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Brad Miller, Alex Kantchelian, Michael Carl Tschantz, Sadia Afroz, Rekha Bachwani, Riyaz Faizullabhoy, Ling Huang, Vaishaal Shankar, Tony Wu, George Yiu et al..  2015.  Back to the Future: Malware Detection with Temporally Consistent Labels. CoRR. abs/1510.07338

The malware detection arms race involves constant change: malware changes to evade detection and labels change as detection mechanisms react. Recognizing that malware changes over time, prior work has enforced temporally consistent samples by requiring that training binaries predate evaluation binaries. We present temporally consistent labels, requiring that training labels also predate evaluation binaries since training labels collected after evaluation binaries constitute label knowledge from the future. Using a dataset containing 1.1 million binaries from over 2.5 years, we show that enforcing temporal label consistency decreases detection from 91% to 72% at a 0.5% false positive rate compared to temporal samples alone.

The impact of temporal labeling demonstrates the potential of improved labels to increase detection results. Hence, we present a detector capable of selecting binaries for submission to an expert labeler for review. At a 0.5% false positive rate, our detector achieves a 72% true positive rate without an expert, which increases to 77% and 89% with 10 and 80 expert queries daily, respectively. Additionally, we detect 42% of malicious binaries initially undetected by all 32 antivirus vendors from VirusTotal used in our evaluation. For evaluation at scale, we simulate the human expert labeler and show that our approach is robust against expert labeling errors. Our novel contributions include a scalable malware detector integrating manual review with machine learning and the examination of temporal label consistency

Ronczka, J..  2016.  Backchanneling Quantum Bit (Qubit) 'Shuffling': Quantum Bit (Qubit) 'Shuffling' as Added Security by Slipstreaming Q-Morse. 2016 3rd Asia-Pacific World Congress on Computer Science and Engineering (APWC on CSE). :106–115.

A fresh look at the way secure communications is currently being done has been undertaken as a consequence of the large hacking's that have taken place recently. A plausible option maybe a return to the future via Morse code using how a quantum bit (Qubit) reacts when entangled to suggest a cypher. This quantum cyphers uses multiple properties of unique entities that have many random radicals which makes hacking more difficult that traditional 'Rivest-Shamir-Adleman' (RSA), 'Digital Signature Algorithm' (DSA) or 'Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm' (ECDSA). Additional security is likely by Backchannelling (slipstreaming) Quantum Morse code (Q-Morse) keys composed of living and non-living entities. This means Blockchain ledger history (forwards-backwards) is audited during an active session. Verification keys are Backchannelling (slipstreaming) during the session (e.g. train driver must incrementally activate a switch otherwise the train stops) using predicted-expected sender-receiver properties as well as their past history of disconformities to random radicals encountered. In summary, Quantum Morse code (Q-Morse) plausibly is the enabler to additional security by Backchannelling (slipstreaming) during a communications session.

Xianguo Zhang, Tiejun Huang, Yonghong Tian, Wen Gao.  2014.  Background-Modeling-Based Adaptive Prediction for Surveillance Video Coding. Image Processing, IEEE Transactions on. 23:769-784.

The exponential growth of surveillance videos presents an unprecedented challenge for high-efficiency surveillance video coding technology. Compared with the existing coding standards that were basically developed for generic videos, surveillance video coding should be designed to make the best use of the special characteristics of surveillance videos (e.g., relative static background). To do so, this paper first conducts two analyses on how to improve the background and foreground prediction efficiencies in surveillance video coding. Following the analysis results, we propose a background-modeling-based adaptive prediction (BMAP) method. In this method, all blocks to be encoded are firstly classified into three categories. Then, according to the category of each block, two novel inter predictions are selectively utilized, namely, the background reference prediction (BRP) that uses the background modeled from the original input frames as the long-term reference and the background difference prediction (BDP) that predicts the current data in the background difference domain. For background blocks, the BRP can effectively improve the prediction efficiency using the higher quality background as the reference; whereas for foreground-background-hybrid blocks, the BDP can provide a better reference after subtracting its background pixels. Experimental results show that the BMAP can achieve at least twice the compression ratio on surveillance videos as AVC (MPEG-4 Advanced Video Coding) high profile, yet with a slightly additional encoding complexity. Moreover, for the foreground coding performance, which is crucial to the subjective quality of moving objects in surveillance videos, BMAP also obtains remarkable gains over several state-of-the-art methods.

Portnoff, Rebecca S., Huang, Danny Yuxing, Doerfler, Periwinkle, Afroz, Sadia, McCoy, Damon.  2017.  Backpage and Bitcoin: Uncovering Human Traffickers. Proceedings of the 23rd ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. :1595–1604.

Sites for online classified ads selling sex are widely used by human traffickers to support their pernicious business. The sheer quantity of ads makes manual exploration and analysis unscalable. In addition, discerning whether an ad is advertising a trafficked victim or an independent sex worker is a very difficult task. Very little concrete ground truth (i.e., ads definitively known to be posted by a trafficker) exists in this space. In this work, we develop tools and techniques that can be used separately and in conjunction to group sex ads by their true owner (and not the claimed author in the ad). Specifically, we develop a machine learning classifier that uses stylometry to distinguish between ads posted by the same vs. different authors with 90% TPR and 1% FPR. We also design a linking technique that takes advantage of leakages from the Bitcoin mempool, blockchain and sex ad site, to link a subset of sex ads to Bitcoin public wallets and transactions. Finally, we demonstrate via a 4-week proof of concept using Backpage as the sex ad site, how an analyst can use these automated approaches to potentially find human traffickers.

Luo, S., Wang, Y., Huang, W., Yu, H..  2016.  Backup and Disaster Recovery System for HDFS. 2016 International Conference on Information Science and Security (ICISS). :1–4.

HDFS has been widely used for storing massive scale data which is vulnerable to site disaster. The file system backup is an important strategy for data retention. In this paper, we present an efficient, easy- to-use Backup and Disaster Recovery System for HDFS. The system includes a client based on HDFS with additional feature of remote backup, and a remote server with a HDFS cluster to keep the backup data. It supports full backup and regularly incremental backup to the server with very low cost and high throughout. In our experiment, the average speed of backup and recovery is up to 95 MB/s, approaching the theoretical maximum speed of gigabit Ethernet.

Anh, Pham Nguyen Quang, Fan, Rui, Wen, Yonggang.  2016.  Balanced Hashing and Efficient GPU Sparse General Matrix-Matrix Multiplication. Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Supercomputing. :36:1–36:12.

General sparse matrix-matrix multiplication (SpGEMM) is a core component of many algorithms. A number of recent works have used high throughput graphics processing units (GPUs) to accelerate SpGEMM. However, exploiting the power of GPUs for SpGEMM requires addressing a number of challenges, including highly imbalanced workloads and large numbers of inefficient random global memory accesses. This paper presents a SpGEMM algorithm which uses several novel techniques to overcome these problems. We first propose two low cost methods to achieve perfect load balancing during the most expensive step in SpGEMM. Next, we show how to eliminate nearly all random global memory accesses using shared memory based hash tables. To optimize the performance of the hash tables, we propose a lightweight method to estimate the number of nonzeros in the output matrix. We compared our algorithm to the CUSP, CUSPARSE and the state-of-the-art BHSPARSE GPU SpGEMM algorithms, and show that it performs 5.6x, 2.4x and 1.5x better on average, and up to 11.8x, 9.5x and 2.5x better in the best case, respectively. Furthermore, we show that our algorithm performs especially well on highly imbalanced and unstructured matrices.

Kumar, A. Ranjith, Sivagami, A..  2019.  Balanced Load Clustering with Trusted Multipath Relay Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network. 2019 Innovations in Power and Advanced Computing Technologies (i-PACT). 1:1–6.

Clustering is one of an eminent mechanism which deals with large number of nodes and effective consumption of energy in wireless sensor networks (WSN). Balanced Load Clustering is used to balance the channel bandwidth by incorporating the concept of HMAC. Presently several research studies works to improve the quality of service and energy efficiency of WSN but the security issues are not taken care of. Relay based multipath trust is one of the methods to secure the network. To this end, a novel approach called Balanced Load Clustering with Trusted Multipath Relay Routing Protocol (BLC-TMR2) to improve the performance of the network. The proposed protocol consists of two algorithms. Initially in order to reduce the energy consumption of the network, balanced load clustering (BLC) concepts is introduced. Secondly to secure the network from the malicious activity trusted multipath relay routing protocol (TMR2) is used. Multipath routing is monitored by the relay node and it computed the trust values. Network simulation (NS2) software is used to obtain the results and the results prove that the proposed system performs better the earlier methods the in terms of efficiency, consumption, QoS and throughput.

Singh, S. K., Bziuk, W., Jukan, A..  2016.  Balancing Data Security and Blocking Performance with Spectrum Randomization in Optical Networks. 2016 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM). :1–7.

Data randomization or scrambling has been effectively used in various applications to improve the data security. In this paper, we use the idea of data randomization to proactively randomize the spectrum (re)allocation to improve connections' security. As it is well-known that random (re)allocation fragments the spectrum and thus increases blocking in elastic optical networks, we analyze the tradeoff between system performance and security. To this end, in addition to spectrum randomization, we utilize an on-demand defragmentation scheme every time a request is blocked due to the spectrum fragmentation. We model the occupancy pattern of an elastic optical link (EOL) using a multi-class continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC) under the random-fit spectrum allocation method. Numerical results show that although both the blocking and security can be improved for a particular so-called randomization process (RP) arrival rate, while with the increase in RP arrival rate the connections' security improves at the cost of the increase in overall blocking.

Moore, A. P., Cassidy, T. M., Theis, M. C., Bauer, D., Rousseau, D. M., Moore, S. B..  2018.  Balancing Organizational Incentives to Counter Insider Threat. 2018 IEEE Security and Privacy Workshops (SPW). :237–246.

Traditional security practices focus on negative incentives that attempt to force compliance through constraints, monitoring, and punishment. This paper describes a missing dimension of most organizations' insider threat defense-one that explicitly considers positive incentives for attracting individuals to act in the interests of the organization. Positive incentives focus on properties of the organizational context of workforce management practices - including those relating to organizational supportiveness, coworker connectedness, and job engagement. Without due attention to the organizational context in which insider threats occur, insider misbehaviors may simply reoccur as a natural response to counterproductive or dysfunctional management practices. A balanced combination of positive and negative incentives can improve employees' relationships with the organization and provide a means for employees to better cope with personal and professional stressors. An insider threat program that balances organizational incentives can become an advocate for the workforce and a means for improving employee work life - a welcome message to employees who feel threatened by programs focused on discovering insider wrongdoing.

Kahvazadeh, Sarang, Masip-Bruin, Xavi, Díaz, Rodrigo, Marín-Tordera, Eva, Jurnet, Alejandro, Garcia, Jordi, Juan, Ana, Simó, Ester.  2019.  Balancing Security Guarantees vs QoS Provisioning in Combined Fog-to-Cloud Systems. 2019 10th IFIP International Conference on New Technologies, Mobility and Security (NTMS). :1–6.

Several efforts are currently active in dealing with scenarios combining fog, cloud computing, out of which a significant proportion is devoted to control, and manage the resulting scenario. Certainly, although many challenging aspects must be considered towards the design of an efficient management solution, it is with no doubt that whatever the solution is, the quality delivered to the users when executing services and the security guarantees provided to the users are two key aspects to be considered in the whole design. Unfortunately, both requirements are often non-convergent, thus making a solution suitably addressing both aspects is a challenging task. In this paper, we propose a decoupled transversal security strategy, referred to as DCF, as a novel architectural oriented policy handling the QoS-Security trade-off, particularly designed to be applied to combined fog-to-cloud systems, and specifically highlighting its impact on the delivered QoS.

Zhi-wen, Wang, Yang, Cheng.  2018.  Bandwidth Allocation Strategy of Networked Control System under Denial-of-Service Attack. 2018 4th Annual International Conference on Network and Information Systems for Computers (ICNISC). :49—55.
In this paper, security of networked control system (NCS) under denial of service (DoS) attack is considered. Different from the existing literatures from the perspective of control systems, this paper considers a novel method of dynamic allocation of network bandwidth for NCS under DoS attack. Firstly, time-constrained DoS attack and its impact on the communication channel of NCS are introduced. Secondly, details for the proposed dynamic bandwidth allocation structure are presented along with an implementation, which is a bandwidth allocation strategy based on error between current state and equilibrium state and available bandwidth. Finally, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed bandwidth allocation approach.
Geva, M., Herzberg, A., Gev, Y..  2014.  Bandwidth Distributed Denial of Service: Attacks and Defenses. Security Privacy, IEEE. 12:54-61.

The Internet is vulnerable to bandwidth distributed denial-of-service (BW-DDoS) attacks, wherein many hosts send a huge number of packets to cause congestion and disrupt legitimate traffic. So far, BW-DDoS attacks have employed relatively crude, inefficient, brute force mechanisms; future attacks might be significantly more effective and harmful. To meet the increasing threats, we must deploy more advanced defenses.

Sui, Zhiyuan, de Meer, Hermann.  2019.  BAP: A Batch and Auditable Privacy Preservation Scheme for Demand-Response in Smart Grids. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics. :1–1.
Advancing network technologies allows the setup of two-way communication links between energy providers and consumers. These developing technologies aim to enhance grid reliability and energy efficiency in smart grids. To achieve this goal, energy usage reports from consumers are required to be both trustworthy and confidential. In this paper, we construct a new data aggregation scheme in smart grids based on a homomorphic encryption algorithm. In the constructed scheme, obedient consumers who follow the instruction can prove its ajustment using a range proof protocol. Additionally, we propose a new identity-based signature algorithm in order to ensure authentication and integrity of the constructed scheme. By using this signature algorithm, usage reports are verified in real time. Extensive simulations demonstrate that our scheme outperforms other data aggregation schemes.
Dudley, John J., Schuff, Hendrik, Kristensson, Per Ola.  2018.  Bare-Handed 3D Drawing in Augmented Reality. Proceedings of the 2018 Designing Interactive Systems Conference. :241-252.

Head-mounted augmented reality (AR) enables embodied in situ drawing in three dimensions (3D). We explore 3D drawing interactions based on uninstrumented, unencumbered (bare) hands that preserve the user's ability to freely navigate and interact with the physical environment. We derive three alternative interaction techniques supporting bare-handed drawing in AR from the literature and by analysing several envisaged use cases. The three interaction techniques are evaluated in a controlled user study examining three distinct drawing tasks: planar drawing, path description, and 3D object reconstruction. The results indicate that continuous freehand drawing supports faster line creation than the control point based alternatives, although with reduced accuracy. User preferences for the different techniques are mixed and vary considerably between the different tasks, highlighting the value of diverse and flexible interactions. The combined effectiveness of these three drawing techniques is illustrated in an example application of 3D AR drawing.

Lu, Zhaojun, Wang, Qian, Qu, Gang, Liu, Zhenglin.  2018.  BARS: A Blockchain-Based Anonymous Reputation System for Trust Management in VANETs. 2018 17th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/ 12th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :98–103.
The public key infrastructure (PKI) based authentication protocol provides the basic security services for vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs). However, trust and privacy are still open issues due to the unique characteristics of vehicles. It is crucial for VANETs to prevent internal vehicles from broadcasting forged messages while simultaneously protecting the privacy of each vehicle against tracking attacks. In this paper, we propose a blockchain-based anonymous reputation system (BARS) to break the linkability between real identities and public keys to preserve privacy. The certificate and revocation transparency is implemented efficiently using two blockchains. We design a trust model to improve the trustworthiness of messages relying on the reputation of the sender based on both direct historical interactions and indirect opinions about the sender. Experiments are conducted to evaluate BARS in terms of security and performance and the results show that BARS is able to establish distributed trust management, while protecting the privacy of vehicles.
Santoro, Donatello, Arocena, Patricia C., Glavic, Boris, Mecca, Giansalvatore, Miller, Renée J., Papotti, Paolo.  2016.  BART in Action: Error Generation and Empirical Evaluations of Data-Cleaning Systems. Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Management of Data. :2161–2164.

Repairing erroneous or conflicting data that violate a set of constraints is an important problem in data management. Many automatic or semi-automatic data-repairing algorithms have been proposed in the last few years, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. Bart is an open-source error-generation system conceived to support thorough experimental evaluations of these data-repairing systems. The demo is centered around three main lessons. To start, we discuss how generating errors in data is a complex problem, with several facets. We introduce the important notions of detectability and repairability of an error, that stand at the core of Bart. Then, we show how, by changing the features of errors, it is possible to influence quite significantly the performance of the tools. Finally, we concretely put to work five data-repairing algorithms on dirty data of various kinds generated using Bart, and discuss their performance.

Paone, J., Bolme, D., Ferrell, R., Aykac, D., Karnowski, T..  2015.  Baseline face detection, head pose estimation, and coarse direction detection for facial data in the SHRP2 naturalistic driving study. 2015 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV). :174–179.

Keeping a driver focused on the road is one of the most critical steps in insuring the safe operation of a vehicle. The Strategic Highway Research Program 2 (SHRP2) has over 3,100 recorded videos of volunteer drivers during a period of 2 years. This extensive naturalistic driving study (NDS) contains over one million hours of video and associated data that could aid safety researchers in understanding where the driver's attention is focused. Manual analysis of this data is infeasible; therefore efforts are underway to develop automated feature extraction algorithms to process and characterize the data. The real-world nature, volume, and acquisition conditions are unmatched in the transportation community, but there are also challenges because the data has relatively low resolution, high compression rates, and differing illumination conditions. A smaller dataset, the head pose validation study, is available which used the same recording equipment as SHRP2 but is more easily accessible with less privacy constraints. In this work we report initial head pose accuracy using commercial and open source face pose estimation algorithms on the head pose validation data set.

Patel, Himanshu B., Jinwala, Devesh C., Patel, Dhiren R..  2016.  Baseline Intrusion Detection Framework for 6LoWPAN Devices. Adjunct Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Computing Networking and Services. :72–76.

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is working on 6LoW-PAN standard which allows smart devices to be connected to Internet using large address space of IPV6. 6LoWPAN acts as a bridge between resource constrained devices and the Internet. The entire IoT space is vulnerable to local threats as well as the threats from the Internet. Due to the random deployment of the network nodes and the absence of tamper resistant shield, the resource constrained IoT elements face potential insider attacks even in presence of front line defense mechanism that involved cryptographic protocols. To detect such insidious nodes, an Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is required as a second line of defense. In this paper, we attempt to analyze such potential insider attacks, while reviewing the IDS based countermeasures. We attempt to propose a baseline for designing IDS for 6LoWPAN based IoT system.

Peters, Travis, Lal, Reshma, Varadarajan, Srikanth, Pappachan, Pradeep, Kotz, David.  2018.  BASTION-SGX: Bluetooth and Architectural Support for Trusted I/O on SGX. Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Hardware and Architectural Support for Security and Privacy. :3:1–3:9.
This paper presents work towards realizing architectural support for Bluetooth Trusted I/O on SGX-enabled platforms, with the goal of providing I/O data protection that does not rely on system software security. Indeed, we are primarily concerned with protecting I/O from all software adversaries, including privileged software. In this paper we describe the challenges in designing and implementing Trusted I/O at the architectural level for Bluetooth. We propose solutions to these challenges. In addition, we describe our proof-of-concept work that extends existing over-the-air Bluetooth security all the way to an SGX enclave by securing user data between the Bluetooth Controller and an SGX enclave.
He, Yu-Lin, Wang, Ran, Kwong, Sam, Wang, Xi-Zhao.  2014.  Bayesian Classifiers Based on Probability Density Estimation and Their Applications to Simultaneous Fault Diagnosis. Inf. Sci.. 259:252–268.

A key characteristic of simultaneous fault diagnosis is that the features extracted from the original patterns are strongly dependent. This paper proposes a new model of Bayesian classifier, which removes the fundamental assumption of naive Bayesian, i.e., the independence among features. In our model, the optimal bandwidth selection is applied to estimate the class-conditional probability density function (p.d.f.), which is the essential part of joint p.d.f. estimation. Three well-known indices, i.e., classification accuracy, area under ROC curve, and probability mean square error, are used to measure the performance of our model in simultaneous fault diagnosis. Simulations show that our model is significantly superior to the traditional ones when the dependence exists among features.

Fihri, W. F., Ghazi, H. E., Kaabouch, N., Majd, B. A. E..  2017.  Bayesian decision model with trilateration for primary user emulation attack localization in cognitive radio networks. 2017 International Symposium on Networks, Computers and Communications (ISNCC). :1–6.

Primary user emulation (PUE) attack is one of the main threats affecting cognitive radio (CR) networks. The PUE can forge the same signal as the real primary user (PU) in order to use the licensed channel and cause deny of service (DoS). Therefore, it is important to locate the position of the PUE in order to stop and avoid any further attack. Several techniques have been proposed for localization, including the received signal strength indication RSSI, Triangulation, and Physical Network Layer Coding. However, the area surrounding the real PU is always affected by uncertainty. This uncertainty can be described as a lost (cost) function and conditional probability to be taken into consideration while proclaiming if a PU/PUE is the real PU or not. In this paper, we proposed a combination of a Bayesian model and trilateration technique. In the first part a trilateration technique is used to have a good approximation of the PUE position making use of the RSSI between the anchor nodes and the PU/PUE. In the second part, a Bayesian decision theory is used to claim the legitimacy of the PU based on the lost function and the conditional probability to help to determine the existence of the PUE attacker in the uncertainty area.

Karande, Vishal, Chandra, Swarup, Lin, Zhiqiang, Caballero, Juan, Khan, Latifur, Hamlen, Kevin.  2018.  BCD: Decomposing Binary Code Into Components Using Graph-Based Clustering. Proceedings of the 2018 on Asia Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :393-398.

Complex software is built by composing components implementing largely independent blocks of functionality. However, once the sources are compiled into an executable, that modularity is lost. This is unfortunate for code recipients, for whom knowing the components has many potential benefits, such as improved program understanding for reverse-engineering, identifying shared code across different programs, binary code reuse, and authorship attribution. A novel approach for decomposing such source-free program executables into components is here proposed. Given an executable, the approach first statically builds a decomposition graph, where nodes are functions and edges capture three types of relationships: code locality, data references, and function calls. It then applies a graph-theoretic approach to partition the functions into disjoint components. A prototype implementation, BCD, demonstrates the approach's efficacy: Evaluation of BCD with 25 C++ binary programs to recover the methods belonging to each class achieves high precision and recall scores for these tested programs.

Boukria, Sarra, Guerroumi, Mohamed, Romdhani, Imed.  2019.  BCFR: Blockchain-based Controller Against False Flow Rule Injection in SDN. 2019 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC). :1034–1039.

Software Defined Networking (SDN) technology increases the evolution of Internet and network development. SDN, with its logical centralization of controllers and global network overview changes the network's characteristics, on term of flexibility, availability and programmability. However, this development increased the network communication security challenges. To enhance the SDN security, we propose the BCFR solution to avoid false flow rules injection in SDN data layer devices. In this solution, we use the blockchain technology to provide the controller authentication and the integrity of the traffic flow circulated between the controller and the other network elements. This work is implemented using OpenStack platform and Onos controller. The evaluation results show the effectiveness of our proposal.

Jamader, Asik Rahaman, Das, Puja, Acharya, Biswa Ranjan.  2019.  BcIoT: Blockchain based DDos Prevention Architecture for IoT. 2019 International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control Systems (ICCS). :377–382.
The Internet of Things (IoT) visualizes a massive network with billions of interaction among smart things which are capable of contributing all sorts of services. Self-configuring things (nodes) are connected dynamically with a global network in IoT scenario. The small things are widely spread in a real world paradigm with minimal processing capacity and limited storage. The recent IoT technologies have more concerns about the security, privacy and reliability. Sharing personal data over the centralized system still remains as a challenging task. If the infrastructure is able to provide the assurance for transferring the data but for now it requires special attention on security and data consistency. Because, centralized system and infrastructure is viewed as a more attractive point for hacker or cyber-attacker. To solve this we present a secured smart contract based on Blockchain to develop a secured communicative network. A Hash based secret key is used for encryption and decryption purposes. A demo attack is done for developing a better understanding on blockchain technology in terms of their comparison and calculation.
Rieke, R., Seidemann, M., Talla, E. K., Zelle, D., Seeger, B..  2017.  Behavior Analysis for Safety and Security in Automotive Systems. 2017 25th Euromicro International Conference on Parallel, Distributed and Network-based Processing (PDP). :381–385.

The connection of automotive systems with other systems such as road-side units, other vehicles, and various servers in the Internet opens up new ways for attackers to remotely access safety relevant subsystems within connected cars. The security of connected cars and the whole vehicular ecosystem is thus of utmost importance for consumer trust and acceptance of this emerging technology. This paper describes an approach for on-board detection of unanticipated sequences of events in order to identify suspicious activities. The results show that this approach is fast enough for in-vehicle application at runtime. Several behavior models and synchronization strategies are analyzed in order to narrow down suspicious sequences of events to be sent in a privacy respecting way to a global security operations center for further in-depth analysis.