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Zhao, Shixiong, Gu, Rui, Qiu, Haoran, Li, Tsz On, Wang, Yuexuan, Cui, Heming, Yang, Junfeng.  2018.  OWL: Understanding and Detecting Concurrency Attacks. 2018 48th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN). :219-230.
Just like bugs in single-threaded programs can lead to vulnerabilities, bugs in multithreaded programs can also lead to concurrency attacks. We studied 31 real-world concurrency attacks, including privilege escalations, hijacking code executions, and bypassing security checks. We found that compared to concurrency bugs' traditional consequences (e.g., program crashes), concurrency attacks' consequences are often implicit, extremely hard to be observed and diagnosed by program developers. Moreover, in addition to bug-inducing inputs, extra subtle inputs are often needed to trigger the attacks. These subtle features make existing tools ineffective to detect concurrency attacks. To tackle this problem, we present OWL, the first practical tool that models general concurrency attacks' implicit consequences and automatically detects them. We implemented OWL in Linux and successfully detected five new concurrency attacks, including three confirmed and fixed by developers, and two exploited from previously known and well-studied concurrency bugs. OWL has also detected seven known concurrency attacks. Our evaluation shows that OWL eliminates 94.1% of the reports generated by existing concurrency bug detectors as false positive, greatly reducing developers' efforts on diagnosis. All OWL source code, concurrency attack exploit scripts, and results are available on
Qian, K., Parizi, R. M., Lo, D..  2018.  OWASP Risk Analysis Driven Security Requirements Specification for Secure Android Mobile Software Development. 2018 IEEE Conference on Dependable and Secure Computing (DSC). :1—2.
The security threats to mobile applications are growing explosively. Mobile apps flaws and security defects open doors for hackers to break in and access sensitive information. Defensive requirements analysis should be an integral part of secure mobile SDLC. Developers need to consider the information confidentiality and data integrity, to verify the security early in the development lifecycle rather than fixing the security holes after attacking and data leaks take place. Early eliminating known security vulnerabilities will help developers increase the security of apps and reduce the likelihood of exploitation. However, many software developers lack the necessary security knowledge and skills at the development stage, and that's why Secure Mobile Software Development education is very necessary for mobile software engineers. In this paper, we propose a guided security requirement analysis based on OWASP Mobile Top ten security risk recommendations for Android mobile software development and its traceability of the developmental controls in SDLC. Building secure apps immune to the OWASP Mobile Top ten risks would be an effective approach to provide very useful mobile security guidelines.
Kumar, A., Sinha, M..  2014.  Overview on vehicular ad hoc network and its security issues. Computing for Sustainable Global Development (INDIACom), 2014 International Conference on. :792-797.

Vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) provides infrastructure less, rapidly deployable, self-configurable network connectivity. The network is the collection vehicles interlinked by wireless links and willing to store and forward data for their peers. As vehicles move freely and organize themselves arbitrarily, message routing is done dynamically based on network connectivity. Compared with other ad-hoc networks, VANETs are particularly challenging due to the part of the vehicles' high rate of mobility and the numerous signal-weakening barrier, such as buildings, in their environments. Due to their enormous potential, VANET have gained an increasing attention in both industry and academia. Research activities range from lower layer protocol design to applications and implementation issues. A secure VANET system, while exchanging information should protect the system against unauthorized message injection, message alteration, eavesdropping. The security of VANET is one of the most critical issues because their information transmission is propagated in open access (wireless) environments. A few years back VANET has received increased attention as the potential technology to enhance active and preventive safety on the road, as well as travel comfort Safekeeping and privacy are mandatory in vehicular communications for a grateful acceptance and use of such technology. This paper is an attempt to highlight the problems occurred in Vehicular Ad hoc Networks and security issues.

Zhou, X., Lu, Y., Wang, Y., Yan, X..  2018.  Overview on Moving Target Network Defense. 2018 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Image, Vision and Computing (ICIVC). :821–827.
Moving Target Defense (MTD) is a research hotspot in the field of network security. Moving Target Network Defense (MTND) is the implementation of MTD at network level. Numerous related works have been proposed in the field of MTND. In this paper, we focus on the scope and area of MTND, systematically present the recent representative progress from four aspects, including IP address and port mutation, route mutation, fingerprint mutation and multiple mutation, and put forward the future development directions. Several new perspectives and elucidations on MTND are rendered.
Arvind, S, Narayanan, V Anantha.  2019.  An Overview of Security in CoAP: Attack and Analysis. 2019 5th International Conference on Advanced Computing Communication Systems (ICACCS). :655—660.
Over the last decade, a technology called Internet of Things (IoT) has been evolving at a rapid pace. It enables the development of endless applications in view of availability of affordable components which provide smart ecosystems. The IoT devices are constrained devices which are connected to the internet and perform sensing tasks. Each device is identified by their unique address and also makes use of the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) as one of the main web transfer protocols. It is an application layer protocol which does not maintain secure channels to transfer information. For authentication and end-to-end security, Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) is one of the possible approaches to boost the security aspect of CoAP, in addition to which there are many suggested ways to protect the transmission of sensitive information. CoAP uses DTLS as a secure protocol and UDP as a transfer protocol. Therefore, the attacks on UDP or DTLS could be assigned as a CoAP attack. An attack on DTLS could possibly be launched in a single session and a strong authentication mechanism is needed. Man-In-The-Middle attack is one the peak security issues in CoAP as cited by Request For Comments(RFC) 7252, which encompasses attacks like Sniffing, Spoofing, Denial of Service (DoS), Hijacking, Cross-Protocol attacks and other attacks including Replay attacks and Relay attacks. In this work, a client-server architecture is setup, whose end devices communicate using CoAP. Also, a proxy system was installed across the client side to launch an active interception between the client and the server. The work will further be enhanced to provide solutions to mitigate these attacks.
Gafencu, L. P., Scripcariu, L., Bogdan, I..  2017.  An overview of security aspects and solutions in VANETs. 2017 International Symposium on Signals, Circuits and Systems (ISSCS). :1–4.

Because of the nature of vehicular communications, security is a crucial aspect, involving the continuous development and analysis of the existing security architectures and punctual theoretical and practical aspects that have been proposed and are in need of continuous updates and integrations with newer technologies. But before an update, a good knowledge of the current aspects is mandatory. Identifying weaknesses and anticipating possible risks of vehicular communication networks through a failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) represent an important aspect of the security analysis process and a valuable step in finding efficient security solutions for all kind of problems that might occur in these systems.

Basheer, M. M., Varol, A..  2019.  An Overview of Robot Operating System Forensics. 2019 1st International Informatics and Software Engineering Conference (UBMYK). :1—4.
Autonomous technologies have been rapidly replacing the traditional manual intervention nearly in every aspect of our life. These technologies essentially require robots to carry out their automated processes. Nowadays, with the emergence of industry 4.0, robots are increasingly being remote-controlled via client-server connection, which creates uncommon vulnerabilities that allow attackers to target those robots. The development of an open source operational environment for robots, known as Robot Operating System (ROS) has come as a response to these demands. Security and privacy are crucial for the use of ROS as the chance of a compromise may lead to devastating ramifications. In this paper, an overview of ROS and the attacks targeting it are detailed and discussed. Followed by a review of the ROS security and digital investigation studies.
Pallavi, Sode, Narayanan, V Anantha.  2019.  An Overview of Practical Attacks on BLE Based IOT Devices and Their Security. 2019 5th International Conference on Advanced Computing Communication Systems (ICACCS). :694—698.
BLE is used to transmit and receive data between sensors and devices. Most of the IOT devices employ BLE for wireless communication because it suits their requirements such as less energy constraints. The major security vulnerabilities in BLE protocol can be used by attacker to perform MITM attacks and hence violating confidentiality and integrity of data. Although BLE 4.2 prevents most of the attacks by employing elliptic-curve diffie-Hellman to generate LTK and encrypt the data, still there are many devices in the market that are using BLE 4.0, 4.1 which are vulnerable to attacks. This paper shows the simple demonstration of possible attacks on BLE devices that use various existing tools to perform spoofing, MITM and firmware attacks. We also discussed the security, privacy and its importance in BLE devices.
Sun, Bin, Cheng, Wei, Goswami, Prashant, Bai, Guohua.  2017.  An Overview of Parameter and Data Strategies for k-Nearest Neighbours Based Short-Term Traffic Prediction. Proceedings of the 2017 International Conference on E-Society, E-Education and E-Technology. :68–74.
Modern intelligent transportation systems (ITS) requires reliable and accurate short-term traffic prediction. One widely used method to predict traffic is k-nearest neighbours (kNN). Though many studies have tried to improve kNN with parameter strategies and data strategies, there is no comprehensive analysis of those strategies. This paper aims to analyse kNN strategies and guide future work to select the right strategy to improve prediction accuracy. Firstly, we examine the relations among three kNN parameters, which are: number of nearest neighbours (k), search step length (d) and window size (v). We also analysed predict step ahead (m) which is not a parameter but a user requirement and configuration. The analyses indicate that the relations among parameters are compound especially when traffic flow states are considered. The results show that strategy of using v leads to outstanding accuracy improvement. Later, we compare different data strategies such as flow-aware and time-aware ones together with ensemble strategies. The experiments show that the flow-aware strategy performs better than the time-aware one. Thus, we suggest considering all parameter strategies simultaneously as ensemble strategies especially by including v in flow-aware strategies.
d Krit, S., Haimoud, E..  2017.  Overview of Firewalls: Types and Policies: Managing Windows Embedded Firewall Programmatically. 2017 International Conference on Engineering MIS (ICEMIS). :1–7.

Due to the increasing threat of network attacks, Firewall has become crucial elements in network security, and have been widely deployed in most businesses and institutions for securing private networks. The function of a firewall is to examine each packet that passes through it and decide whether to letting them pass or halting them based on preconfigured rules and policies, so firewall now is the first defense line against cyber attacks. However most of people doesn't know how firewall works, and the most users of windows operating system doesn't know how to use the windows embedded firewall. This paper explains how firewall works, firewalls types, and all you need to know about firewall policies, then presents a novel application (QudsWall) developed by authors that manages windows embedded firewall and make it easy to use.

Irmak, E., Erkek, İ.  2018.  An overview of cyber-attack vectors on SCADA systems. 2018 6th International Symposium on Digital Forensic and Security (ISDFS). :1–5.

Most of the countries evaluate their energy networks in terms of national security and define as critical infrastructure. Monitoring and controlling of these systems are generally provided by Industrial Control Systems (ICSs) and/or Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Therefore, this study focuses on the cyber-attack vectors on SCADA systems to research the threats and risks targeting them. For this purpose, TCP/IP based protocols used in SCADA systems have been determined and analyzed at first. Then, the most common cyber-attacks are handled systematically considering hardware-side threats, software-side ones and the threats for communication infrastructures. Finally, some suggestions are given.

Ochian, A., Suciu, G., Fratu, O., Voicu, C., Suciu, V..  2014.  An overview of cloud middleware services for interconnection of healthcare platforms. Communications (COMM), 2014 10th International Conference on. :1-4.

Using heterogeneous clouds has been considered to improve performance of big-data analytics for healthcare platforms. However, the problem of the delay when transferring big-data over the network needs to be addressed. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and compare existing cloud computing environments (PaaS, IaaS) in order to implement middleware services. Understanding the differences and similarities between cloud technologies will help in the interconnection of healthcare platforms. The paper provides a general overview of the techniques and interfaces for cloud computing middleware services, and proposes a cloud architecture for healthcare. Cloud middleware enables heterogeneous devices to act as data sources and to integrate data from other healthcare platforms, but specific APIs need to be developed. Furthermore, security and management problems need to be addressed, given the heterogeneous nature of the communication and computing environment. The present paper fills a gap in the electronic healthcare register literature by providing an overview of cloud computing middleware services and standardized interfaces for the integration with medical devices.

Dong, X., Hu, J., Cui, Y..  2018.  Overview of Botnet Detection Based on Machine Learning. 2018 3rd International Conference on Mechanical, Control and Computer Engineering (ICMCCE). :476-479.

With the rapid development of the information industry, the applications of Internet of things, cloud computing and artificial intelligence have greatly affected people's life, and the network equipment has increased with a blowout type. At the same time, more complex network environment has also led to a more serious network security problem. The traditional security solution becomes inefficient in the new situation. Therefore, it is an important task for the security industry to seek technical progress and improve the protection detection and protection ability of the security industry. Botnets have been one of the most important issues in many network security problems, especially in the last one or two years, and China has become one of the most endangered countries by botnets, thus the huge impact of botnets in the world has caused its detection problems to reset people's attention. This paper, based on the topic of botnet detection, focuses on the latest research achievements of botnet detection based on machine learning technology. Firstly, it expounds the application process of machine learning technology in the research of network space security, introduces the structure characteristics of botnet, and then introduces the machine learning in botnet detection. The security features of these solutions and the commonly used machine learning algorithms are emphatically analyzed and summarized. Finally, it summarizes the existing problems in the existing solutions, and the future development direction and challenges of machine learning technology in the research of network space security.

Freet, David, Agrawal, Rajeev.  2016.  An Overview of Architectural and Security Considerations for Named Data Networking (NDN). Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Management of Digital EcoSystems. :52–57.

The Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging architecture that seeks to interconnect all of the "things" we use on a daily basis. Whereas the Internet originated as a way to connect traditional computing devices in order to share information, IoT includes everything from automobiles to appliances to buildings. As networks and devices become more diverse and disparate in their communication methods and interfaces, traditional host-to host technologies such as Internet Protocol (IP) are challenged to provide the level of data exchange and security needed to operate in this new network paradigm. Named Data Networking (NDN) is a developing Internet architecture that can help implement the IoT paradigm in a more efficient and secure manner. This paper introduces the NDN architecture in comparison to the traditional IP-based architecture and discusses several security concepts pertaining to NDN that make this a powerful technology for implementing the Internet of Things.

Wu, Sha, Liu, Jiajia.  2019.  Overprivileged Permission Detection for Android Applications. ICC 2019 - 2019 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–6.
Android applications (Apps) have penetrated almost every aspect of our lives, bring users great convenience as well as security concerns. Even though Android system adopts permission mechanism to restrict Apps from accessing important resources of a smartphone, such as telephony, camera and GPS location, users face still significant risk of privacy leakage due to the overprivileged permissions. The overprivileged permission means the extra permission declared by the App but has nothing to do with its function. Unfortunately, there doesn't exist any tool for ordinary users to detect the overprivileged permission of an App, hence most users grant any permission declared by the App, intensifying the risk of private information leakage. Although some previous studies tried to solve the problem of permission overprivilege, their methods are not applicable nowadays because of the progress of App protection technology and the update of Android system. Towards this end, we develop a user-friendly tool based on frequent item set mining for the detection of overprivileged permissions of Android Apps, which is named Droidtector. Droidtector can operate in online or offline mode and users can choose any mode according to their situation. Finally, we run Droidtector on 1000 Apps crawled from Google Play and find that 479 of them are overprivileged, accounting for about 48% of all the sample Apps.
Duggal, Rahul, Gupta, Anubha, Gupta, Ritu, Wadhwa, Manya, Ahuja, Chirag.  2016.  Overlapping Cell Nuclei Segmentation in Microscopic Images Using Deep Belief Networks. Proceedings of the Tenth Indian Conference on Computer Vision, Graphics and Image Processing. :82:1–82:8.

This paper proposes a method for segmentation of nuclei of single/isolated and overlapping/touching immature white blood cells from microscopic images of B-Lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) prepared from peripheral blood and bone marrow aspirate. We propose deep belief network approach for the segmentation of these nuclei. Simulation results and comparison with some of the existing methods demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method.

Deng, Dong, Tao, Yufei, Li, Guoliang.  2018.  Overlap Set Similarity Joins with Theoretical Guarantees. Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Management of Data. :905-920.
This paper studies the set similarity join problem with overlap constraints which, given two collections of sets and a constant c, finds all the set pairs in the datasets that share at least c common elements. This is a fundamental operation in many fields, such as information retrieval, data mining, and machine learning. The time complexity of all existing methods is O(n2) where n is the total size of all the sets. In this paper, we present a size-aware algorithm with the time complexity of O(n2-over 1 c k1 over 2c)=o(n2)+O(k), where k is the number of results. The size-aware algorithm divides all the sets into small and large ones based on their sizes and processes them separately. We can use existing methods to process the large sets and focus on the small sets in this paper. We develop several optimization heuristics for the small sets to improve the practical performance significantly. As the size boundary between the small sets and the large sets is crucial to the efficiency, we propose an effective size boundary selection algorithm to judiciously choose an appropriate size boundary, which works very well in practice. Experimental results on real-world datasets show that our methods achieve high performance and outperform the state-of-the-art approaches by up to an order of magnitude.
Fauzan, A., Sukarno, P., Wardana, A. A..  2020.  Overhead Analysis of the Use of Digital Signature in MQTT Protocol for Constrained Device in the Internet of Things System. 2020 3rd International Conference on Computer and Informatics Engineering (IC2IE). :415–420.
This paper presents an overhead analysis of the use of digital signature mechanisms in the Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT) protocol for three classes of constrained-device. Because the resources provided by constrained-devices are very limited, the purpose of this overhead analysis is to help find out the advantages and disadvantages of each class of constrained-devices after a security mechanism has been applied, namely by applying a digital signature mechanism. The objective of using this digital signature mechanism is for providing integrity, that if the payload sent and received in its destination is still original and not changed during the transmission process. The overhead analysis aspects performed are including analyzing decryption time, signature verification performance, message delivery time, memory and flash usage in the three classes of constrained-device. Based on the overhead analysis result, it can be seen that for decryption time and signature verification performance, the Class-2 device is the fastest one. For message delivery time, the smallest time needed for receiving the payload is Class-l device. For memory usage, the Class-2 device is providing the biggest available memory and flash.
Kabi, B., Sahadevan, A. S., Pradhan, T..  2017.  An overflow free fixed-point eigenvalue decomposition algorithm: Case study of dimensionality reduction in hyperspectral images. 2017 Conference on Design and Architectures for Signal and Image Processing (DASIP). :1–9.

We consider the problem of enabling robust range estimation of eigenvalue decomposition (EVD) algorithm for a reliable fixed-point design. The simplicity of fixed-point circuitry has always been so tempting to implement EVD algorithms in fixed-point arithmetic. Working towards an effective fixed-point design, integer bit-width allocation is a significant step which has a crucial impact on accuracy and hardware efficiency. This paper investigates the shortcomings of the existing range estimation methods while deriving bounds for the variables of the EVD algorithm. In light of the circumstances, we introduce a range estimation approach based on vector and matrix norm properties together with a scaling procedure that maintains all the assets of an analytical method. The method could derive robust and tight bounds for the variables of EVD algorithm. The bounds derived using the proposed approach remain same for any input matrix and are also independent of the number of iterations or size of the problem. Some benchmark hyperspectral data sets have been used to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed technique. It was found that by the proposed range estimation approach, all the variables generated during the computation of Jacobi EVD is bounded within ±1.

Hagen, Loni.  2017.  Overcoming the Privacy Challenges of Wearable Devices: A Study on the Role of Digital Literacy. Proceedings of the 18th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research. :598–599.

This paper argues that standard privacy policy principles are unsuitable for wearable devices, and introduces a proposal to test the role of digital literacy on privacy concerns and behaviors, in an effort to devise modified privacy policies that are appropriate for wearable devices.

Zhang, L., Su, J., Mu, Y..  2020.  Outsourcing Attributed-Based Ranked Searchable Encryption With Revocation for Cloud Storage. IEEE Access. 8:104344–104356.
With the rapid growth of the cloud computing and strengthening of security requirements, encrypted cloud services are of importance and benefit. For the huge ciphertext data stored in the cloud, many secure searchable methods based on cryptography with keywords are introduced. In all the methods, attribute-based searchable encryption is considered as the truthful and efficient method since it supports the flexible access policy. However, the attribute-based system suffers from two defects when applied in the cloud storage. One of them is that the huge data in the cloud makes the users process all the relevant files related to the certain keyword. For the other side, the users and users' attributes inevitably change frequently. Therefore, attribute revocation is also an important problem in the system. To overcome these drawbacks, an attribute-based ranked searchable encryption scheme with revocation is proposed. We rank the ciphertext documents according to the TF×IDF principle, and then only return the relevant top-k files. Besides the decryption sever, an encryption sever is also introduced. And a large number of computations are outsourced to the encryption server and decryption server, which reduces the computing overhead of the client. In addition, the proposed scheme uses a real-time revocation method to achieve attribute revocation and delegates most of the update tasks to the cloud, which also reduces the calculation overhead of the user side. The performance evaluations show the scheme is feasible and more efficient than the available ones.
Kunihiro, Noboru, Lu, Wen-jie, Nishide, Takashi, Sakuma, Jun.  2018.  Outsourced Private Function Evaluation with Privacy Policy Enforcement. 2018 17th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/ 12th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :412–423.
We propose a novel framework for outsourced private function evaluation with privacy policy enforcement (OPFE-PPE). Suppose an evaluator evaluates a function with private data contributed by a data contributor, and a client obtains the result of the evaluation. OPFE-PPE enables a data contributor to enforce two different kinds of privacy policies to the process of function evaluation: evaluator policy and client policy. An evaluator policy restricts entities that can conduct function evaluation with the data. A client policy restricts entities that can obtain the result of function evaluation. We demonstrate our construction with three applications: personalized medication, genetic epidemiology, and prediction by machine learning. Experimental results show that the overhead caused by enforcing the two privacy policies is less than 10% compared to function evaluation by homomorphic encryption without any privacy policy enforcement.
Thimmaraju, K., Schiff, L., Schmid, S..  2017.  Outsmarting Network Security with SDN Teleportation. 2017 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS P). :563–578.

Software-defined networking is considered a promising new paradigm, enabling more reliable and formally verifiable communication networks. However, this paper shows that the separation of the control plane from the data plane, which lies at the heart of Software-Defined Networks (SDNs), introduces a new vulnerability which we call teleportation. An attacker (e.g., a malicious switch in the data plane or a host connected to the network) can use teleportation to transmit information via the control plane and bypass critical network functions in the data plane (e.g., a firewall), and to violate security policies as well as logical and even physical separations. This paper characterizes the design space for teleportation attacks theoretically, and then identifies four different teleportation techniques. We demonstrate and discuss how these techniques can be exploited for different attacks (e.g., exfiltrating confidential data at high rates), and also initiate the discussion of possible countermeasures. Generally, and given today's trend toward more intent-based networking, we believe that our findings are relevant beyond the use cases considered in this paper.

Sommer, R., Paxson, V..  2010.  Outside the Closed World: On Using Machine Learning for Network Intrusion Detection. Security and Privacy (SP), 2010 IEEE Symposium on. :305-316.

In network intrusion detection research, one popular strategy for finding attacks is monitoring a network's activity for anomalies: deviations from profiles of normality previously learned from benign traffic, typically identified using tools borrowed from the machine learning community. However, despite extensive academic research one finds a striking gap in terms of actual deployments of such systems: compared with other intrusion detection approaches, machine learning is rarely employed in operational "real world" settings. We examine the differences between the network intrusion detection problem and other areas where machine learning regularly finds much more success. Our main claim is that the task of finding attacks is fundamentally different from these other applications, making it significantly harder for the intrusion detection community to employ machine learning effectively. We support this claim by identifying challenges particular to network intrusion detection, and provide a set of guidelines meant to strengthen future research on anomaly detection.

Wei Zhu, Jun Tang, Shuang Wan, Jie-Li Zhu.  2014.  Outlier-resistant adaptive filtering based on sparse Bayesian learning. Electronics Letters. 50:663-665.

In adaptive processing applications, the design of the adaptive filter requires estimation of the unknown interference-plus-noise covariance matrix from secondary training data. The presence of outliers in the training data can severely degrade the performance of adaptive processing. By exploiting the sparse prior of the outliers, a Bayesian framework to develop a computationally efficient outlier-resistant adaptive filter based on sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) is proposed. The expectation-maximisation (EM) algorithm is used therein to obtain a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate of the interference-plus-noise covariance matrix. Numerical simulations demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method over existing methods.