., Greeta, S.  2019.  Secured Transmission of Data Using Chaos in Wcdma Network. 2019 International Conference on Vision Towards Emerging Trends in Communication and Networking (ViTECoN). :1–5.
Spreading code assumes an indispensable work in WCDMA system. Every individual client in a cell is isolated by an exceptional spread code. PN grouping are commonly utilized in WCDMA framework. For example, Walsh codes or gold codes as spread code. Data received from WCDMA are transmitted using chaotic signal and that signal is generated by using logistic map. It is unsuitable to be utilized as spreading sequence. Using a threshold function the chaos signal is changed in the form of binary sequence. Consequently, QPSK modulation techniques is analyzed in W-CDMA downlink over Additive white Gaussian noise channel (AWGN) and Rayleigh multipath fading channel. The activity was assessed with the assistance of BER contrary to SNR utilizing parameters indicating the BER in low to high in SNR.
2020-04-06
Chen, Chia-Mei, Wang, Shi-Hao, Wen, Dan-Wei, Lai, Gu-Hsin, Sun, Ming-Kung.  2019.  Applying Convolutional Neural Network for Malware Detection. 2019 IEEE 10th International Conference on Awareness Science and Technology (iCAST). :1—5.

Failure to detect malware at its very inception leaves room for it to post significant threat and cost to cyber security for not only individuals, organizations but also the society and nation. However, the rapid growth in volume and diversity of malware renders conventional detection techniques that utilize feature extraction and comparison insufficient, making it very difficult for well-trained network administrators to identify malware, not to mention regular users of internet. Challenges in malware detection is exacerbated since complexity in the type and structure also increase dramatically in these years to include source code, binary file, shell script, Perl script, instructions, settings and others. Such increased complexity offers a premium on misjudgment. In order to increase malware detection efficiency and accuracy under large volume and multiple types of malware, this research adopts Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), one of the most successful deep learning techniques. The experiment shows an accuracy rate of over 90% in identifying malicious and benign codes. The experiment also presents that CNN is effective with detecting source code and binary code, it can further identify malware that is embedded into benign code, leaving malware no place to hide. This research proposes a feasible solution for network administrators to efficiently identify malware at the very inception in the severe network environment nowadays, so that information technology personnel can take protective actions in a timely manner and make preparations for potential follow-up cyber-attacks.

Frank, Anna, Aydinian, Harout, Boche, Holger.  2019.  Delay Optimal Coding for Secure Transmission over a Burst Erasure Wiretap Channel. 2019 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC). :1—7.

We consider transmissions of secure messages over a burst erasure wiretap channel under decoding delay constraint. For block codes we introduce and study delay optimal secure burst erasure correcting (DO-SBE) codes that provide perfect security and recover a burst of erasures of a limited length with minimum possible delay. Our explicit constructions of DO-SBE block codes achieve maximum secrecy rate. We also consider a model of a burst erasure wiretap channel for the streaming setup, where in any sliding window of a given size, in a stream of encoded source packets, the eavesdropper is able to observe packets in an interval of a given size. For that model we obtain an information theoretic upper bound on the secrecy rate for delay optimal streaming codes. We show that our block codes can be used for construction of delay optimal burst erasure correcting streaming codes which provide perfect security and meet the upper bound for a certain class of code parameters.

Xuebing, Wang, Na, Qin, Yantao, Liu.  2019.  A Secure Network Coding System Against Wiretap Attacks. 2019 34rd Youth Academic Annual Conference of Chinese Association of Automation (YAC). :62—67.

Cyber security is a vital performance metric for networks. Wiretap attacks belong to passive attacks. It commonly exists in wired or wireless networks, where an eavesdropper steals useful information by wiretapping messages being shipped on network links. It seriously damages the confidentiality of communications. This paper proposed a secure network coding system architecture against wiretap attacks. It combines and collaborates network coding with cryptography technology. Some illustrating examples are given to show how to build such a system and prove its defense is much stronger than a system with a single defender, either network coding or cryptography. Moreover, the system is characterized by flexibility, simplicity, and easy to set up. Finally, it could be used for both deterministic and random network coding system.

Zhang, Yang, Chen, Pengfei, Hao, Long.  2019.  Research on Privacy Protection with Weak Security Network Coding for Mobile Computing. 2019 Seventh International Conference on Advanced Cloud and Big Data (CBD). :174—179.

With the rapid development of the contemporary society, wide use of smart phone and vehicle sensing devices brings a huge influence on the extensive data collection. Network coding can only provide weak security privacy protection. Aiming at weak secure feature of network coding, this paper proposes an information transfer mechanism, Weak Security Network Coding with Homomorphic Encryption (HE-WSNC), and it is integrated into routing policy. In this mechanism, a movement model is designed, which allows information transmission process under Wi-Fi and Bluetooth environment rather than consuming 4G data flow. Not only does this application reduce the cost, but also improve reliability of data transmission. Moreover, it attracts more users to participate.

Haoliang, Sun, Dawei, Wang, Ying, Zhang.  2019.  K-Means Clustering Analysis Based on Adaptive Weights for Malicious Code Detection. 2019 IEEE 11th International Conference on Communication Software and Networks (ICCSN). :652—656.

Nowadays, a major challenge to network security is malicious codes. However, manual extraction of features is one of the characteristics of traditional detection techniques, which is inefficient. On the other hand, the features of the content and behavior of the malicious codes are easy to change, resulting in more inefficiency of the traditional techniques. In this paper, a K-Means Clustering Analysis is proposed based on Adaptive Weights (AW-MMKM). Identifying malicious codes in the proposed method is based on four types of network behavior that can be extracted from network traffic, including active, fault, network scanning, and page behaviors. The experimental results indicate that the AW-MMKM can detect malicious codes efficiently with higher accuracy.

Guo, Haoran, Ai, Jun, Shi, Tao.  2019.  A Clone Code Detection Method Based on Software Complex Network. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering Workshops (ISSREW). :120—121.

This paper introduces complex network into software clone detection and proposes a clone code detection method based on software complex network feature matching. This method has the following properties. It builds a software network model with many added features and codes written with different languages can be detected by a single method. It reduces the space of code comparison, and it searches similar subnetworks to detect clones without knowing any clone codes information. This method can be used in detecting open source code which has been reused in software for security analysis.

Ito, Keita, Masuda, Yoshihiro, Okamoto, Eiji.  2019.  A Chaos MIMO-Based Polar Concatenation Code for Secure Channel Coding. 2019 International Conference on Information Networking (ICOIN). :262—267.

For secure and high-quality wireless transmission, we propose a chaos multiple-input multiple-output (C-MIMO) transmission scheme, in which physical layer security and a channel coding effect with a coding rate of 1 are obtained by chaotic MIMO block modulation. In previous studies, we introduced a log-likelihood ratio (LLR) to C-MIMO to exploit LLR-based outer channel coding and turbo decoding, and obtained further coding gain. However, we only studied the concatenation of turbo code, low-density parity check (LDPC) code, and convolutional code which were relatively high-complexity or weak codes; thus, outer code having further low-complexity and strong error correction ability were expected. In particular, a transmission system with short and good code is required for control signaling, such as in 5G networks. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a polar code concatenation to C-MIMO, and introduce soft successive decoding (SCAD) and soft successive cancellation list decoding (SSCLD) as LLR-based turbo decoding for polar code. We numerically evaluate the bit error rate performance of the proposed scheme, and compare it to the conventional LDPC-concatenated transmission.

Hu, Xiaoyan, Zheng, Shaoqi, Zhao, Lixia, Cheng, Guang, Gong, Jian.  2019.  Exploration and Exploitation of Off-path Cached Content in Network Coding Enabled Named Data Networking. 2019 IEEE 27th International Conference on Network Protocols (ICNP). :1—6.

Named Data Networking (NDN) intrinsically supports in-network caching and multipath forwarding. The two salient features offer the potential to simultaneously transmit content segments that comprise the requested content from original content publishers and in-network caches. However, due to the complexity of maintaining the reachability information of off-path cached content at the fine-grained packet level of granularity, the multipath forwarding and off-path cached copies are significantly underutilized in NDN so far. Network coding enabled NDN, referred to as NC-NDN, was proposed to effectively utilize multiple on-path routes to transmit content, but off-path cached copies are still unexploited. This work enhances NC-NDN with an On-demand Off-path Cache Exploration based Multipath Forwarding strategy, dubbed as O2CEMF, to take full advantage of the multipath forwarding to efficiently utilize off-path cached content. In O2CEMF, each network node reactively explores the reachability information of nearby off-path cached content when consumers begin to request a generation of content, and maintains the reachability at the coarse-grained generation level of granularity instead. Then the consumers simultaneously retrieve content from the original content publisher(s) and the explored capable off-path caches. Our experimental studies validate that this strategy improves the content delivery performance efficiently as compared to that in the present NC-NDN.

Sun, Xuezi, Xu, Guangxian, Liu, Chao.  2019.  A Network Coding Optimization Scheme for Niche Algorithm based on Security Performance. 2019 IEEE 4th Advanced Information Technology, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (IAEAC). 1:1969—1972.

The network coding optimization based on niche genetic algorithm can observably reduce the network overhead of encoding technology, however, security issues haven't been considered in the coding operation. In order to solve this problem, we propose a network coding optimization scheme for niche algorithm based on security performance (SNGA). It is on the basis of multi-target niche genetic algorithm(NGA)to construct a fitness function which with k-secure network coding mechanism, and to ensure the realization of information security and achieve the maximum transmission of the network. The simulation results show that SNGA can effectively improve the security of network coding, and ensure the running time and convergence speed of the optimal solution.

Boussaha, Ryma, Challal, Yacine, Bouabdallah, Abdelmadjid.  2018.  Authenticated Network Coding for Software-Defined Named Data Networking. 2018 IEEE 32nd International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA). :1115–1122.
Named Data Networking (or NDN) represents a potential new approach to the current host based Internet architecture which prioritize content over the communication between end nodes. NDN relies on caching functionalities and local data storage, such as a content request could be satisfied by any node holding a copy of the content in its storage. Due to the fact that users in the same network domain can share their cached content with each other and in order to reduce the transmission cost for obtaining the desired content, a cooperative network coding mechanism is proposed in this paper. We first formulate our optimal coding and homomorphic signature scheme as a MIP problem and we show how to leverage Software Defined Networking to provide seamless implementation of the proposed solution. Evaluation results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed coding scheme which achieves better performance than conventional NDN with random coding especially in terms of transmission cost and security.