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Đorđević, M., Milivojević, M., Gavrovska, A..  2019.  DeepFake Video Analysis using SIFT Features. 2019 27th Telecommunications Forum (℡FOR). :1—4.
Recent advantages in changing faces using DeepFake algorithms, which replace a face of one person with a face of another, truly represent what artificial intelligence and deep learning are capable of. Deepfakes in still images or video clips represent forgeries and tampered visual information. They are becoming increasingly successful and even difficult to notice in some cases. In this paper we analyze deepfakes using SIFT (Scale-Invariant Feature Transform) features. The experimental results show that in deepfake analysis using SIFT keypoints can be considered valuable.
Amerini, I., Galteri, L., Caldelli, R., Bimbo, A. Del.  2019.  Deepfake Video Detection through Optical Flow Based CNN. 2019 IEEE/CVF International Conference on Computer Vision Workshop (ICCVW). :1205—1207.
Recent advances in visual media technology have led to new tools for processing and, above all, generating multimedia contents. In particular, modern AI-based technologies have provided easy-to-use tools to create extremely realistic manipulated videos. Such synthetic videos, named Deep Fakes, may constitute a serious threat to attack the reputation of public subjects or to address the general opinion on a certain event. According to this, being able to individuate this kind of fake information becomes fundamental. In this work, a new forensic technique able to discern between fake and original video sequences is given; unlike other state-of-the-art methods which resorts at single video frames, we propose the adoption of optical flow fields to exploit possible inter-frame dissimilarities. Such a clue is then used as feature to be learned by CNN classifiers. Preliminary results obtained on FaceForensics++ dataset highlight very promising performances.
Rana, M. S., Sung, A. H..  2020.  DeepfakeStack: A Deep Ensemble-based Learning Technique for Deepfake Detection. 2020 7th IEEE International Conference on Cyber Security and Cloud Computing (CSCloud)/2020 6th IEEE International Conference on Edge Computing and Scalable Cloud (EdgeCom). :70—75.
Recent advances in technology have made the deep learning (DL) models available for use in a wide variety of novel applications; for example, generative adversarial network (GAN) models are capable of producing hyper-realistic images, speech, and even videos, such as the so-called “Deepfake” produced by GANs with manipulated audio and/or video clips, which are so realistic as to be indistinguishable from the real ones in human perception. Aside from innovative and legitimate applications, there are numerous nefarious or unlawful ways to use such counterfeit contents in propaganda, political campaigns, cybercrimes, extortion, etc. To meet the challenges posed by Deepfake multimedia, we propose a deep ensemble learning technique called DeepfakeStack for detecting such manipulated videos. The proposed technique combines a series of DL based state-of-art classification models and creates an improved composite classifier. Based on our experiments, it is shown that DeepfakeStack outperforms other classifiers by achieving an accuracy of 99.65% and AUROC of 1.0 score in detecting Deepfake. Therefore, our method provides a solid basis for building a Realtime Deepfake detector.
Yang, Huan, Cheng, Liang, Chuah, Mooi Choo.  2019.  Deep-Learning-Based Network Intrusion Detection for SCADA Systems. 2019 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1–7.

Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)networks are widely deployed in modern industrial control systems (ICSs)such as energy-delivery systems. As an increasing number of field devices and computing nodes get interconnected, network-based cyber attacks have become major cyber threats to ICS network infrastructure. Field devices and computing nodes in ICSs are subjected to both conventional network attacks and specialized attacks purposely crafted for SCADA network protocols. In this paper, we propose a deep-learning-based network intrusion detection system for SCADA networks to protect ICSs from both conventional and SCADA specific network-based attacks. Instead of relying on hand-crafted features for individual network packets or flows, our proposed approach employs a convolutional neural network (CNN)to characterize salient temporal patterns of SCADA traffic and identify time windows where network attacks are present. In addition, we design a re-training scheme to handle previously unseen network attack instances, enabling SCADA system operators to extend our neural network models with site-specific network attack traces. Our results using realistic SCADA traffic data sets show that the proposed deep-learning-based approach is well-suited for network intrusion detection in SCADA systems, achieving high detection accuracy and providing the capability to handle newly emerged threats.

Mao, J., Li, X., Lin, Q., Guan, Z..  2020.  Deeply understanding graph-based Sybil detection techniques via empirical analysis on graph processing. China Communications. 17:82–96.
Sybil attacks are one of the most prominent security problems of trust mechanisms in a distributed network with a large number of highly dynamic and heterogeneous devices, which expose serious threat to edge computing based distributed systems. Graphbased Sybil detection approaches extract social structures from target distributed systems, refine the graph via preprocessing methods and capture Sybil nodes based on the specific properties of the refined graph structure. Graph preprocessing is a critical component in such Sybil detection methods, and intuitively, the processing methods will affect the detection performance. Thoroughly understanding the dependency on the graph-processing methods is very important to develop and deploy Sybil detection approaches. In this paper, we design experiments and conduct systematic analysis on graph-based Sybil detection with respect to different graph preprocessing methods on selected network environments. The experiment results disclose the sensitivity caused by different graph transformations on accuracy and robustness of Sybil detection methods.
Zhang, J..  2020.  DeepMal: A CNN-LSTM Model for Malware Detection Based on Dynamic Semantic Behaviours. 2020 International Conference on Computer Information and Big Data Applications (CIBDA). :313–316.
Malware refers to any software accessing or being installed in a system without the authorisation of administrators. Various malware has been widely used for cyber-criminals to accomplish their evil intentions and goals. To combat the increasing amount and reduce the threat of malicious programs, a novel deep learning framework, which uses NLP techniques for reference, combines CNN and LSTM neurones to capture the locally spatial correlations and learn from sequential longterm dependency is proposed. Hence, high-level abstractions and representations are automatically extracted for the malware classification task. The classification accuracy improves from 0.81 (best one by Random Forest) to approximately 1.0.
Heechul Yun, Michael Bechtel, Elise McEllhiney, Minje Kim.  2018.  DeepPicar: A Low-cost Deep Neural Network-based Autonomous Car. IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA). :11-21.

We present DeepPicar, a low-cost deep neural network based autonomous car platform. DeepPicar is a small scale replication of a real self-driving car called DAVE-2 by NVIDIA. DAVE-2 uses a deep convolutional neural network (CNN), which takes images from a front-facing camera as input and produces car steering angles as output. DeepPicar uses the same network architecture—9 layers, 27 million connections and 250K parameters—and can drive itself in real-time using a web camera and a Raspberry Pi 3 quad-core platform. Using DeepPicar, we analyze the Pi 3’s computing capabilities to support end-to-end deep learning based real-time control of autonomous vehicles. We also systematically compare other contemporary embedded computing platforms using the DeepPicar’s CNN-based real-time control workload. We find that all tested platforms, including the Pi 3, are capable of supporting the CNN-based real-time control, from 20 Hz up to 100 Hz, depending on hardware platform. However, we find that shared resource contention remains an important issue that must be considered in applying CNN models on shared memory based embedded computing platforms; we observe up to 11.6X execution time increase in the CNN based control loop due to shared resource contention. To protect the CNN workload, we also evaluate state-of-the-art cache partitioning and memory bandwidth throttling techniques on the Pi 3. We find that cache partitioning is ineffective, while memory bandwidth throttling is an effective solution.

Baughman, A.K., Chuang, W., Dixon, K.R., Benz, Z., Basilico, J..  2014.  DeepQA Jeopardy! Gamification: A Machine-Learning Perspective. Computational Intelligence and AI in Games, IEEE Transactions on. 6:55-66.

DeepQA is a large-scale natural language processing (NLP) question-and-answer system that responds across a breadth of structured and unstructured data, from hundreds of analytics that are combined with over 50 models, trained through machine learning. After the 2011 historic milestone of defeating the two best human players in the Jeopardy! game show, the technology behind IBM Watson, DeepQA, is undergoing gamification into real-world business problems. Gamifying a business domain for Watson is a composite of functional, content, and training adaptation for nongame play. During domain gamification for medical, financial, government, or any other business, each system change affects the machine-learning process. As opposed to the original Watson Jeopardy!, whose class distribution of positive-to-negative labels is 1:100, in adaptation the computed training instances, question-and-answer pairs transformed into true-false labels, result in a very low positive-to-negative ratio of 1:100 000. Such initial extreme class imbalance during domain gamification poses a big challenge for the Watson machine-learning pipelines. The combination of ingested corpus sets, question-and-answer pairs, configuration settings, and NLP algorithms contribute toward the challenging data state. We propose several data engineering techniques, such as answer key vetting and expansion, source ingestion, oversampling classes, and question set modifications to increase the computed true labels. In addition, algorithm engineering, such as an implementation of the Newton-Raphson logistic regression with a regularization term, relaxes the constraints of class imbalance during training adaptation. We conclude by empirically demonstrating that data and algorithm engineering are complementary and indispensable to overcome the challenges in this first Watson gamification for real-world business problems.

Yu, Yiding, Wang, Taotao, Liew, Soung Chang.  2018.  Deep-Reinforcement Learning Multiple Access for Heterogeneous Wireless Networks. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1-7.

This paper investigates the use of deep reinforcement learning (DRL) in the design of a "universal" MAC protocol referred to as Deep-reinforcement Learning Multiple Access (DLMA). The design framework is partially inspired by the vision of DARPA SC2, a 3-year competition whereby competitors are to come up with a clean-slate design that "best share spectrum with any network(s), in any environment, without prior knowledge, leveraging on machine-learning technique". While the scope of DARPA SC2 is broad and involves the redesign of PHY, MAC, and Network layers, this paper's focus is narrower and only involves the MAC design. In particular, we consider the problem of sharing time slots among a multiple of time-slotted networks that adopt different MAC protocols. One of the MAC protocols is DLMA. The other two are TDMA and ALOHA. The DRL agents of DLMA do not know that the other two MAC protocols are TDMA and ALOHA. Yet, by a series of observations of the environment, its own actions, and the rewards - in accordance with the DRL algorithmic framework - a DRL agent can learn the optimal MAC strategy for harmonious co-existence with TDMA and ALOHA nodes. In particular, the use of neural networks in DRL (as opposed to traditional reinforcement learning) allows for fast convergence to optimal solutions and robustness against perturbation in hyper- parameter settings, two essential properties for practical deployment of DLMA in real wireless networks.

Goel, A., Agarwal, A., Vatsa, M., Singh, R., Ratha, N..  2019.  DeepRing: Protecting Deep Neural Network With Blockchain. 2019 IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshops (CVPRW). :2821—2828.

Several computer vision applications such as object detection and face recognition have started to completely rely on deep learning based architectures. These architectures, when paired with appropriate loss functions and optimizers, produce state-of-the-art results in a myriad of problems. On the other hand, with the advent of "blockchain", the cybersecurity industry has developed a new sense of trust which was earlier missing from both the technical and commercial perspectives. Employment of cryptographic hash as well as symmetric/asymmetric encryption and decryption algorithms ensure security without any human intervention (i.e., centralized authority). In this research, we present the synergy between the best of both these worlds. We first propose a model which uses the learned parameters of a typical deep neural network and is secured from external adversaries by cryptography and blockchain technology. As the second contribution of the proposed research, a new parameter tampering attack is proposed to properly justify the role of blockchain in machine learning.

Rouhani, Bita Darvish, Riazi, M. Sadegh, Koushanfar, Farinaz.  2018.  Deepsecure: Scalable Provably-secure Deep Learning. Proceedings of the 55th Annual Design Automation Conference. :2:1–2:6.
This paper presents DeepSecure, the an scalable and provably secure Deep Learning (DL) framework that is built upon automated design, efficient logic synthesis, and optimization methodologies. DeepSecure targets scenarios in which neither of the involved parties including the cloud servers that hold the DL model parameters or the delegating clients who own the data is willing to reveal their information. Our framework is the first to empower accurate and scalable DL analysis of data generated by distributed clients without sacrificing the security to maintain efficiency. The secure DL computation in DeepSecure is performed using Yao's Garbled Circuit (GC) protocol. We devise GC-optimized realization of various components used in DL. Our optimized implementation achieves up to 58-fold higher throughput per sample compared with the best prior solution. In addition to the optimized GC realization, we introduce a set of novel low-overhead pre-processing techniques which further reduce the GC overall runtime in the context of DL. Our extensive evaluations demonstrate up to two orders-of-magnitude additional runtime improvement achieved as a result of our pre-processing methodology.
Wang, Q., Zhao, W., Yang, J., Wu, J., Hu, W., Xing, Q..  2019.  DeepTrust: A Deep User Model of Homophily Effect for Trust Prediction. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Data Mining (ICDM). :618—627.

Trust prediction in online social networks is crucial for information dissemination, product promotion, and decision making. Existing work on trust prediction mainly utilizes the network structure or the low-rank approximation of a trust network. These approaches can suffer from the problem of data sparsity and prediction accuracy. Inspired by the homophily theory, which shows a pervasive feature of social and economic networks that trust relations tend to be developed among similar people, we propose a novel deep user model for trust prediction based on user similarity measurement. It is a comprehensive data sparsity insensitive model that combines a user review behavior and the item characteristics that this user is interested in. With this user model, we firstly generate a user's latent features mined from user review behavior and the item properties that the user cares. Then we develop a pair-wise deep neural network to further learn and represent these user features. Finally, we measure the trust relations between a pair of people by calculating the user feature vector cosine similarity. Extensive experiments are conducted on two real-world datasets, which demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed approach over the representative baseline works.

Fang, Yong, Li, Yang, Liu, Liang, Huang, Cheng.  2018.  DeepXSS: Cross Site Scripting Detection Based on Deep Learning. Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Computing and Artificial Intelligence. :47-51.

Nowadays, Cross Site Scripting (XSS) is one of the major threats to Web applications. Since it's known to the public, XSS vulnerability has been in the TOP 10 Web application vulnerabilities based on surveys published by the Open Web Applications Security Project (OWASP). How to effectively detect and defend XSS attacks are still one of the most important security issues. In this paper, we present a novel approach to detect XSS attacks based on deep learning (called DeepXSS). First of all, we used word2vec to extract the feature of XSS payloads which captures word order information and map each payload to a feature vector. And then, we trained and tested the detection model using Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) recurrent neural networks. Experimental results show that the proposed XSS detection model based on deep learning achieves a precision rate of 99.5% and a recall rate of 97.9% in real dataset, which means that the novel approach can effectively identify XSS attacks.

Liu, Hongbo, Wang, Hui, Chen, Yingying, Jia, Dayong.  2014.  Defending Against Frequency-Based Attacks on Distributed Data Storage in Wireless Networks. ACM Trans. Sen. Netw.. 10:49:1–49:37.

As wireless networks become more pervasive, the amount of the wireless data is rapidly increasing. One of the biggest challenges of wide adoption of distributed data storage is how to store these data securely. In this work, we study the frequency-based attack, a type of attack that is different from previously well-studied ones, that exploits additional adversary knowledge of domain values and/or their exact/approximate frequencies to crack the encrypted data. To cope with frequency-based attacks, the straightforward 1-to-1 substitution encryption functions are not sufficient. We propose a data encryption strategy based on 1-to-n substitution via dividing and emulating techniques to defend against the frequency-based attack, while enabling efficient query evaluation over encrypted data. We further develop two frameworks, incremental collection and clustered collection, which are used to defend against the global frequency-based attack when the knowledge of the global frequency in the network is not available. Built upon our basic encryption schemes, we derive two mechanisms, direct emulating and dual encryption, to handle updates on the data storage for energy-constrained sensor nodes and wireless devices. Our preliminary experiments with sensor nodes and extensive simulation results show that our data encryption strategy can achieve high security guarantee with low overhead.

Bellare, Mihir, Dai, Wei.  2017.  Defending Against Key Exfiltration: Efficiency Improvements for Big-Key Cryptography via Large-Alphabet Subkey Prediction. Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :923–940.

Towards advancing the use of big keys as a practical defense against key exfiltration, this paper provides efficiency improvements for cryptographic schemes in the bounded retrieval model (BRM). We identify probe complexity (the number of scheme accesses to the slow storage medium storing the big key) as the dominant cost. Our main technical contribution is what we call the large-alphabet subkey prediction lemma. It gives good bounds on the predictability under leakage of a random sequence of blocks of the big key, as a function of the block size. We use it to significantly reduce the probe complexity required to attain a given level of security. Together with other techniques, this yields security-preserving performance improvements for BRM symmetric encryption schemes and BRM public-key identification schemes.

Kariyappa, S., Qureshi, M. K..  2020.  Defending Against Model Stealing Attacks With Adaptive Misinformation. 2020 IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR). :767—775.

Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) are susceptible to model stealing attacks, which allows a data-limited adversary with no knowledge of the training dataset to clone the functionality of a target model, just by using black-box query access. Such attacks are typically carried out by querying the target model using inputs that are synthetically generated or sampled from a surrogate dataset to construct a labeled dataset. The adversary can use this labeled dataset to train a clone model, which achieves a classification accuracy comparable to that of the target model. We propose "Adaptive Misinformation" to defend against such model stealing attacks. We identify that all existing model stealing attacks invariably query the target model with Out-Of-Distribution (OOD) inputs. By selectively sending incorrect predictions for OOD queries, our defense substantially degrades the accuracy of the attacker's clone model (by up to 40%), while minimally impacting the accuracy (\textbackslashtextless; 0.5%) for benign users. Compared to existing defenses, our defense has a significantly better security vs accuracy trade-off and incurs minimal computational overhead.

Qin, Peng, Tan, Cheng, Zhao, Lei, Cheng, Yueqiang.  2019.  Defending against ROP Attacks with Nearly Zero Overhead. 2019 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM). :1–6.
Return-Oriented Programming (ROP) is a sophisticated exploitation technique that is able to drive target applications to perform arbitrary unintended operations by constructing a gadget chain reusing existing small code sequences (gadgets) collected across the entire code space. In this paper, we propose to address ROP attacks from a different angle-shrinking available code space at runtime. We present ROPStarvation , a generic and transparent ROP countermeasure that defend against all types of ROP attacks with almost zero run-time overhead. ROPStarvation does not aim to completely stop ROP attacks, instead it attempts to significantly increase the bar by decreasing the possibility of launching a successful ROP exploit in reality. Moreover, shrinking available code space at runtime is lightweight that makes ROPStarvation practical for being deployed with high performance requirement. Results show that ROPStarvation successfully reduces the code space of target applications by 85%. With the reduced code segments, ROPStarvation decreases the probability of building a valid ROP gadget chain by 100% and 83% respectively, with the assumptions that whether the adversary knows the vulnerable applications are protected by ROPStarvation . Evaluations on the SPEC CPU2006 benchmark show that ROPStarvation introduces nearly zero (0.2% on average) run-time performance overhead.
Wang, Bolun.  2016.  Defending Against Sybil Devices in Crowdsourced Mapping Services. Proceedings of on MobiSys 2016 PhD Forum. :3–4.

Crowdsourcing is an unique and practical approach to obtain personalized data and content. Its impact is especially significant in providing commentary, reviews and metadata, on a variety of location based services. In this study, we examine reliability of the Waze mapping service, and its vulnerability to a variety of location-based attacks. Our goals are to understand the severity of the problem, shed light on the general problem of location and device authentication, and explore the efficacy of potential defenses. Our preliminary results already show that a single attacker with limited resources can cause havoc on Waze, producing ``virtual'' congestion and accidents, automatically re-routing user traffic, and compromising user privacy by tracking users' precise movements via software while staying undetected. To defend against these attacks, we propose a proximity-based Sybil detection method to filter out malicious devices.

Wadhawan, Yatin, Neuman, Clifford.  2016.  Defending Cyber-Physical Attacks on Oil Pipeline Systems: A Game-Theoretic Approach. Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on AI for Privacy and Security. :7:1–7:8.

The security of critical infrastructures such as oil and gas cyber-physical systems is a significant concern in today's world where malicious activities are frequent like never before. On one side we have cyber criminals who compromise cyber infrastructure to control physical processes; we also have physical criminals who attack the physical infrastructure motivated to destroy the target or to steal oil from pipelines. Unfortunately, due to limited resources and physical dispersion, it is impossible for the system administrator to protect each target all the time. In this research paper, we tackle the problem of cyber and physical attacks on oil pipeline infrastructure by proposing a Stackelberg Security Game of three players: system administrator as a leader, cyber and physical attackers as followers. The novelty of this paper is that we have formulated a real world problem of oil stealing using a game theoretic approach. The game has two different types of targets attacked by two distinct types of adversaries with different motives and who can coordinate to maximize their rewards. The solution to this game assists the system administrator of the oil pipeline cyber-physical system to allocate the cyber security controls for the cyber targets and to assign patrol teams to the pipeline regions efficiently. This paper provides a theoretical framework for formulating and solving the above problem.

Kargaard, J., Drange, T., Kor, A., Twafik, H., Butterfield, E..  2018.  Defending IT Systems against Intelligent Malware. 2018 IEEE 9th International Conference on Dependable Systems, Services and Technologies (DESSERT). :411-417.

The increasing amount of malware variants seen in the wild is causing problems for Antivirus Software vendors, unable to keep up by creating signatures for each. The methods used to develop a signature, static and dynamic analysis, have various limitations. Machine learning has been used by Antivirus vendors to detect malware based on the information gathered from the analysis process. However, adversarial examples can cause machine learning algorithms to miss-classify new data. In this paper we describe a method for malware analysis by converting malware binaries to images and then preparing those images for training within a Generative Adversarial Network. These unsupervised deep neural networks are not susceptible to adversarial examples. The conversion to images from malware binaries should be faster than using dynamic analysis and it would still be possible to link malware families together. Using the Generative Adversarial Network, malware detection could be much more effective and reliable.

Wei, L., Moghadasi, A. H., Sundararajan, A., Sarwat, A. I..  2015.  Defending mechanisms for protecting power systems against intelligent attacks. 2015 10th System of Systems Engineering Conference (SoSE). :12–17.

The power system forms the backbone of a modern society, and its security is of paramount importance to nation's economy. However, the power system is vulnerable to intelligent attacks by attackers who have enough knowledge of how the power system is operated, monitored and controlled. This paper proposes a game theoretic approach to explore and evaluate strategies for the defender to protect the power systems against such intelligent attacks. First, a risk assessment is presented to quantify the physical impacts inflicted by attacks. Based upon the results of the risk assessment, this paper represents the interactions between the attacker and the defender by extending the current zero-sum game model to more generalized game models for diverse assumptions concerning the attacker's motivation. The attacker and defender's equilibrium strategies are attained by solving these game models. In addition, a numerical illustration is demonstrated to warrant the theoretical outcomes.

Maheshwari, R., Krishna, C.R., Brahma, M.S..  2014.  Defending network system against IP spoofing based distributed DoS attacks using DPHCF-RTT packet filtering technique. Issues and Challenges in Intelligent Computing Techniques (ICICT), 2014 International Conference on. :206-209.

IP spoofing based DDoS attack that relies on multiple compromised hosts in the network to attack the victim. In IP spoofing, IP addresses can be forged easily, thus, makes it difficult to filter illegitimate packets from legitimate one out of aggregated traffic. A number of mitigation techniques have been proposed in the literature by various researchers. The conventional Hop Count Filtering or probabilistic Hop Count Filtering based research work indicates the problems related to higher computational time and low detection rate of illegitimate packets. In this paper, DPHCF-RTT technique has been implemented and analysed for variable number of hops. Goal is to improve the limitations of Conventional HCF or Probabilistic HCF techniques by maximizing the detection rate of illegitimate packets and reducing the computation time. It is based on distributed probabilistic HCF using RTT. It has been used in an intermediate system. It has the advantage for resolving the problems of network bandwidth jam and host resources exhaustion. MATLAB 7 has been used for simulations. Mitigation of DDoS attacks have been done through DPHCF-RTT technique. It has been shown a maximum detection rate up to 99% of malicious packets.

Soleimani, M.T., Kahvand, M..  2014.  Defending packet dropping attacks based on dynamic trust model in wireless ad hoc networks. Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference (MELECON), 2014 17th IEEE. :362-366.

Rapid advances in wireless ad hoc networks lead to increase their applications in real life. Since wireless ad hoc networks have no centralized infrastructure and management, they are vulnerable to several security threats. Malicious packet dropping is a serious attack against these networks. In this attack, an adversary node tries to drop all or partial received packets instead of forwarding them to the next hop through the path. A dangerous type of this attack is called black hole. In this attack, after absorbing network traffic by the malicious node, it drops all received packets to form a denial of service (DOS) attack. In this paper, a dynamic trust model to defend network against this attack is proposed. In this approach, a node trusts all immediate neighbors initially. Getting feedback from neighbors' behaviors, a node updates the corresponding trust value. The simulation results by NS-2 show that the attack is detected successfully with low false positive probability.

Fraunholz, Daniel, Schotten, Hans D..  2018.  Defending Web Servers with Feints, Distraction and Obfuscation. 2018 International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications (ICNC). :21—25.

In this paper we investigate deceptive defense strategies for web servers. Web servers are widely exploited resources in the modern cyber threat landscape. Often these servers are exposed in the Internet and accessible for a broad range of valid as well as malicious users. Common security strategies like firewalls are not sufficient to protect web servers. Deception based Information Security enables a large set of counter measures to decrease the efficiency of intrusions. In this work we depict several techniques out of the reconnaissance process of an attacker. We match these with deceptive counter measures. All proposed measures are implemented in an experimental web server with deceptive counter measure abilities. We also conducted an experiment with honeytokens and evaluated delay strategies against automated scanner tools.

Zhang, H., Liu, H., Liang, J., Li, T., Geng, L., Liu, Y., Chen, S..  2020.  Defense Against Advanced Persistent Threats: Optimal Network Security Hardening Using Multi-stage Maze Network Game. 2020 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC). :1—6.
Advanced Persistent Threat (APT) is a stealthy, continuous and sophisticated method of network attacks, which can cause serious privacy leakage and millions of dollars losses. In this paper, we introduce a new game-theoretic framework of the interaction between a defender who uses limited Security Resources(SRs) to harden network and an attacker who adopts a multi-stage plan to attack the network. The game model is derived from Stackelberg games called a Multi-stage Maze Network Game (M2NG) in which the characteristics of APT are fully considered. The possible plans of the attacker are compactly represented using attack graphs(AGs), but the compact representation of the attacker's strategies presents a computational challenge and reaching the Nash Equilibrium(NE) is NP-hard. We present a method that first translates AGs into Markov Decision Process(MDP) and then achieves the optimal SRs allocation using the policy hill-climbing(PHC) algorithm. Finally, we present an empirical evaluation of the model and analyze the scalability and sensitivity of the algorithm. Simulation results exhibit that our proposed reinforcement learning-based SRs allocation is feasible and efficient.