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Severi, S., Sottile, F., Abreu, G., Pastrone, C., Spirito, M., Berens, F..  2014.  M2M technologies: Enablers for a pervasive Internet of Things. Networks and Communications (EuCNC), 2014 European Conference on. :1-5.

We survey the state-of-the-art on the Internet-of-Things (IoT) from a wireless communications point of view, as a result of the European FP7 project BUTLER which has its focus on pervasiveness, context-awareness and security for IoT. In particular, we describe the efforts to develop so-called (wireless) enabling technologies, aimed at circumventing the many challenges involved in extending the current set of domains (“verticals”) of IoT applications towards a “horizontal” (i.e. integrated) vision of the IoT. We start by illustrating current research effort in machine-to-machine (M2M), which is mainly focused on vertical domains, and we discuss some of them in details, depicting then the necessary horizontal vision for the future intelligent daily routine (“Smart Life”). We then describe the technical features of the most relevant heterogeneous communications technologies on which the IoT relies, under the light of the on-going M2M service layer standardization. Finally we identify and present the key aspects, within three major cross-vertical categories, under which M2M technologies can function as enablers for the horizontal vision of the IoT.

Asmussen, Nils, Völp, Marcus, Nöthen, Benedikt, Härtig, Hermann, Fettweis, Gerhard.  2016.  M3: A Hardware/Operating-System Co-Design to Tame Heterogeneous Manycores. Proceedings of the Twenty-First International Conference on Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems. :189–203.

In the last decade, the number of available cores increased and heterogeneity grew. In this work, we ask the question whether the design of the current operating systems (OSes) is still appropriate if these trends continue and lead to abundantly available but heterogeneous cores, or whether it forces a fundamental rethinking of how systems are designed. We argue that: 1. hiding heterogeneity behind a common hardware interface unifies, to a large extent, the control and coordination of cores and accelerators in the OS, 2. isolating at the network-on-chip rather than with processor features (like privileged mode, memory management unit, ...), allows running untrusted code on arbitrary cores, and 3. providing OS services via protocols over the network-on-chip, instead of via system calls, makes them accessible to arbitrary types of cores as well. In summary, this turns accelerators into first-class citizens and enables a single and convenient programming environment for all cores without the need to trust any application. In this paper, we introduce network-on-chip-level isolation, present the design of our microkernel-based OS, M3, and the common hardware interface, and evaluate the performance of our prototype in comparison to Linux. A bit surprising, without using accelerators, M3 outperforms Linux in some application-level benchmarks by more than a factor of five.

Makarim, Rusydi H., Stevens, Marc.  2017.  M4GB: An Efficient Gröbner-Basis Algorithm. Proceedings of the 2017 ACM on International Symposium on Symbolic and Algebraic Computation. :293–300.

This paper introduces a new efficient algorithm for computing Grobner-bases named M4GB. Like Faugere's algorithm F4 it is an extension of Buchberger's algorithm that describes: how to store already computed (tail-)reduced multiples of basis polynomials to prevent redundant work in the reduction step; and how to exploit efficient linear algebra for the reduction step. In comparison to F4 it removes further redundant work in the processing of reducible monomials. Furthermore, instead of translating the reduction of many critical pairs into the row reduction of some large matrix, our algorithm is described more natively and is efficient while processing critical pairs one by one. This feature implies that typically M4GB has to process fewer critical pairs than F4, and reduces the time and data complexity 'staircase' related to the increasing degree of regularity for a sequence of problems one observes for F4. To achieve high efficiency, M4GB has been designed specifically to operate only on tail-reduced polynomials, i.e., polynomials of which all terms except the leading term are non-reducible. This allows it to perform full-reduction directly in the computation of a term polynomial multiplication, where all computations are done over coefficient vectors over the non-reducible monomials. We have implemented a version of our new algorithm tailored for dense overdefined polynomial systems as a proof of concept and made our source code publicly available. We have made a comparison of our implementation against the implementations of FGBlib, Magma and OpenF4 on various dense Fukuoka MQ challenge problems that we were able to compute in reasonable time and memory. We observed that M4GB uses the least total CPU time and the least memory of all these implementations for those MQ problems, often by a significant factor. In the Fukuoka MQ challenges, the starting challenges of Type V and Type VI have 16 equations which was chosen based on an extrapolated computational runtime of more than a month using Magma. M4GB allowed us to set new records for these Fukuoka MQ challenges breaking Type V (F28) up to 18 equations and Type VI (F31) up to 19 equations, each can be computed within up to 11 days on our dual Xeon system.

Thurston, K. H., Leon, D. Conte de.  2019.  MACH-2K Architecture: Building Mobile Device Trust and Utility for Emergency Response Networks. 2019 IEEE 16th International Conference on Mobile Ad Hoc and Sensor Systems Workshops (MASSW). :152–157.
In this article, we introduce the MACH-2K trust overlay network and its architecture. MACH-2K's objectives are to (a) enhance the resiliency of emergency response and public service networks and (b) help build such networks in places, or at times, where network infrastructure is limited. Resiliency may be enhanced in an economic manner by building new ad hoc networks of private mobile devices and joining these to public service networks at specific trusted points. The major barrier to building resiliency by using private devices is ensuring security. MACH-2K uses device location and communication utility patterns to assign trust to devices, after owner approval. After trust is established, message confidentiality, privacy, and integrity may be implemented by well-known cryptographic means. MACH-2K devices may be then requested to forward or consume different types of messages depending on their current level of trust and utility.
Rashid, A., Siddique, M. J., Ahmed, S. M..  2020.  Machine and Deep Learning Based Comparative Analysis Using Hybrid Approaches for Intrusion Detection System. 2020 3rd International Conference on Advancements in Computational Sciences (ICACS). :1—9.

Intrusion detection is one of the most prominent and challenging problem faced by cybersecurity organizations. Intrusion Detection System (IDS) plays a vital role in identifying network security threats. It protects the network for vulnerable source code, viruses, worms and unauthorized intruders for many intranet/internet applications. Despite many open source APIs and tools for intrusion detection, there are still many network security problems exist. These problems are handled through the proper pre-processing, normalization, feature selection and ranking on benchmark dataset attributes prior to the enforcement of self-learning-based classification algorithms. In this paper, we have performed a comprehensive comparative analysis of the benchmark datasets NSL-KDD and CIDDS-001. For getting optimal results, we have used the hybrid feature selection and ranking methods before applying self-learning (Machine / Deep Learning) classification algorithmic approaches such as SVM, Naïve Bayes, k-NN, Neural Networks, DNN and DAE. We have analyzed the performance of IDS through some prominent performance indicator metrics such as Accuracy, Precision, Recall and F1-Score. The experimental results show that k-NN, SVM, NN and DNN classifiers perform approx. 100% accuracy regarding performance evaluation metrics on the NSL-KDD dataset whereas k-NN and Naïve Bayes classifiers perform approx. 99% accuracy on the CIDDS-001 dataset.

Gangadhar, S., Sterbenz, J. P. G..  2017.  Machine learning aided traffic tolerance to improve resilience for software defined networks. 2017 9th International Workshop on Resilient Networks Design and Modeling (RNDM). :1–7.

Software Defined Networks (SDNs) have gained prominence recently due to their flexible management and superior configuration functionality of the underlying network. SDNs, with OpenFlow as their primary implementation, allow for the use of a centralised controller to drive the decision making for all the supported devices in the network and manage traffic through routing table changes for incoming flows. In conventional networks, machine learning has been shown to detect malicious intrusion, and classify attacks such as DoS, user to root, and probe attacks. In this work, we extend the use of machine learning to improve traffic tolerance for SDNs. To achieve this, we extend the functionality of the controller to include a resilience framework, ReSDN, that incorporates machine learning to be able to distinguish DoS attacks, focussing on a neptune attack for our experiments. Our model is trained using the MIT KDD 1999 dataset. The system is developed as a module on top of the POX controller platform and evaluated using the Mininet simulator.

Aribisala, Adedayo, Khan, Mohammad S., Husari, Ghaith.  2021.  MACHINE LEARNING ALGORITHMS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS IN CLASSIFYING CYBER-ATTACKS ON A SMART GRID NETWORK. 2021 IEEE 12th Annual Information Technology, Electronics and Mobile Communication Conference (IEMCON). :0063–0069.
Smart grid architecture and Software-defined Networking (SDN) have evolved into a centrally controlled infrastructure that captures and extracts data in real-time through sensors, smart-meters, and virtual machines. These advances pose a risk and increase the vulnerabilities of these infrastructures to sophisticated cyberattacks like distributed denial of service (DDoS), false data injection attack (FDIA), and Data replay. Integrating machine learning with a network intrusion detection system (NIDS) can improve the system's accuracy and precision when detecting suspicious signatures and network anomalies. Analyzing data in real-time using trained and tested hyperparameters on a network traffic dataset applies to most network infrastructures. The NSL-KDD dataset implemented holds various classes, attack types, protocol suites like TCP, HTTP, and POP, which are critical to packet transmission on a smart grid network. In this paper, we leveraged existing machine learning (ML) algorithms, Support vector machine (SVM), K-nearest neighbor (KNN), Random Forest (RF), Naïve Bayes (NB), and Bagging; to perform a detailed performance comparison of selected classifiers. We propose a multi-level hybrid model of SVM integrated with RF for improved accuracy and precision during network filtering. The hybrid model SVM-RF returned an average accuracy of 94% in 10-fold cross-validation and 92.75%in an 80-20% split during class classification.
Abdel-Fattah, Farhan, AlTamimi, Fadel, Farhan, Khalid A..  2021.  Machine Learning and Data Mining in Cybersecurty. 2021 International Conference on Information Technology (ICIT). :952–956.
A wireless technology Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) that connects a group of mobile devices such as phones, laptops, and tablets suffers from critical security problems, so the traditional defense mechanism Intrusion Detection System (IDS) techniques are not sufficient to safeguard and protect MANET from malicious actions performed by intruders. Due to the MANET dynamic decentralized structure, distributed architecture, and rapid growing of MANET over years, vulnerable MANET does not need to change its infrastructure rather than using intelligent and advance methods to secure them and prevent intrusions. This paper focuses essentially on machine learning methodologies and algorithms to solve the shortage of the first line defense IDS to overcome the security issues MANET experience. Threads such as black hole, routing loops, network partition, selfishness, sleep deprivation, and denial of service (DoS), may be easily classified and recognized using machine learning methodologies and algorithms. Also, machine learning methodologies and algorithms help find ways to reduce and solve mischievous and harmful attacks against intimidation and prying. The paper describes few machine learning algorithms in detail such as Neural Networks, Support vector machine (SVM) algorithm and K-nearest neighbors, and how these methodologies help MANET to resolve their security problems.
Kosmidis, Konstantinos, Kalloniatis, Christos.  2017.  Machine Learning and Images for Malware Detection and Classification. Proceedings of the 21st Pan-Hellenic Conference on Informatics. :5:1–5:6.

Detecting malicious code with exact match on collected datasets is becoming a large-scale identification problem due to the existence of new malware variants. Being able to promptly and accurately identify new attacks enables security experts to respond effectively. My proposal is to develop an automated framework for identification of unknown vulnerabilities by leveraging current neural network techniques. This has a significant and immediate value for the security field, as current anti-virus software is typically able to recognize the malware type only after its infection, and preventive measures are limited. Artificial Intelligence plays a major role in automatic malware classification: numerous machine-learning methods, both supervised and unsupervised, have been researched to try classifying malware into families based on features acquired by static and dynamic analysis. The value of automated identification is clear, as feature engineering is both a time-consuming and time-sensitive task, with new malware studied while being observed in the wild.

Devarakonda, Ranjeet, Giansiracusa, Michael, Kumar, Jitendra.  2018.  Machine Learning and Social Media to Mine and Disseminate Big Scientific Data. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data). :5312—5315.

One of the challenges in supplying the communities with wider access to scientific databases is the need for knowledge of database languages like Structured Query Language (SQL). Although the SQL language has been published in many forms, not everybody is able to write SQL queries. Another challenge is that it might not be practical to make the public aware of the structure of databases. There is a need for novice users to query relational databases using their natural language. To solve this problem, many natural language interfaces to structured databases have been developed. The goal is to provide a more intuitive method for generating database queries and delivering responses. Through social media, which makes it possible to interact with a wide section of the population, and with the help of natural language processing, researchers at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have developed a concept to enable easy search and retrieval of data from several environmental data centers for the scientific community through social media.Using a machine learning framework that maps natural language text to thousands of datasets, instruments, variables, and data streams, the prototype system would allow users to request data through Twitter and receive a link (via tweet) to applicable data results on the project's search catalog tailored to their key words. This automated identification of relevant data from various petascale archives at ORNL could increase convenience, access, and use of the project's data by the broader community. In this paper we discuss how some data-intensive projects at ORNL are using innovative ways to help in data discovery.

Bouchlaghem, Rihab, Elkhelifi, Aymen, Faiz, Rim.  2016.  A Machine Learning Approach For Classifying Sentiments in Arabic Tweets. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Web Intelligence, Mining and Semantics. :24:1–24:6.

Nowadays, sentiment analysis methods become more and more popular especially with the proliferation of social media platform users number. In the same context, this paper presents a sentiment analysis approach which can faithfully translate the sentimental orientation of Arabic Twitter posts, based on a novel data representation and machine learning techniques. The proposed approach applied a wide range of features: lexical, surface-form, syntactic, etc. We also made use of lexicon features inferred from two Arabic sentiment words lexicons. To build our supervised sentiment analysis system, we use several standard classification methods (Support Vector Machines, K-Nearest Neighbour, Naïve Bayes, Decision Trees, Random Forest) known by their effectiveness over such classification issues. In our study, Support Vector Machines classifier outperforms other supervised algorithms in Arabic Twitter sentiment analysis. Via an ablation experiments, we show the positive impact of lexicon based features on providing higher prediction performance.

Chapla, Happy, Kotak, Riddhi, Joiser, Mittal.  2019.  A Machine Learning Approach for URL Based Web Phishing Using Fuzzy Logic as Classifier. 2019 International Conference on Communication and Electronics Systems (ICCES). :383—388.

Phishing is the major problem of the internet era. In this era of internet the security of our data in web is gaining an increasing importance. Phishing is one of the most harmful ways to unknowingly access the credential information like username, password or account number from the users. Users are not aware of this type of attack and later they will also become a part of the phishing attacks. It may be the losses of financial found, personal information, reputation of brand name or trust of brand. So the detection of phishing site is necessary. In this paper we design a framework of phishing detection using URL.

Ndichu, Samuel, Ban, Tao, Takahashi, Takeshi, Inoue, Daisuke.  2021.  A Machine Learning Approach to Detection of Critical Alerts from Imbalanced Multi-Appliance Threat Alert Logs. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data). :2119–2127.
The extraordinary number of alerts generated by network intrusion detection systems (NIDS) can desensitize security analysts tasked with incident response. Security information and event management systems (SIEMs) perform some rudimentary automation but cannot replicate the decision-making process of a skilled analyst. Machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI) can detect patterns in data with appropriate training. In practice, the majority of the alert data comprises false alerts, and true alerts form only a small proportion. Consequently, a naive engine that classifies all security alerts into the majority class can yield a superficial high accuracy close to 100%. Without any correction for the class imbalance, the false alerts will dominate algorithmic predictions resulting in poor generalization performance. We propose a machine-learning approach to address the class imbalance problem in multi-appliance security alert data and automate the security alert analysis process performed in security operations centers (SOCs). We first used the neighborhood cleaning rule (NCR) to identify and remove ambiguous, noisy, and redundant false alerts. Then, we applied the support vector machine synthetic minority oversampling technique (SVMSMOTE) to generate synthetic training true alerts. Finally, we fit and evaluated the decision tree and random forest classifiers. In the experiments, using alert data from eight security appliances, we demonstrated that the proposed method can significantly reduce the need for manual auditing, decreasing the number of uninspected alerts and achieving a performance of 99.524% in recall.
Ahmadi, Ali, Bidmeshki, Mohammad-Mahdi, Nahar, Amit, Orr, Bob, Pas, Michael, Makris, Yiorgos.  2016.  A Machine Learning Approach to Fab-of-origin Attestation. Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Computer-Aided Design. :92:1–92:6.

We introduce a machine learning approach for distinguishing between integrated circuits fabricated in a ratified facility and circuits originating from an unknown or undesired source based on parametric measurements. Unlike earlier approaches, which seek to achieve the same objective in a general, design-independent manner, the proposed method leverages the interaction between the idiosyncrasies of the fabrication facility and a specific design, in order to create a customized fab-of-origin membership test for the circuit in question. Effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated using two large industrial datasets from a 65nm Texas Instruments RF transceiver manufactured in two different fabrication facilities.

Jo, Changyeon, Cho, Youngsu, Egger, Bernhard.  2017.  A Machine Learning Approach to Live Migration Modeling. Proceedings of the 2017 Symposium on Cloud Computing. :351–364.

Live migration is one of the key technologies to improve data center utilization, power efficiency, and maintenance. Various live migration algorithms have been proposed; each exhibiting distinct characteristics in terms of completion time, amount of data transferred, virtual machine (VM) downtime, and VM performance degradation. To make matters worse, not only the migration algorithm but also the applications running inside the migrated VM affect the different performance metrics. With service-level agreements and operational constraints in place, choosing the optimal live migration technique has so far been an open question. In this work, we propose an adaptive machine learning-based model that is able to predict with high accuracy the key characteristics of live migration in dependence of the migration algorithm and the workload running inside the VM. We discuss the important input parameters for accurately modeling the target metrics, and describe how to profile them with little overhead. Compared to existing work, we are not only able to model all commonly used migration algorithms but also predict important metrics that have not been considered so far such as the performance degradation of the VM. In a comparison with the state-of-the-art, we show that the proposed model outperforms existing work by a factor 2 to 5.

Ndichu, S., Ozawa, S., Misu, T., Okada, K..  2018.  A Machine Learning Approach to Malicious JavaScript Detection using Fixed Length Vector Representation. 2018 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN). :1–8.

To add more functionality and enhance usability of web applications, JavaScript (JS) is frequently used. Even with many advantages and usefulness of JS, an annoying fact is that many recent cyberattacks such as drive-by-download attacks exploit vulnerability of JS codes. In general, malicious JS codes are not easy to detect, because they sneakily exploit vulnerabilities of browsers and plugin software, and attack visitors of a web site unknowingly. To protect users from such threads, the development of an accurate detection system for malicious JS is soliciting. Conventional approaches often employ signature and heuristic-based methods, which are prone to suffer from zero-day attacks, i.e., causing many false negatives and/or false positives. For this problem, this paper adopts a machine-learning approach to feature learning called Doc2Vec, which is a neural network model that can learn context information of texts. The extracted features are given to a classifier model (e.g., SVM and neural networks) and it judges the maliciousness of a JS code. In the performance evaluation, we use the D3M Dataset (Drive-by-Download Data by Marionette) for malicious JS codes and JSUPACK for benign ones for both training and test purposes. We then compare the performance to other feature learning methods. Our experimental results show that the proposed Doc2Vec features provide better accuracy and fast classification in malicious JS code detection compared to conventional approaches.

Alenezi, Freeh, Tsokos, Chris P..  2020.  Machine Learning Approach to Predict Computer Operating Systems Vulnerabilities. 2020 3rd International Conference on Computer Applications Information Security (ICCAIS). :1—6.
Information security is everyone's concern. Computer systems are used to store sensitive data. Any weakness in their reliability and security makes them vulnerable. The Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) is a commonly used scoring system, which helps in knowing the severity of a software vulnerability. In this research, we show the effectiveness of common machine learning algorithms in predicting the computer operating systems security using the published vulnerability data in Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures and National Vulnerability Database repositories. The Random Forest algorithm has the best performance, compared to other algorithms, in predicting the computer operating system vulnerability severity levels based on precision, recall, and F-measure evaluation metrics. In addition, a predictive model was developed to predict whether a newly discovered computer operating system vulnerability would allow attackers to cause denial of service to the subject system.
Frankel, Sophia F., Ghosh, Krishnendu.  2021.  Machine Learning Approaches for Authorship Attribution using Source Code Stylometry. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data). :3298—3304.
Identification of source code authorship is vital for attribution. In this work, a machine learning framework is described to identify source code authorship. The framework integrates the features extracted using natural language processing based approaches and abstract syntax tree of the code. We evaluate the methodology on Google Code Jam dataset. We present the performance measures of the logistic regression and deep learning on the dataset.
Wang, Qian, Gao, Mingze, Qu, Gang.  2018.  A Machine Learning Attack Resistant Dual-Mode PUF. Proceedings of the 2018 on Great Lakes Symposium on VLSI. :177-182.

Silicon Physical Unclonable Function (PUF) is arguably the most promising hardware security primitive. In particular, PUFs that are capable of generating a large amount of challenge response pairs (CRPs) can be used in many security applications. However, these CRPs can also be exploited by machine learning attacks to model the PUF and predict its response. In this paper, we first show that, based on data in the public domain, two popular PUFs that can generate CRPs (i.e., arbiter PUF and reconfigurable ring oscillator (RO) PUF) can be broken by simple logistic regression (LR) attack with about 99% accuracy. We then propose a feedback structure to XOR the PUF response with the challenge and challenge the PUF again to generate the response. Results show that this successfully reduces LR's learning accuracy to the lower 50%, but artificial neural network (ANN) learning attack still has an 80% success rate. Therefore, we propose a configurable ring oscillator based dual-mode PUF which works with both odd number of inverters (like the reconfigurable RO PUF) and even number of inverters (like a bistable ring (BR) PUF). Since currently there are no known attacks that can model both RO PUF and BR PUF, the dual-mode PUF will be resistant to modeling attacks as long as we can hide its working mode from the attackers, which we achieve with two practical methods. Finally, we implement the proposed dual-mode PUF on Nexys 4 FPGA boards and collect real measurement to show that it reduces the learning accuracy of LR and ANN to the mid-50% and low 60%, respectively. In addition, it meets the PUF requirements of uniqueness, randomness, and robustness.

Su, H., Zwolinski, M., Halak, B..  2018.  A Machine Learning Attacks Resistant Two Stage Physical Unclonable Functions Design. 2018 IEEE 3rd International Verification and Security Workshop (IVSW). :52-55.

Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) have been designed for many security applications such as identification, authentication of devices and key generation, especially for lightweight electronics. Traditional approaches to enhancing security, such as hash functions, may be expensive and resource dependent. However, modelling attacks using machine learning (ML) show the vulnerability of most PUFs. In this paper, a combination of a 32-bit current mirror and 16-bit arbiter PUFs in 65nm CMOS technology is proposed to improve resilience against modelling attacks. Both PUFs are vulnerable to machine learning attacks and we reduce the output prediction rate from 99.2% and 98.8% individually, to 60%.

Lakhdhar, Yosra, Rekhis, Slim.  2021.  Machine Learning Based Approach for the Automated Mapping of Discovered Vulnerabilities to Adversial Tactics. 2021 IEEE Security and Privacy Workshops (SPW). :309–317.
To defend networks against security attacks, cyber defenders have to identify vulnerabilities that could be exploited by an attacker and fix them. However, vulnerabilities are constantly evolving and their number is rising. In addition, the resources required (i.e., time and cost) to patch all the identified vulnerabilities and update the affected assets are not always affordable. For these reasons, the defender needs to have a set of metrics that could be used to automatically map new discovered vulnerabilities to potential attack tactics. Using such a mapping to attack tactics, will allow security solutions to better respond inline to any vulnerabilities exploitation tentatives, by selecting and prioritizing suitable response strategy. In this work, we provide a multilabel classification approach to automatically map a detected vulnerability to the MITRE Adversarial Tactics that could be used by the attacker. The proposed approach will help cyber defenders to prioritize their defense strategies, ensure a rapid and efficient investigation process, and well manage new detected vulnerabilities. We evaluate a set of machine learning algorithms (BinaryRelevance, LabelPowerset, ClassifierChains, MLKNN, BRKNN, RAkELd, NLSP, and Neural Networks) and found out that ClassifierChains with RandomForest classifier is the best method in our experiment.
Zhang, Kevin.  2019.  A Machine Learning Based Approach to Identify SQL Injection Vulnerabilities. 2019 34th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering (ASE). :1286–1288.

This paper presents a machine learning classifier designed to identify SQL injection vulnerabilities in PHP code. Both classical and deep learning based machine learning algorithms were used to train and evaluate classifier models using input validation and sanitization features extracted from source code files. On ten-fold cross validations a model trained using Convolutional Neural Network(CNN) achieved the highest precision (95.4%), while a model based on Multilayer Perceptron(MLP) achieved the highest recall (63.7%) and the highest f-measure (0.746).

He, Z., Zhang, T., Lee, R. B..  2017.  Machine Learning Based DDoS Attack Detection from Source Side in Cloud. 2017 IEEE 4th International Conference on Cyber Security and Cloud Computing (CSCloud). :114–120.

Denial of service (DOS) attacks are a serious threat to network security. These attacks are often sourced from virtual machines in the cloud, rather than from the attacker's own machine, to achieve anonymity and higher network bandwidth. Past research focused on analyzing traffic on the destination (victim's) side with predefined thresholds. These approaches have significant disadvantages. They are only passive defenses after the attack, they cannot use the outbound statistical features of attacks, and it is hard to trace back to the attacker with these approaches. In this paper, we propose a DOS attack detection system on the source side in the cloud, based on machine learning techniques. This system leverages statistical information from both the cloud server's hypervisor and the virtual machines, to prevent network packages from being sent out to the outside network. We evaluate nine machine learning algorithms and carefully compare their performance. Our experimental results show that more than 99.7% of four kinds of DOS attacks are successfully detected. Our approach does not degrade performance and can be easily extended to broader DOS attacks.

Priya, S.Shanmuga, Sivaram, M., Yuvaraj, D., Jayanthiladevi, A..  2020.  Machine Learning Based DDOS Detection. 2020 International Conference on Emerging Smart Computing and Informatics (ESCI). :234–237.
One of a high relentless attack is the crucial distributed DoS attacks. The types and tools for this attacks increases day-to-day as per the technology increases. So the methodology for detection of DDoS should be advanced. For this purpose we created an automated DDoS detector using ML which can run on any commodity hardware. The results are 98.5 % accurate. We use three classification algorithms KNN, RF and NB to classify DDoS packets from normal packets using two features, delta time and packet size. This detector mostly can detect all types of DDoS such as ICMP flood, TCP flood, UDP flood etc. In the older systems they detect only some types of DDoS attacks and some systems may require a large number of features to detect DDoS. Some systems may work only with certain protocols only. But our proposed model overcome these drawbacks by detecting the DDoS of any type without a need of specific protocol that uses less amount of features.
Wu, Q., Zhao, W..  2018.  Machine Learning Based Human Activity Detection in a Privacy-Aware Compliance Tracking System. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Electro/Information Technology (EIT). :0673–0676.

In this paper, we report our work on using machine learning techniques to predict back bending activity based on field data acquired in a local nursing home. The data are recorded by a privacy-aware compliance tracking system (PACTS). The objective of PACTS is to detect back-bending activities and issue real-time alerts to the participant when she bends her back excessively, which we hope could help the participant form good habits of using proper body mechanics when performing lifting/pulling tasks. We show that our algorithms can differentiate nursing staffs baseline and high-level bending activities by using human skeleton data without any expert rules.