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Abdelhadi, Ameer M.S., Bouganis, Christos-Savvas, Constantinides, George A..  2019.  Accelerated Approximate Nearest Neighbors Search Through Hierarchical Product Quantization. 2019 International Conference on Field-Programmable Technology (ICFPT). :90—98.
A fundamental recurring task in many machine learning applications is the search for the Nearest Neighbor in high dimensional metric spaces. Towards answering queries in large scale problems, state-of-the-art methods employ Approximate Nearest Neighbors (ANN) search, a search that returns the nearest neighbor with high probability, as well as techniques that compress the dataset. Product-Quantization (PQ) based ANN search methods have demonstrated state-of-the-art performance in several problems, including classification, regression and information retrieval. The dataset is encoded into a Cartesian product of multiple low-dimensional codebooks, enabling faster search and higher compression. Being intrinsically parallel, PQ-based ANN search approaches are amendable for hardware acceleration. This paper proposes a novel Hierarchical PQ (HPQ) based ANN search method as well as an FPGA-tailored architecture for its implementation that outperforms current state of the art systems. HPQ gradually refines the search space, reducing the number of data compares and enabling a pipelined search. The mapping of the architecture on a Stratix 10 FPGA device demonstrates over ×250 speedups over current state-of-the-art systems, opening the space for addressing larger datasets and/or improving the query times of current systems.
Abdelhamid, N., Thabtah, F., Abdel-jaber, H..  2017.  Phishing detection: A recent intelligent machine learning comparison based on models content and features. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics (ISI). :72–77.

In the last decade, numerous fake websites have been developed on the World Wide Web to mimic trusted websites, with the aim of stealing financial assets from users and organizations. This form of online attack is called phishing, and it has cost the online community and the various stakeholders hundreds of million Dollars. Therefore, effective counter measures that can accurately detect phishing are needed. Machine learning (ML) is a popular tool for data analysis and recently has shown promising results in combating phishing when contrasted with classic anti-phishing approaches, including awareness workshops, visualization and legal solutions. This article investigates ML techniques applicability to detect phishing attacks and describes their pros and cons. In particular, different types of ML techniques have been investigated to reveal the suitable options that can serve as anti-phishing tools. More importantly, we experimentally compare large numbers of ML techniques on real phishing datasets and with respect to different metrics. The purpose of the comparison is to reveal the advantages and disadvantages of ML predictive models and to show their actual performance when it comes to phishing attacks. The experimental results show that Covering approach models are more appropriate as anti-phishing solutions, especially for novice users, because of their simple yet effective knowledge bases in addition to their good phishing detection rate.

Abdulhammed, R., Faezipour, M., Musafer, H., Abuzneid, A..  2019.  Efficient Network Intrusion Detection Using PCA-Based Dimensionality Reduction of Features. 2019 International Symposium on Networks, Computers and Communications (ISNCC). :1—6.

Designing a machine learning based network intrusion detection system (IDS) with high-dimensional features can lead to prolonged classification processes. This is while low-dimensional features can reduce these processes. Moreover, classification of network traffic with imbalanced class distributions has posed a significant drawback on the performance attainable by most well-known classifiers. With the presence of imbalanced data, the known metrics may fail to provide adequate information about the performance of the classifier. This study first uses Principal Component Analysis (PCA) as a feature dimensionality reduction approach. The resulting low-dimensional features are then used to build various classifiers such as Random Forest (RF), Bayesian Network, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA) for designing an IDS. The experimental findings with low-dimensional features in binary and multi-class classification show better performance in terms of Detection Rate (DR), F-Measure, False Alarm Rate (FAR), and Accuracy. Furthermore, in this paper, we apply a Multi-Class Combined performance metric Combi ned Mc with respect to class distribution through incorporating FAR, DR, Accuracy, and class distribution parameters. In addition, we developed a uniform distribution based balancing approach to handle the imbalanced distribution of the minority class instances in the CICIDS2017 network intrusion dataset. We were able to reduce the CICIDS2017 dataset's feature dimensions from 81 to 10 using PCA, while maintaining a high accuracy of 99.6% in multi-class and binary classification.

Abedin, N. F., Bawm, R., Sarwar, T., Saifuddin, M., Rahman, M. A., Hossain, S..  2020.  Phishing Attack Detection using Machine Learning Classification Techniques. 2020 3rd International Conference on Intelligent Sustainable Systems (ICISS). :1125—1130.

Phishing attacks are the most common form of attacks that can happen over the internet. This method involves attackers attempting to collect data of a user without his/her consent through emails, URLs, and any other link that leads to a deceptive page where a user is persuaded to commit specific actions that can lead to the successful completion of an attack. These attacks can allow an attacker to collect vital information of the user that can often allow the attacker to impersonate the victim and get things done that only the victim should have been able to do, such as carry out transactions, or message someone else, or simply accessing the victim's data. Many studies have been carried out to discuss possible approaches to prevent such attacks. This research work includes three machine learning algorithms to predict any websites' phishing status. In the experimentation these models are trained using URL based features and attempted to prevent Zero-Day attacks by using proposed software proposal that differentiates the legitimate websites and phishing websites by analyzing the website's URL. From observations, the random forest classifier performed with a precision of 97%, a recall 99%, and F1 Score is 97%. Proposed model is fast and efficient as it only works based on the URL and it does not use other resources for analysis, as was the case for past studies.

Abeysekara, P., Dong, H., Qin, A. K..  2019.  Machine Learning-Driven Trust Prediction for MEC-Based IoT Services. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Web Services (ICWS). :188—192.

We propose a distributed machine-learning architecture to predict trustworthiness of sensor services in Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) based Internet of Things (IoT) services, which aligns well with the goals of MEC and requirements of modern IoT systems. The proposed machine-learning architecture models training a distributed trust prediction model over a topology of MEC-environments as a Network Lasso problem, which allows simultaneous clustering and optimization on large-scale networked-graphs. We then attempt to solve it using Alternate Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM) in a way that makes it suitable for MEC-based IoT systems. We present analytical and simulation results to show the validity and efficiency of the proposed solution.

Abhilash, Goyal, Divyansh, Gupta.  2018.  Intrusion Detection and Prevention in Software Defined Networking. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Advanced Networks and Telecommunications Systems (ANTS). :1–4.
Software defined networking is a concept proposed to replace traditional networks by separating control plane and data plane. It makes the network more programmable and manageable. As there is a single point of control of the network, it is more vulnerable to intrusion. The idea is to train the network controller by machine learning algorithms to let it make the intelligent decisions automatically. In this paper, we have discussed our approach to make software defined networking more secure from various malicious attacks by making it capable of detecting and preventing such attacks.
Abie, Habtamu.  2019.  Cognitive Cybersecurity for CPS-IoT Enabled Healthcare Ecosystems. 2019 13th International Symposium on Medical Information and Communication Technology (ISMICT). :1–6.

Cyber Physical Systems (CPS)-Internet of Things (IoT) enabled healthcare services and infrastructures improve human life, but are vulnerable to a variety of emerging cyber-attacks. Cybersecurity specialists are finding it hard to keep pace of the increasingly sophisticated attack methods. There is a critical need for innovative cognitive cybersecurity for CPS-IoT enabled healthcare ecosystem. This paper presents a cognitive cybersecurity framework for simulating the human cognitive behaviour to anticipate and respond to new and emerging cybersecurity and privacy threats to CPS-IoT and critical infrastructure systems. It includes the conceptualisation and description of a layered architecture which combines Artificial Intelligence, cognitive methods and innovative security mechanisms.

Aborisade, O., Anwar, M..  2018.  Classification for Authorship of Tweets by Comparing Logistic Regression and Naive Bayes Classifiers. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration (IRI). :269–276.

At a time when all it takes to open a Twitter account is a mobile phone, the act of authenticating information encountered on social media becomes very complex, especially when we lack measures to verify digital identities in the first place. Because the platform supports anonymity, fake news generated by dubious sources have been observed to travel much faster and farther than real news. Hence, we need valid measures to identify authors of misinformation to avert these consequences. Researchers propose different authorship attribution techniques to approach this kind of problem. However, because tweets are made up of only 280 characters, finding a suitable authorship attribution technique is a challenge. This research aims to classify authors of tweets by comparing machine learning methods like logistic regression and naive Bayes. The processes of this application are fetching of tweets, pre-processing, feature extraction, and developing a machine learning model for classification. This paper illustrates the text classification for authorship process using machine learning techniques. In total, there were 46,895 tweets used as both training and testing data, and unique features specific to Twitter were extracted. Several steps were done in the pre-processing phase, including removal of short texts, removal of stop-words and punctuations, tokenizing and stemming of texts as well. This approach transforms the pre-processed data into a set of feature vector in Python. Logistic regression and naive Bayes algorithms were applied to the set of feature vectors for the training and testing of the classifier. The logistic regression based classifier gave the highest accuracy of 91.1% compared to the naive Bayes classifier with 89.8%.

Abou-Zahra, Shadi, Brewer, Judy, Cooper, Michael.  2018.  Artificial Intelligence (AI) for Web Accessibility: Is Conformance Evaluation a Way Forward? Proceedings of the Internet of Accessible Things. :20:1–20:4.

The term "artificial intelligence" is a buzzword today and is heavily used to market products, services, research, conferences, and more. It is scientifically disputed which types of products and services do actually qualify as "artificial intelligence" versus simply advanced computer technologies mimicking aspects of natural intelligence. Yet it is undisputed that, despite often inflationary use of the term, there are mainstream products and services today that for decades were only thought to be science fiction. They range from industrial automation, to self-driving cars, robotics, and consumer electronics for smart homes, workspaces, education, and many more contexts. Several technological advances enable what is commonly referred to as "artificial intelligence". It includes connected computers and the Internet of Things (IoT), open and big data, low cost computing and storage, and many more. Yet regardless of the definition of the term artificial intelligence, technological advancements in this area provide immense potential, especially for people with disabilities. In this paper we explore some of these potential in the context of web accessibility. We review some existing products and services, and their support for web accessibility. We propose accessibility conformance evaluation as one potential way forward, to accelerate the uptake of artificial intelligence, to improve web accessibility.

Adari, Suman Kalyan, Garcia, Washington, Butler, Kevin.  2019.  Adversarial Video Captioning. 2019 49th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops (DSN-W). :24—27.
In recent years, developments in the field of computer vision have allowed deep learning-based techniques to surpass human-level performance. However, these advances have also culminated in the advent of adversarial machine learning techniques, capable of launching targeted image captioning attacks that easily fool deep learning models. Although attacks in the image domain are well studied, little work has been done in the video domain. In this paper, we show it is possible to extend prior attacks in the image domain to the video captioning task, without heavily affecting the video's playback quality. We demonstrate our attack against a state-of-the-art video captioning model, by extending a prior image captioning attack known as Show and Fool. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first successful method for targeted attacks against a video captioning model, which is able to inject 'subliminal' perturbations into the video stream, and force the model to output a chosen caption with up to 0.981 cosine similarity, achieving near-perfect similarity to chosen target captions.
Adil, M., Khan, R., Ghani, M. A. Nawaz Ul.  2020.  Preventive Techniques of Phishing Attacks in Networks. 2020 3rd International Conference on Advancements in Computational Sciences (ICACS). :1—8.

Internet is the most widely used technology in the current era of information technology and it is embedded in daily life activities. Due to its extensive use in everyday life, it has many applications such as social media (Face book, WhatsApp, messenger etc.,) and other online applications such as online businesses, e-counseling, advertisement on websites, e-banking, e-hunting websites, e-doctor appointment and e-doctor opinion. The above mentioned applications of internet technology makes things very easy and accessible for human being in limited time, however, this technology is vulnerable to various security threats. A vital and severe threat associated with this technology or a particular application is “Phishing attack” which is used by attacker to usurp the network security. Phishing attacks includes fake E-mails, fake websites, fake applications which are used to steal their credentials or usurp their security. In this paper, a detailed overview of various phishing attacks, specifically their background knowledge, and solutions proposed in literature to address these issues using various techniques such as anti-phishing, honey pots and firewalls etc. Moreover, installation of intrusion detection systems (IDS) and intrusion detection and prevention system (IPS) in the networks to allow the authentic traffic in an operational network. In this work, we have conducted end use awareness campaign to educate and train the employs in order to minimize the occurrence probability of these attacks. The result analysis observed for this survey was quite excellent by means of its effectiveness to address the aforementioned issues.

Agadakos, I., Ciocarlie, G. F., Copos, B., Emmi, M., George, J., Leslie, N., Michaelis, J..  2019.  Application of Trust Assessment Techniques to IoBT Systems. MILCOM 2019 - 2019 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :833—840.

Continued advances in IoT technology have prompted new investigation into its usage for military operations, both to augment and complement existing military sensing assets and support next-generation artificial intelligence and machine learning systems. Under the emerging Internet of Battlefield Things (IoBT) paradigm, current operational conditions necessitate the development of novel security techniques, centered on establishment of trust for individual assets and supporting resilience of broader systems. To advance current IoBT efforts, a collection of prior-developed cybersecurity techniques is reviewed for applicability to conditions presented by IoBT operational environments (e.g., diverse asset ownership, degraded networking infrastructure, adversary activities) through use of supporting case study examples. The research techniques covered focus on two themes: (1) Supporting trust assessment for known/unknown IoT assets; (2) ensuring continued trust of known IoT assets and IoBT systems.

Agadakos, I., Ciocarlie, G. F., Copos, B., George, J., Leslie, N., Michaelis, J..  2019.  Security for Resilient IoBT Systems: Emerging Research Directions. IEEE INFOCOM 2019 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS). :1—6.

Continued advances in IoT technology have prompted new investigation into its usage for military operations, both to augment and complement existing military sensing assets and support next-generation artificial intelligence and machine learning systems. Under the emerging Internet of Battlefield Things (IoBT) paradigm, a multitude of operational conditions (e.g., diverse asset ownership, degraded networking infrastructure, adversary activities) necessitate the development of novel security techniques, centered on establishment of trust for individual assets and supporting resilience of broader systems. To advance current IoBT efforts, a set of research directions are proposed that aim to fundamentally address the issues of trust and trustworthiness in contested battlefield environments, building on prior research in the cybersecurity domain. These research directions focus on two themes: (1) Supporting trust assessment for known/unknown IoT assets; (2) Ensuring continued trust of known IoBT assets and systems.

Agnihotri, Lalitha, Mojarad, Shirin, Lewkow, Nicholas, Essa, Alfred.  2016.  Educational Data Mining with Python and Apache Spark: A Hands-on Tutorial. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Learning Analytics & Knowledge. :507–508.

Enormous amount of educational data has been accumulated through Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), as well as commercial and non-commercial learning platforms. This is in addition to the educational data released by US government since 2012 to facilitate disruption in education by making data freely available. The high volume, variety and velocity of collected data necessitate use of big data tools and storage systems such as distributed databases for storage and Apache Spark for analysis. This tutorial will introduce researchers and faculty to real-world applications involving data mining and predictive analytics in learning sciences. In addition, the tutorial will introduce statistics required to validate and accurately report results. Topics will cover how big data is being used to transform education. Specifically, we will demonstrate how exploratory data analysis, data mining, predictive analytics, machine learning, and visualization techniques are being applied to educational big data to improve learning and scale insights driven from millions of student's records. The tutorial will be held over a half day and will be hands on with pre-posted material. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of work, the tutorial appeals to researchers from a wide range of backgrounds including big data, predictive analytics, learning sciences, educational data mining, and in general, those interested in how big data analytics can transform learning. As a prerequisite, attendees are required to have familiarity with at least one programming language.

Ahmadi, Mansour, Ulyanov, Dmitry, Semenov, Stanislav, Trofimov, Mikhail, Giacinto, Giorgio.  2016.  Novel Feature Extraction, Selection and Fusion for Effective Malware Family Classification. Proceedings of the Sixth ACM Conference on Data and Application Security and Privacy. :183–194.

Modern malware is designed with mutation characteristics, namely polymorphism and metamorphism, which causes an enormous growth in the number of variants of malware samples. Categorization of malware samples on the basis of their behaviors is essential for the computer security community, because they receive huge number of malware everyday, and the signature extraction process is usually based on malicious parts characterizing malware families. Microsoft released a malware classification challenge in 2015 with a huge dataset of near 0.5 terabytes of data, containing more than 20K malware samples. The analysis of this dataset inspired the development of a novel paradigm that is effective in categorizing malware variants into their actual family groups. This paradigm is presented and discussed in the present paper, where emphasis has been given to the phases related to the extraction, and selection of a set of novel features for the effective representation of malware samples. Features can be grouped according to different characteristics of malware behavior, and their fusion is performed according to a per-class weighting paradigm. The proposed method achieved a very high accuracy (\$\textbackslashapprox\$ 0.998) on the Microsoft Malware Challenge dataset.

Ahmadi, S. Sareh, Rashad, Sherif, Elgazzar, Heba.  2019.  Machine Learning Models for Activity Recognition and Authentication of Smartphone Users. 2019 IEEE 10th Annual Ubiquitous Computing, Electronics Mobile Communication Conference (UEMCON). :0561–0567.
Technological advancements have made smartphones to provide wide range of applications that enable users to perform many of their tasks easily and conveniently, anytime and anywhere. For this reason, many users are tend to store their private data in their smart phones. Since conventional methods for security of smartphones, such as passwords, personal identification numbers, and pattern locks are prone to many attacks, this research paper proposes a novel method for authenticating smartphone users based on performing seven different daily physical activity as behavioral biometrics, using smartphone embedded sensor data. This authentication scheme builds a machine learning model which recognizes users by performing those daily activities. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.
Ahmed, Syed Umaid, Sabir, Arbaz, Ashraf, Talha, Ashraf, Usama, Sabir, Shahbaz, Qureshi, Usama.  2019.  Security Lock with Effective Verification Traits. 2019 International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Knowledge Economy (ICCIKE). :164–169.
To manage and handle the issues of physical security in the modern world, there is a dire need for a multilevel security system to ensure the safety of precious belongings that could be money, military equipment or medical life-saving drugs. Security locker solution is proposed which is a multiple layer security system consisting of various levels of authentication. In most cases, only relevant persons should have access to their precious belongings. The unlocking of the box is only possible when all of the security levels are successfully cleared. The five levels of security include entering of password on interactive GUI, thumbprint, facial recognition, speech pattern recognition, and vein pattern recognition. This project is unique and effective in a sense that it incorporates five levels of security in a single prototype with the use of cost-effective equipment. Assessing our security system, it is seen that security is increased many a fold as it is near to impossible to breach all these five levels of security. The Raspberry Pi microcomputers, handling all the traits efficiently and smartly makes it easy for performing all the verification tasks. The traits used involves checking, training and verifying processes with application of machine learning operations.
Akaishi, Sota, Uda, Ryuya.  2019.  Classification of XSS Attacks by Machine Learning with Frequency of Appearance and Co-occurrence. 2019 53rd Annual Conference on Information Sciences and Systems (CISS). :1–6.
Cross site scripting (XSS) attack is one of the attacks on the web. It brings session hijack with HTTP cookies, information collection with fake HTML input form and phishing with dummy sites. As a countermeasure of XSS attack, machine learning has attracted a lot of attention. There are existing researches in which SVM, Random Forest and SCW are used for the detection of the attack. However, in the researches, there are problems that the size of data set is too small or unbalanced, and that preprocessing method for vectorization of strings causes misclassification. The highest accuracy of the classification was 98% in existing researches. Therefore, in this paper, we improved the preprocessing method for vectorization by using word2vec to find the frequency of appearance and co-occurrence of the words in XSS attack scripts. Moreover, we also used a large data set to decrease the deviation of the data. Furthermore, we evaluated the classification results with two procedures. One is an inappropriate procedure which some researchers tend to select by mistake. The other is an appropriate procedure which can be applied to an attack detection filter in the real environment.
Akbari, I., Tahoun, E., Salahuddin, M. A., Limam, N., Boutaba, R..  2020.  ATMoS: Autonomous Threat Mitigation in SDN using Reinforcement Learning. NOMS 2020 - 2020 IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium. :1—9.
Machine Learning has revolutionized many fields of computer science. Reinforcement Learning (RL), in particular, stands out as a solution to sequential decision making problems. With the growing complexity of computer networks in the face of new emerging technologies, such as the Internet of Things and the growing complexity of threat vectors, there is a dire need for autonomous network systems. RL is a viable solution for achieving this autonomy. Software-defined Networking (SDN) provides a global network view and programmability of network behaviour, which can be employed for security management. Previous works in RL-based threat mitigation have mostly focused on very specific problems, mostly non-sequential, with ad-hoc solutions. In this paper, we propose ATMoS, a general framework designed to facilitate the rapid design of RL applications for network security management using SDN. We evaluate our framework for implementing RL applications for threat mitigation, by showcasing the use of ATMoS with a Neural Fitted Q-learning agent to mitigate an Advanced Persistent Threat. We present the RL model's convergence results showing the feasibility of our solution for active threat mitigation.
Al-Emadi, S., Al-Mohannadi, A., Al-Senaid, F..  2020.  Using Deep Learning Techniques for Network Intrusion Detection. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Informatics, IoT, and Enabling Technologies (ICIoT). :171—176.
In recent years, there has been a significant increase in network intrusion attacks which raises a great concern from the privacy and security aspects. Due to the advancement of the technology, cyber-security attacks are becoming very complex such that the current detection systems are not sufficient enough to address this issue. Therefore, an implementation of an intelligent and effective network intrusion detection system would be crucial to solve this problem. In this paper, we use deep learning techniques, namely, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) and Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) to design an intelligent detection system which is able to detect different network intrusions. Additionally, we evaluate the performance of the proposed solution using different evaluation matrices and we present a comparison between the results of our proposed solution to find the best model for the network intrusion detection system.
Al-Emadi, Sara, Al-Ali, Abdulla, Mohammad, Amr, Al-Ali, Abdulaziz.  2019.  Audio Based Drone Detection and Identification using Deep Learning. 2019 15th International Wireless Communications Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC). :459–464.
In recent years, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have become increasingly accessible to the public due to their high availability with affordable prices while being equipped with better technology. However, this raises a great concern from both the cyber and physical security perspectives since UAVs can be utilized for malicious activities in order to exploit vulnerabilities by spying on private properties, critical areas or to carry dangerous objects such as explosives which makes them a great threat to the society. Drone identification is considered the first step in a multi-procedural process in securing physical infrastructure against this threat. In this paper, we present drone detection and identification methods using deep learning techniques such as Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) and Convolutional Recurrent Neural Network (CRNN). These algorithms will be utilized to exploit the unique acoustic fingerprints of the flying drones in order to detect and identify them. We propose a comparison between the performance of different neural networks based on our dataset which features audio recorded samples of drone activities. The major contribution of our work is to validate the usage of these methodologies of drone detection and identification in real life scenarios and to provide a robust comparison of the performance between different deep neural network algorithms for this application. In addition, we are releasing the dataset of drone audio clips for the research community for further analysis.
Al-issa, Abdulaziz I., Al-Akhras, Mousa, ALsahli, Mohammed S., Alawairdhi, Mohammed.  2019.  Using Machine Learning to Detect DoS Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks. 2019 IEEE Jordan International Joint Conference on Electrical Engineering and Information Technology (JEEIT). :107–112.

Widespread use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) introduced many security threats due to the nature of such networks, particularly limited hardware resources and infrastructure less nature. Denial of Service attack is one of the most common types of attacks that face such type of networks. Building an Intrusion Detection and Prevention System to mitigate the effect of Denial of Service attack is not an easy task. This paper proposes the use of two machine learning techniques, namely decision trees and Support Vector Machines, to detect attack signature on a specialized dataset. The used dataset contains regular profiles and several Denial of Service attack scenarios in WSNs. The experimental results show that decision trees technique achieved better (higher) true positive rate and better (lower) false positive rate than Support Vector Machines, 99.86% vs 99.62%, and 0.05% vs. 0.09%, respectively.

Alabadi, Montdher, Albayrak, Zafer.  2020.  Q-Learning for Securing Cyber-Physical Systems : A survey. 2020 International Congress on Human-Computer Interaction, Optimization and Robotic Applications (HORA). :1–13.
A cyber-physical system (CPS) is a term that implements mainly three parts, Physical elements, communication networks, and control systems. Currently, CPS includes the Internet of Things (IoT), Internet of Vehicles (IoV), and many other systems. These systems face many security challenges and different types of attacks, such as Jamming, DDoS.CPS attacks tend to be much smarter and more dynamic; thus, it needs defending strategies that can handle this level of intelligence and dynamicity. Last few years, many researchers use machine learning as a base solution to many CPS security issues. This paper provides a survey of the recent works that utilized the Q-Learning algorithm in terms of security enabling and privacy-preserving. Different adoption of Q-Learning for security and defending strategies are studied. The state-of-the-art of Q-learning and CPS systems are classified and analyzed according to their attacks, domain, supported techniques, and details of the Q-Learning algorithm. Finally, this work highlight The future research trends toward efficient utilization of Q-learning and deep Q-learning on CPS security.
Alam, Mehreen.  2018.  Neural Encoder-Decoder based Urdu Conversational Agent. 2018 9th IEEE Annual Ubiquitous Computing, Electronics Mobile Communication Conference (UEMCON). :901–905.
Conversational agents have very much become part of our lives since the renaissance of neural network based "neural conversational agents". Previously used manually annotated and rule based methods lacked the scalability and generalization capabilities of the neural conversational agents. A neural conversational agent has two parts: at one end an encoder understands the question while the other end a decoder prepares and outputs the corresponding answer to the question asked. Both the parts are typically designed using recurrent neural network and its variants and trained in an end-to-end fashion. Although conversation agents for other languages have been developed, Urdu language has seen very less progress in building of conversational agents. Especially recent state of the art neural network based techniques have not been explored yet. In this paper, we design an attention driven deep encoder-decoder based neural conversational agent for Urdu language. Overall, we make following contributions we (i) create a dataset of 5000 question-answer pairs, and (ii) present a new deep encoder-decoder based conversational agent for Urdu language. For our work, we limit the knowledge base of our agent to general knowledge regarding Pakistan. Our best model has the BLEU score of 58 and gives syntactically and semantically correct answers in majority of the cases.
Aldairi, Maryam, Karimi, Leila, Joshi, James.  2019.  A Trust Aware Unsupervised Learning Approach for Insider Threat Detection. 2019 IEEE 20th International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration for Data Science (IRI). :89–98.

With the rapidly increasing connectivity in cyberspace, Insider Threat is becoming a huge concern. Insider threat detection from system logs poses a tremendous challenge for human analysts. Analyzing log files of an organization is a key component of an insider threat detection and mitigation program. Emerging machine learning approaches show tremendous potential for performing complex and challenging data analysis tasks that would benefit the next generation of insider threat detection systems. However, with huge sets of heterogeneous data to analyze, applying machine learning techniques effectively and efficiently to such a complex problem is not straightforward. In this paper, we extract a concise set of features from the system logs while trying to prevent loss of meaningful information and providing accurate and actionable intelligence. We investigate two unsupervised anomaly detection algorithms for insider threat detection and draw a comparison between different structures of the system logs including daily dataset and periodically aggregated one. We use the generated anomaly score from the previous cycle as the trust score of each user fed to the next period's model and show its importance and impact in detecting insiders. Furthermore, we consider the psychometric score of users in our model and check its effectiveness in predicting insiders. As far as we know, our model is the first one to take the psychometric score of users into consideration for insider threat detection. Finally, we evaluate our proposed approach on CERT insider threat dataset (v4.2) and show how it outperforms previous approaches.