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Uda, Satoshi, Shikida, Mikifumi.  2016.  Challenges of Deploying PKI Based Client Digital Certification. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM on SIGUCCS Annual Conference. :55–60.

We are confronted with the threat from the theft of user-id / password information caused by phishing attacks. Now authentication by using the user-id and password is no longer safe. We can use the PKI-based authentication as a safer authentication mechanism. In our university, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST), we deployed On Demand Digital Certificate Issuing System for our users, and employ the PKI-based client certificates for log-on to web application, connecting to wireless network (including eduroam), using VPN service, and email sender signing. In addition, National In-stitute of Information (NII), which are providing common ICT infrastructure services for Japanese universities and institutes, started a service to issue client certificates in this year. So use of the electronic certificates will become more popular within a few years in Japan. However, there are not so enough cases deploying the electronic certificate based authentication in University infrastructure, we still has many tips and issues on operating this. In this paper, we introduce the use case of the electronic certificate in JAIST, the challenges and issues, and consider the future prospects.

Dou, C., Chen, W. H., Chen, Y. J., Lin, H. T., Lin, W. Y., Ho, M. S., Chang, M. F..  2017.  Challenges of emerging memory and memristor based circuits: Nonvolatile logics, IoT security, deep learning and neuromorphic computing. 2017 IEEE 12th International Conference on ASIC (ASICON). :140–143.

Emerging nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices are not limited to build nonvolatile memory macros. They can also be used in developing nonvolatile logics (nvLogics) for nonvolatile processors, security circuits for the internet of things (IoT), and computing-in-memory (CIM) for artificial intelligence (AI) chips. This paper explores the challenges in circuit designs of emerging memory devices for application in nonvolatile logics, security circuits, and CIM for deep neural networks (DNN). Several silicon-verified examples of these circuits are reviewed in this paper.

AlEnezi, Ali, AlMeraj, Zainab, Manuel, Paul.  2018.  Challenges of IoT Based Smart-Government Development. 2018 IEEE Green Technologies Conference (GreenTech). :155—160.

Smart governments are known as extensions of e-governments both built on the Internet of Things (IoT). In this paper, we classify smart governments into two types (1) new generation and (2) extended smart-government. We then put forth a framework for smart governments implementation and discuss the major challenges in its implementation showing security as the most prominent challenge in USA, mindscaping in Kuwait and investment in India.

Lehniger, Kai, Aftowicz, Marcin J., Langendorfer, Peter, Dyka, Zoya.  2020.  Challenges of Return-Oriented-Programming on the Xtensa Hardware Architecture. 2020 23rd Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design (DSD). :154–158.
This paper shows how the Xtensa architecture can be attacked with Return-Oriented-Programming (ROP). The presented techniques include possibilities for both supported Application Binary Interfaces (ABIs). Especially for the windowed ABI a powerful mechanism is presented that not only allows to jump to gadgets but also to manipulate registers without relying on specific gadgets. This paper purely focuses on how the properties of the architecture itself can be exploited to chain gadgets and not on specific attacks or a gadget catalog.
Ganguly, Pallab, Nasipuri, Mita, Dutta, Sourav.  2019.  Challenges of the Existing Security Measures Deployed in the Smart Grid Framework. 2019 IEEE 7th International Conference on Smart Energy Grid Engineering (SEGE). :1–5.
Due to the rise of huge population in mankind and the large variety of upcoming utilization of power, the energy requirement has substantially increased. Smart Grid is a very important part of the Smart Cities initiative and is one of the crucial components in distribution and reconciliation of energy. Security of the smart grid infrastructure, which is an integral part of the smart grid framework, intended at transitioning the conventional power grid system into a robust, reliable, adaptable and intelligent energy utility, is an impending problem that needs to be arrested quickly. With the increasingly intensifying integration of smart devices in the smart grid infrastructure with other interconnected applications and the communication backbone is compelling both the energy users and the energy utilities to thoroughly look into the privacy and security issues of the smart grid. In this paper, we present challenges of the existing security mechanisms deployed in the smart grid framework and we tried to bring forward the unresolved problems that would highlight the security aspects of Smart Grid as a challenging area of research and development in the future.
Watney, M..  2014.  Challenges pertaining to cyber war under international law. Cyber Security, Cyber Warfare and Digital Forensic (CyberSec), 2014 Third International Conference on. :1-5.

State-level intrusion in the cyberspace of another country seriously threatens a state's peace and security. Consequently many types of cyberspace intrusion are being referred to as cyber war with scant regard to the legal position under international law. This is but one of the challenges facing state-level cyber intrusion. The current rules of international law prohibit certain types of intrusion. However, international law does not define which intrusion fall within the prohibited category of intrusion nor when the threshold of intrusion is surpassed. International lawyers have to determine the type of intrusion and threshold on a case-by-case basis. The Tallinn Manual may serve as guideline in this assessment, but determination of the type of intrusion and attribution to a specific state is not easily established. The current rules of international law do not prohibit all intrusion which on statelevel may be highly invasive and destructive. Unrestrained cyber intrusion may result in cyberspace becoming a battle space in which state(s) with strong cyber abilities dominate cyberspace resulting in resentment and fear among other states. The latter may be prevented on an international level by involving all states on an equal and transparent manner in cyberspace governance.
 

Raza, N..  2015.  Challenges to network forensics in cloud computing. 2015 Conference on Information Assurance and Cyber Security (CIACS). :22–29.

The digital forensics refers to the application of scientific techniques in investigation of a crime, specifically to identify or validate involvement of some suspect in an activity leading towards that crime. Network forensics particularly deals with the monitoring of network traffic with an aim to trace some suspected activity from normal traffic or to identify some abnormal pattern in the traffic that may give clue towards some attack. Network forensics, quite valuable phenomenon in investigation process, presents certain challenges including problems in accessing network devices of cloud architecture, handling large amount network traffic, and rigorous processing required to analyse the huge volume of data, of which large proportion may prove to be irrelevant later on. Cloud Computing technology offers services to its clients remotely from a shared pool of resources, as per clients customized requirement, any time, from anywhere. Cloud Computing has attained tremendous popularity recently, leading to its vast and rapid deployment, however Privacy and Security concerns have also increased in same ratio, since data and application is outsourced to a third party. Security concerns about cloud architecture have come up as the prime barrier hindering the major shift of industry towards cloud model, despite significant advantages of cloud architecture. Cloud computing architecture presents aggravated and specific challenges in the network forensics. In this paper, I have reviewed challenges and issues faced in conducting network forensics particularly in the cloud computing environment. The study covers limitations that a network forensic expert may confront during investigation in cloud environment. I have categorized challenges presented to network forensics in cloud computing into various groups. Challenges in each group can be handled appropriately by either Forensic experts, Cloud service providers or Forensic tools whereas leftover challenges are declared as be- ond the control.

Bondi, André B..  2016.  Challenges with Applying Performance Testing Methods for Systems Deployed on Shared Environments with Indeterminate Competing Workloads: Position Paper. Companion Publication for ACM/SPEC on International Conference on Performance Engineering. :41–44.

There is a tendency to move production environments from corporate-owned data centers to cloud-based services. Users who do not maintain a private production environment might not wish to maintain a private performance test environment either. The application of performance engineering methods to the development and delivery of software systems is complicated when the form and or parameters of the target deployment environment cannot be controlled or determined. The difficulty of diagnosing the causes of performance issues during testing or production may be increased by the presence of highly variable workloads on the target platform that compete with the application of interest for resources in ways that might be hard to determine. In particular, performance tests might be conducted in virtualized environments that introduce factors influencing customer-affecting metrics (such as transaction response time) and observed resource usage. Observed resource usage metrics in virtualized environments can have different meanings from those in a native environment. Virtual machines may suffer delays in execution. We explore factors that exacerbate these complications. We argue that these complexities reinforce the case for rigorously using software performance engineering methods rather than diminishing it. We also explore possible performance testing methods for mitigating the risk associated with these complexities.

Gregr, M., Veda, M..  2014.  Challenges with Transition and User Accounting in Next Generation Networks. Network Protocols (ICNP), 2014 IEEE 22nd International Conference on. :501-503.

Future networks may change the way how network administrators monitor and account their users. History shows that usually a completely new design (clean slate) is used to propose a new network architecture - e.g. Network Control Protocol to TCP/IP, IPv4 to IPv6 or IP to Recursive Inter Network Architecture. The incompatibility between these architectures changes the user accounting process as network administrators have to use different information to identify a user. The paper presents a methodology how it is possible to gather all necessary information needed for smooth transition between two incompatible architectures. The transition from IPv4 and IPv6 is used as a use case, but it should be able to use the same process with any new networking architecture.
 

Ferenc, Rudolf, Heged\H us, Péter, Gyimesi, Péter, Antal, Gábor, Bán, Dénes, Gyimóthy, Tibor.  2019.  Challenging Machine Learning Algorithms in Predicting Vulnerable JavaScript Functions. 2019 IEEE/ACM 7th International Workshop on Realizing Artificial Intelligence Synergies in Software Engineering (RAISE). :8-14.

The rapid rise of cyber-crime activities and the growing number of devices threatened by them place software security issues in the spotlight. As around 90% of all attacks exploit known types of security issues, finding vulnerable components and applying existing mitigation techniques is a viable practical approach for fighting against cyber-crime. In this paper, we investigate how the state-of-the-art machine learning techniques, including a popular deep learning algorithm, perform in predicting functions with possible security vulnerabilities in JavaScript programs. We applied 8 machine learning algorithms to build prediction models using a new dataset constructed for this research from the vulnerability information in public databases of the Node Security Project and the Snyk platform, and code fixing patches from GitHub. We used static source code metrics as predictors and an extensive grid-search algorithm to find the best performing models. We also examined the effect of various re-sampling strategies to handle the imbalanced nature of the dataset. The best performing algorithm was KNN, which created a model for the prediction of vulnerable functions with an F-measure of 0.76 (0.91 precision and 0.66 recall). Moreover, deep learning, tree and forest based classifiers, and SVM were competitive with F-measures over 0.70. Although the F-measures did not vary significantly with the re-sampling strategies, the distribution of precision and recall did change. No re-sampling seemed to produce models preferring high precision, while re-sampling strategies balanced the IR measures.

Nielsen, C., Mathiesen, M., Nielsen, J., Jensen, L. C..  2019.  Changes in Heart Rate and Feeling of Safety When Led by a Rehabilitation Robot. 2019 14th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI). :580—581.

Trust is an important topic in medical human-robot interaction, since patients may be more fragile than other groups of people. This paper investigates the issue of users' trust when interacting with a rehabilitation robot. In the study, we investigate participants' heart rate and perception of safety in a scenario when their arm is led by the rehabilitation robot in two types of exercises at three different velocities. The participants' heart rate are measured during each exercise and the participants are asked how safe they feel after each exercise. The results showed that velocity and type of exercise has no significant influence on the participants' heart rate, but they do have significant influence on how safe they feel. We found that increasing velocity and longer exercises negatively influence participants' perception of safety.

He, Xiaofan, Dai, Huaiyu, Shen, Wenbo, Ning, Peng.  2014.  Channel Correlation Modeling for Link Signature Security Assessment. Proceedings of the 2014 Symposium and Bootcamp on the Science of Security. :25:1–25:2.

It is widely accepted that wireless channels decorrelate fast over space, and half a wavelength is the key distance metric used in link signature (LS) for security assurance. However, we believe that this channel correlation model is questionable, and will lead to false sense of security. In this project, we focus on establishing correct modeling of channel correlation so as to facilitate proper guard zone designs for LS security in various wireless environments of interest.

Qiao, Yue, Srinivasan, Kannan, Arora, Anish.  2017.  Channel Spoofer: Defeating Channel Variability and Unpredictability. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Emerging Networking EXperiments and Technologies. :402–413.
A vast literature on secret sharing protocols now exists based on the folk theorem that the wireless channel between communicating parties Alice and Bob cannot be controlled or predicted by a third party in a fine-grain way. We find that the folk theorem unfortunately does not hold. In particular, we show how an adversary, using a customized full-duplex forwarder, can control the channel seen by Alice and Bob in fine granularity without leaving a trace, while predicting with high probability the secrets generated by any channel reciprocity based secret sharing protocol. An implementation of our proposed secret manipulator, called Channel Spoofer, on a software-defined radio platform empirically verifies Channel Spoofer's effectiveness in breaking several representative state-of-the-art secret sharing protocols. To the best of our knowledge, the proposed Channel Spoofer is the first practical attacker against all extant channel reciprocity based secret sharing protocols.
Steinebach, Martin, Ester, Andre, Liu, Huajian.  2018.  Channel Steganalysis. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security. :9:1-9:8.

The rise of social networks during the last 10 years has created a situation in which up to 100 million new images and photographs are uploaded and shared by users every day. This environment poses an ideal background for those who wish to communicate covertly by the use of steganography. It also creates a new set of challenges for steganalysts, who have to shift their field of work away from a purely scientific laboratory environment and into a diverse real-world scenario, while at the same time having to deal with entirely new problems, such as the detection of steganographic channels or the impact that even a low false positive rate has when investigating the millions of images which are shared every day on social networks. We evaluate how to address these challenges with traditional steganographic and statistical methods, rather then using high performance computing and machine learning. To achieve this we first analyze the steganographic algorithm F5 applied to images with a high degree of diversity, as would be seen in a typical social network. We show that the biggest challenge lies in the detection of images whose payload is less then 50% of the available capacity of an image. We suggest new detection methods and apply these to the problem of channel detection in social network. We are able to show that using our attacks we are able to detect the majority of covert F5 channels after a mix containing 10 stego images has been classified by our scheme.

T, Baby H., R, Sujatha B..  2016.  Chaos based Combined Multiple Recursive KEY Generator for Crypto-Systems. 2016 2nd International Conference on Applied and Theoretical Computing and Communication Technology (iCATccT). :411–415.

With the ever increasing growth of internet usage, ensuring high security for information has gained great importance, due to the several threats in the communication channels. Hence there is continuous research towards finding a suitable approach to ensure high security for the information. In recent decades, cryptography is being used extensively for providing security on the Internet although primarily used in the military and diplomatic communities. One such approach is the application of Chaos theory in cryptosystems. In this work, we have proposed the usage of combined multiple recursive generator (CMRG) for KEY generation based on a chaotic function to generate different multiple keys. It is seen that negligible difference in parameters of chaotic function generates completely different keys as well as cipher text. The main motive for developing the chaos based cryptosystem is to attain encryption that provides high security at comparatively higher speed but with lower complexity and cost over the conventional encryption algorithms.

Ito, Keita, Masuda, Yoshihiro, Okamoto, Eiji.  2019.  A Chaos MIMO-Based Polar Concatenation Code for Secure Channel Coding. 2019 International Conference on Information Networking (ICOIN). :262—267.

For secure and high-quality wireless transmission, we propose a chaos multiple-input multiple-output (C-MIMO) transmission scheme, in which physical layer security and a channel coding effect with a coding rate of 1 are obtained by chaotic MIMO block modulation. In previous studies, we introduced a log-likelihood ratio (LLR) to C-MIMO to exploit LLR-based outer channel coding and turbo decoding, and obtained further coding gain. However, we only studied the concatenation of turbo code, low-density parity check (LDPC) code, and convolutional code which were relatively high-complexity or weak codes; thus, outer code having further low-complexity and strong error correction ability were expected. In particular, a transmission system with short and good code is required for control signaling, such as in 5G networks. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a polar code concatenation to C-MIMO, and introduce soft successive decoding (SCAD) and soft successive cancellation list decoding (SSCLD) as LLR-based turbo decoding for polar code. We numerically evaluate the bit error rate performance of the proposed scheme, and compare it to the conventional LDPC-concatenated transmission.

Guo, L., Chen, J., Li, J..  2016.  Chaos-Based color image encryption and compression scheme using DNA complementary rule and Chinese remainder theorem. 2016 13th International Computer Conference on Wavelet Active Media Technology and Information Processing (ICCWAMTIP). :208–212.

In this paper, we propose a new color image encryption and compression algorithm based on the DNA complementary rule and the Chinese remainder theorem, which combines the DNA complementary rule with quantum chaotic map. We use quantum chaotic map and DNA complementary rule to shuffle the color image and obtain the shuffled image, then Chinese remainder theorem from number theory is utilized to diffuse and compress the shuffled image simultaneously. The security analysis and experiment results show that the proposed encryption algorithm has large key space and good encryption result, it also can resist against common attacks.

Zaher, A. A., Hussain, G. Amjad.  2019.  Chaos-based Cryptography for Transmitting Multimedia Data over Public Channels. 2019 7th International Conference on Information and Communication Technology (CoICT). :1–6.

This paper explores using chaos-based cryptography for transmitting multimedia data, mainly speech and voice messages, over public communication channels, such as the internet. The secret message to be transmitted is first converted into a one-dimensional time series, that can be cast in a digital/binary format. The main feature of the proposed technique is mapping the two levels of every corresponding bit of the time series into different multiple chaotic orbits, using a simple encryption function. This one-to-many mapping robustifies the encryption technique and makes it resilient to crypto-analysis methods that rely on associating the energy level of the signal into two binary levels, using return map attacks. A chaotic nonautonomous Duffing oscillator is chosen to implement the suggested technique, using three different parameters that are assumed unknown at the receiver side. Synchronization between the transmitter and the receiver and reconstructing the secret message, at the receiver side, is done using a Lyapunov-based adaptive technique. Achieving stable operation, tuning the required control gains, as well as effective utilization of the bandwidth of the public communication channel are investigated. Two different case studies are presented; the first one deals with text that can be expressed as 8-bit ASCII code, while the second one corresponds to an analog acoustic signal that corresponds to the voice associated with pronouncing a short sentence. Advantages and limitation of the proposed technique are highlighted, while suggesting extensions to other multimedia signals, along with their required additional computational effort.

Zaher, Ashraf A., Amjad Hussain, G..  2019.  Chaos-based Cryptography for Transmitting Multimedia Data over Public Channels. 2019 7th International Conference on Information and Communication Technology (ICoICT). :1–6.

This paper explores using chaos-based cryptography for transmitting multimedia data, mainly speech and voice messages, over public communication channels, such as the internet. The secret message to be transmitted is first converted into a one-dimensional time series, that can be cast in a digital/binary format. The main feature of the proposed technique is mapping the two levels of every corresponding bit of the time series into different multiple chaotic orbits, using a simple encryption function. This one-to-many mapping robustifies the encryption technique and makes it resilient to crypto-analysis methods that rely on associating the energy level of the signal into two binary levels, using return map attacks. A chaotic nonautonomous Duffing oscillator is chosen to implement the suggested technique, using three different parameters that are assumed unknown at the receiver side. Synchronization between the transmitter and the receiver and reconstructing the secret message, at the receiver side, is done using a Lyapunov-based adaptive technique. Achieving stable operation, tuning the required control gains, as well as effective utilization of the bandwidth of the public communication channel are investigated. Two different case studies are presented; the first one deals with text that can be expressed as 8-bit ASCII code, while the second one corresponds to an analog acoustic signal that corresponds to the voice associated with pronouncing a short sentence. Advantages and limitation of the proposed technique are highlighted, while suggesting extensions to other multimedia signals, along with their required additional computational effort.

Zhou, Yiwen, Shen, Qili, Dong, Mianxiong, Ota, Kaoru, Wu, Jun.  2019.  Chaos-Based Delay-Constrained Green Security Communications for Fog-Enabled Information-Centric Multimedia Network. 2019 IEEE 89th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2019-Spring). :1–6.
The Information-Centric Network possessing the content-centric features, is the innovative architecture of the next generation of network. Collaborating with fog computing characterized by its strong edge power, ICN will become the development trend of the future network. The emergence of Information-Centric Multimedia Network (ICMN) can meet the increasing demand for transmission of multimedia streams in the current Internet environment. The data transmission has become more delay-constrained and convenient because of the distributed storage, the separation between the location of information and terminals, and the strong cacheability of each node in ICN. However, at the same time, the security of the multimedia streams in the delivery process still requires further protection against wiretapping, interception or attacking. In this paper, we propose the delay-constrained green security communications for ICMN based on chaotic encryption and fog computing so as to transmit multimedia streams in a more secure and time-saving way. We adapt a chaotic cryptographic method to ICMN, implementing the encryption and decryption of multimedia streams. Meanwhile, the network edge capability to process the encryption and decryption is enhanced. Thanks to the fog computing, the strengthened transmission speed of the multimedia streams can fulfill the need for short latency. The work in the paper is of great significance to improve the green security communications of multimedia streams in ICMN.
Karmakar, J., Mandal, M. K..  2020.  Chaos-based Image Encryption using Integer Wavelet Transform. 2020 7th International Conference on Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN). :756–760.
Since the last few decades, several chaotic encryption techniques are reported by different researchers. Although the cryptanalysis of some techniques shows the feebler resistance of those algorithms against any weaker attackers. However, different hyper-chaotic based and DNA-coding based encrypting methods are introduced recently. Though, these methods are efficient against several attacks, but, increase complexity as well. On account of these drawbacks, we have proposed a novel technique of chaotic encryption of an image using the integer wavelet transform (IWT) and global bit scrambling (GBS). Here, the image is transformed and decomposed by IWT. Thereafter, a chaotic map is used in the encryption algorithm. A key-dependent bit scrambling (GBS) is introduced rather than pixel scrambling to make the encryption stronger. It enhances key dependency along with the increased resistance against intruder attacks. To check the fragility and dependability of the algorithm, a sufficient number of tests are done, which have given reassuring results. Some tests are done to check the similarity between the original and decrypted image to ensure the excellent outcome of the decryption algorithm. The outcomes of the proposed algorithm are compared with some recent works' outputs to demonstrate its eligibility.
Wu, Xiaoge, Zhang, Lin.  2019.  Chaos-based Information Rotated Polar Coding Scheme for Visible Light Wiretap Channel. 2019 International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications (ICNC). :864–868.

In this paper, we present a chaos-based information rotated polar coding scheme for enhancing the reliability and security of visible light communication (VLC) systems. In our scheme, we rotate the original information, wherein the rotation principle is determined by two chaotic sequences. Then the rotated information is encoded by secure polar coding scheme. After the channel polarization achieved by the polar coding, we could identify the bit-channels providing good transmission conditions for legitimate users and the bit-channels with bad conditions for eavesdroppers. Simulations are performed over the visible light wiretap channel. The results demonstrate that compared with existing schemes, the proposed scheme can achieve better reliability and security even when the eavesdroppers have better channel conditions.

Kar, N., Aman, M. A. A. A., Mandal, K., Bhattacharya, B..  2017.  Chaos-based video steganography. 2017 8th International Conference on Information Technology (ICIT). :482–487.

In this paper a novel data hiding method has been proposed which is based on Non-Linear Feedback Shift Register and Tinkerbell 2D chaotic map. So far, the major work in Steganography using chaotic map has been confined to image steganography where significant restrictions are there to increase payload. In our work, 2D chaotic map and NLFSR are used to developed a video steganography mechanism where data will be embedded in the segregated frames. This will increase the data hiding limit exponentially. Also, embedding position of each frame will be different from others frames which will increase the overall security of the proposed mechanism. We have achieved this randomized data hiding points by using a chaotic map. Basically, Chaotic theory which is non-linear dynamics physics is using in this era in the field of Cryptography and Steganography and because of this theory, little bit changes in initial condition makes the output totally different. So, it is very hard to get embedding position of data without knowing the initial value of the chaotic map.

Betha, Durga Janardhana Anudeep, Bhanuj, Tatineni Sai, Umamaheshwari, B, Iyer, R. Abirami, Devi, R. Santhiya, Amirtharajan, Rengarajan, Praveenkumar, Padmapriya.  2019.  Chaotic based Image Encryption - A Neutral Perspective. 2019 International Conference on Computer Communication and Informatics (ICCCI). :1—5.

Today, there are several applications which allow us to share images over the internet. All these images must be stored in a secure manner and should be accessible only to the intended recipients. Hence it is of utmost importance to develop efficient and fast algorithms for encryption of images. This paper uses chaotic generators to generate random sequences which can be used as keys for image encryption. These sequences are seemingly random and have statistical properties. This makes them resistant to analysis and correlation attacks. However, these sequences have fixed cycle lengths. This restricts the number of sequences that can be used as keys. This paper utilises neural networks as a source of perturbation in a chaotic generator and uses its output to encrypt an image. The robustness of the encryption algorithm can be verified using NPCR, UACI, correlation coefficient analysis and information entropy analysis.

Yu, Z., Fang, X., Zhou, Y., Xiao, L., Zhang, L..  2020.  Chaotic Constellation Scrambling Method for Security-Enhanced CO-OFDM/OQAM Systems. 2020 12th International Conference on Communication Software and Networks (ICCSN). :192–195.
With the deep research on coherent optical OFDM offset quadrature amplitude modulation OFDM/OQAM in these years, and the communication system exposed to potential threat from various capable attackers, which prompt people lay emphasis on encryption methods for transmission. Therefore, in this paper, we systematically discuss an encryption project with the main purpose of improving security in coherent optical OFDM/OQAM (CO-OFDM/OQAM) system, and the scheme applied the chaotic constellation scrambling (CCS) which founded on chaotic cross mapping to encrypt transmitted information. Besides, we also systematically discuss the basic principle of the encryption scheme for CO-OFDM/OQAM system. According to numerous studies and analysis on experiment data with caution, such as the performance of entropy, bit error rate (BER). It's conforms that the security of CO-OFDM/OQAM system have been enhanced.