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Dou, Yanzhi, Zeng, Kexiong(Curtis), Li, He, Yang, Yaling, Gao, Bo, Guan, Chaowen, Ren, Kui, Li, Shaoqian.  2016.  P2-SAS: Preserving Users' Privacy in Centralized Dynamic Spectrum Access Systems. Proceedings of the 17th ACM International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing. :321–330.

Centralized spectrum management is one of the key dynamic spectrum access (DSA) mechanisms proposed to govern the spectrum sharing between government incumbent users (IUs) and commercial secondary users (SUs). In the current centralized DSA designs, the operation data of both government IUs and commercial SUs needs to be shared with a central server. However, the operation data of government IUs is often classified information and the SU operation data may also be commercial secret. The current system design dissatisfies the privacy requirement of both IUs and SUs since the central server is not necessarily trust-worthy for holding such sensitive operation data. To address the privacy issue, this paper presents a privacy-preserving centralized DSA system (P2-SAS), which realizes the complex spectrum allocation process of DSA through efficient secure multi-party computation. In P2-SAS, none of the IU or SU operation data would be exposed to any snooping party, including the central server itself. We formally prove the correctness and privacy-preserving property of P2-SAS and evaluate its scalability and practicality using experiments based on real-world data. Experiment results show that P2-SAS can respond an SU's spectrum request in 6.96 seconds with communication overhead of less than 4 MB.

K. Alnaami, G. Ayoade, A. Siddiqui, N. Ruozzi, L. Khan, B. Thuraisingham.  2015.  "P2V: Effective Website Fingerprinting Using Vector Space Representations". 2015 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence. :59-66.

Language vector space models (VSMs) have recently proven to be effective across a variety of tasks. In VSMs, each word in a corpus is represented as a real-valued vector. These vectors can be used as features in many applications in machine learning and natural language processing. In this paper, we study the effect of vector space representations in cyber security. In particular, we consider a passive traffic analysis attack (Website Fingerprinting) that threatens users' navigation privacy on the web. By using anonymous communication, Internet users (such as online activists) may wish to hide the destination of web pages they access for different reasons such as avoiding tyrant governments. Traditional website fingerprinting studies collect packets from the users' network and extract features that are used by machine learning techniques to reveal the destination of certain web pages. In this work, we propose the packet to vector (P2V) approach where we model website fingerprinting attack using word vector representations. We show how the suggested model outperforms previous website fingerprinting works.

Alnaami, K., Ayoade, G., Siddiqui, A., Ruozzi, N., Khan, L., Thuraisingham, B..  2015.  P2V: Effective Website Fingerprinting Using Vector Space Representations. 2015 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence. :59–66.

Language vector space models (VSMs) have recently proven to be effective across a variety of tasks. In VSMs, each word in a corpus is represented as a real-valued vector. These vectors can be used as features in many applications in machine learning and natural language processing. In this paper, we study the effect of vector space representations in cyber security. In particular, we consider a passive traffic analysis attack (Website Fingerprinting) that threatens users' navigation privacy on the web. By using anonymous communication, Internet users (such as online activists) may wish to hide the destination of web pages they access for different reasons such as avoiding tyrant governments. Traditional website fingerprinting studies collect packets from the users' network and extract features that are used by machine learning techniques to reveal the destination of certain web pages. In this work, we propose the packet to vector (P2V) approach where we model website fingerprinting attack using word vector representations. We show how the suggested model outperforms previous website fingerprinting works.

Liu, G., Quan, W., Cheng, N., Lu, N., Zhang, H., Shen, X..  2020.  P4NIS: Improving network immunity against eavesdropping with programmable data planes. IEEE INFOCOM 2020 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS). :91—96.

Due to improving computational capacity of supercomputers, transmitting encrypted packets via one single network path is vulnerable to brute-force attacks. The versatile attackers secretly eavesdrop all the packets, classify packets into different streams, performs an exhaustive search for the decryption key, and extract sensitive personal information from the streams. However, new Internet Protocol (IP) brings great opportunities and challenges for preventing eavesdropping attacks. In this paper, we propose a Programming Protocol-independent Packet Processors (P4) based Network Immune Scheme (P4NIS) against the eavesdropping attacks. Specifically, P4NIS is equipped with three lines of defense to improve the network immunity. The first line is promiscuous forwarding by splitting all the traffic packets in different network paths disorderly. Complementally, the second line encrypts transmission port fields of the packets using diverse encryption algorithms. The encryption could distribute traffic packets from one stream into different streams, and disturb eavesdroppers to classify them correctly. Besides, P4NIS inherits the advantages from the existing encryption-based countermeasures which is the third line of defense. Using a paradigm of programmable data planes-P4, we implement P4NIS and evaluate its performances. Experimental results show that P4NIS can increase difficulties of eavesdropping significantly, and increase transmission throughput by 31.7% compared with state-of-the-art mechanisms.

Liu, Jed, Hallahan, William, Schlesinger, Cole, Sharif, Milad, Lee, Jeongkeun, Soulé, Robert, Wang, Han, Ca\c scaval, C\u alin, McKeown, Nick, Foster, Nate.  2018.  P4V: Practical Verification for Programmable Data Planes. Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the ACM Special Interest Group on Data Communication. :490-503.

We present the design and implementation of p4v, a practical tool for verifying data planes described using the P4 programming language. The design of p4v is based on classic verification techniques but adds several key innovations including a novel mechanism for incorporating assumptions about the control plane and domain-specific optimizations which are needed to scale to large programs. We present case studies showing that p4v verifies important properties and finds bugs in real-world programs. We conduct experiments to quantify the scalability of p4v on a wide range of additional examples. We show that with just a few hundred lines of control-plane annotations, p4v is able to verify critical safety properties for switch.p4, a program that implements the functionality of on a modern data center switch, in under three minutes.

Pan, Cheng, Hu, Xiameng, Zhou, Lan, Luo, Yingwei, Wang, Xiaolin, Wang, Zhenlin.  2018.  PACE: Penalty Aware Cache Modeling with Enhanced AET. Proceedings of the 9th Asia-Pacific Workshop on Systems. :19:1–19:8.
Past cache modeling techniques are typically limited to a cache system with a fixed cache line/block size. This limitation is not a problem for a hardware cache where the cache line size is uniform. However, modern in-memory software caches, such as Memcached and Redis, are able to cache varied-size data objects. A software cache supports update and delete operations in addition to only reads and writes for a hardware cache. Moreover, existing cache models often assume that the penalty for each cache miss is identical, which is not true especially for software cache targeting web services, and past cache management policies that aim to improve cache hit rate are no longer sufficient. We propose a more general cache model that can handle varied cache block sizes, nonuniform miss penalties, and diverse cache operations. In this paper, we first extend a state-of-the-art cache model to accurately predict cache miss ratios for variable cache sizes when object size, updates and deletions are considered. We then apply this model to drive cache management when miss penalty is brought into consideration. Our approach delivers better results than a recent penalty-aware cache management scheme, Hyperbolic Caching, especially when cache budget is tight. Another advantage of our approach is that it provides predictable and controllable cache management on cache space allocation, especially when multiple applications share the cache space.
Njova, Dion, Ogudo, Kingsley, Umenne, Patrice.  2020.  Packet Analysis of DNP3 protocol over TCP/IP at an Electrical Substation Grid modelled in OPNET. 2020 IEEE PES/IAS PowerAfrica. :1—5.
In this paper Intelligent Electronic Devices (IED) that use ethernet for communicating with substation devices on the grid where modelled in OPNET. There is a need to test the communication protocol performance over the network. A model for the substation communication network was implemented in OPNET. This was done for ESKOM, which is the electrical power generation and distribution authority in South Africa. The substation communication model consists of 10 ethernet nodes which simulate protection Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs), 13 ethernet switches, a server which simulates the substation Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) and the DNP3 Protocol over TCP/IP simulated on the model. DNP3 is a protocol that can be used in a power utility computer network to provide communication service for the grid components. It was selected as the communication protocol because it is widely used in the energy sector in South Africa. The network load and packet delay parameters were sampled when 10%, 50%, 90% and 100% of devices are online. Analysis of the results showed that with an increase in number of nodes there was an increase in packet delay as well as the network load. The load on the network should be taken into consideration when designing a substation communication network that requires a quick response such as a smart gird.
Hussain, Mubashir, Guo, Hui.  2017.  Packet Leak Detection on Hardware-Trojan Infected NoCs for MPSoC Systems. Proceedings of the 2017 International Conference on Cryptography, Security and Privacy. :85–90.
Packet leak on network-on-chip (NoC) is one of the key security concerns in the MPSoC design, where the NoC of the system can come from a third-party vendor and can be illegitimately implanted with hardware trojans. Those trojans are usually small so that they can escape the scrutiny of circuit level testing and perform attacks when activated. This paper targets the trojan that leaks packets to malicious applications by altering the packet source and destination addresses. To detect such a packet leak, we present a cost effective authentication design where the packet source and destination addresses are tagged with a dynamic random value and the tag is scrambled with the packet data. Our design has two features: 1) If the adversary attempts to play with tag to escape detection, the data in the packet may likely be changed – hence invalidating the leaked packet; 2) If the attacker only alters the packet addresses without twiddling tag in the packet, the attack will be100% detected.
Elsadig, M. A., Fadlalla, Y. A..  2018.  Packet Length Covert Channel: A Detection Scheme. 2018 1st International Conference on Computer Applications Information Security (ICCAIS). :1-7.

A covert channel is a communication channel that is subjugated for illegal flow of information in a way that violates system security policies. It is a dangerous, invisible, undetectable, and developed security attack. Recently, Packet length covert channel has motivated many researchers as it is a one of the most undetectable network covert channels. Packet length covert channel generates a covert traffic that is very similar to normal terrific which complicates the detection of such type of covert channels. This motivates us to introduce a machine learning based detection scheme. Recently, a machine learning approach has proved its capability in many different fields especially in security field as it usually brings up a reliable and realistic results. Based in our developed content and frequency-based features, the developed detection scheme has been fully trained and tested. Our detection scheme has gained an excellent degree of detection accuracy which reaches 98% (zero false negative rate and 0.02 false positive rate).

Kumar, R., Mishra, A. K., Singh, D. K..  2020.  Packet Loss Avoidance in Mobile Adhoc Network by using Trusted LDoS Techniques. 2nd International Conference on Data, Engineering and Applications (IDEA). :1—5.
Packet loss detection and prevention is full-size module of MANET protection systems. In trust based approach routing choices are managed with the aid of an unbiased have faith table. Traditional trust-based techniques unsuccessful to notice the essential underlying reasons of a malicious events. AODV is an approachable routing set of guidelines i.e.it finds a supply to an endpoint only on request. LDoS cyber-attacks ship assault statistics packets after period to time in a brief time period. The community multifractal ought to be episodic when LDoS cyber-attacks are hurled unpredictably. Real time programs in MANET necessitate certain QoS advantages, such as marginal end-to-end facts packet interval and unobjectionable records forfeiture. Identification of malevolent machine, information security and impenetrable direction advent in a cell system is a key tasks in any wi-fi network. However, gaining the trust of a node is very challenging, and by what capability it be able to get performed is quiet ambiguous. This paper propose a modern methodology to detect and stop the LDoS attack and preserve innocent from wicked nodes. In this paper an approach which will improve the safety in community by identifying the malicious nodes using improved quality grained packet evaluation method. The approach also multiplied the routing protection using proposed algorithm The structure also accomplish covered direction-finding to defend Adhoc community against malicious node. Experimentally conclusion factor out that device is fine fabulous for confident and more advantageous facts communication.
Misra, G., Such, J. M..  2017.  PACMAN: Personal Agent for Access Control in Social Media. IEEE Internet Computing. 21:18–26.

Given social media users' plethora of interactions, appropriately controlling access to such information becomes a challenging task for users. Selecting the appropriate audience, even from within their own friend network, can be fraught with difficulties. PACMAN is a potential solution for this dilemma problem. It's a personal assistant agent that recommends personalized access control decisions based on the social context of any information disclosure by incorporating communities generated from the user's network structure and utilizing information in the user's profile. PACMAN provides accurate recommendations while minimizing intrusiveness.

Min, Chulhong, Lee, Seungchul, Lee, Changhun, Lee, Youngki, Kang, Seungwoo, Choi, Seungpyo, Kim, Wonjung, Song, Junehwa.  2016.  PADA: Power-aware Development Assistant for Mobile Sensing Applications. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing. :946–957.

We propose PADA, a new power evaluation tool to measure and optimize power use of mobile sensing applications. Our motivational study with 53 professional developers shows they face huge challenges in meeting power requirements. The key challenges are from the significant time and effort for repetitive power measurements since the power use of sensing applications needs to be evaluated under various real-world usage scenarios and sensing parameters. PADA enables developers to obtain enriched power information under diverse usage scenarios in development environments without deploying and testing applications on real phones in real-life situations. We conducted two user studies with 19 developers to evaluate the usability of PADA. We show that developers benefit from using PADA in the implementation and power tuning of mobile sensing applications.

Tomandl, A., Herrmann, D., Federrath, H..  2014.  PADAVAN: Privacy-Aware Data Accumulation for Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks. Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob), 2014 IEEE 10th International Conference on. :487-493.

In this paper we introduce PADAVAN, a novel anonymous data collection scheme for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs). PADAVAN allows users to submit data anonymously to a data consumer while preventing adversaries from submitting large amounts of bogus data. PADAVAN is comprised of an n-times anonymous authentication scheme, mix cascades and various principles to protect the privacy of the submitted data itself. Furthermore, we evaluate the effectiveness of limiting an adversary to a fixed amount of messages.

Selim, Ahmed, Elgharib, Mohamed, Doyle, Linda.  2016.  Painting Style Transfer for Head Portraits Using Convolutional Neural Networks. ACM Trans. Graph.. 35:129:1–129:18.

Head portraits are popular in traditional painting. Automating portrait painting is challenging as the human visual system is sensitive to the slightest irregularities in human faces. Applying generic painting techniques often deforms facial structures. On the other hand portrait painting techniques are mainly designed for the graphite style and/or are based on image analogies; an example painting as well as its original unpainted version are required. This limits their domain of applicability. We present a new technique for transferring the painting from a head portrait onto another. Unlike previous work our technique only requires the example painting and is not restricted to a specific style. We impose novel spatial constraints by locally transferring the color distributions of the example painting. This better captures the painting texture and maintains the integrity of facial structures. We generate a solution through Convolutional Neural Networks and we present an extension to video. Here motion is exploited in a way to reduce temporal inconsistencies and the shower-door effect. Our approach transfers the painting style while maintaining the input photograph identity. In addition it significantly reduces facial deformations over state of the art.

Jeong, S., Kang, S., Yang, J.-S..  2020.  PAIR: Pin-aligned In-DRAM ECC architecture using expandability of Reed-Solomon code. 2020 57th ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC). :1–6.
The computation speed of computer systems is getting faster and the memory has been enhanced in performance and density through process scaling. However, due to the process scaling, DRAMs are recently suffering from numerous inherent faults. DRAM vendors suggest In-DRAM Error Correcting Code (IECC) to cope with the unreliable operation. However, the conventional IECC schemes have concerns about miscorrection and performance degradation. This paper proposes a pin-aligned In-DRAM ECC architecture using the expandability of a Reed-Solomon code (PAIR), that aligns ECC codewords with DQ pin lines (data passage of DRAM). PAIR is specialized in managing widely distributed inherent faults without the performance degradation, and its correction capability is sufficient to correct burst errors as well. The experimental results analyzed with the latest DRAM model show that the proposed architecture achieves up to 106 times higher reliability than XED with 14% performance improvement, and 10 times higher reliability than DUO with a similar performance, on average.
Reshma, V., Gladwin, S. Joseph, Thiruvenkatesan, C..  2019.  Pairing-Free CP-ABE based Cryptography Combined with Steganography for Multimedia Applications. 2019 International Conference on Communication and Signal Processing (ICCSP). :0501—0505.

Technology development has led to rapid increase in demands for multimedia applications. Due to this demand, digital archives are increasingly used to store these multimedia contents. Cloud is the commonly used archive to store, transmit, receive and share multimedia contents. Cloud makes use of internet to perform these tasks due to which data becomes more prone to attacks. Data security and privacy are compromised. This can be avoided by limiting data access to authenticated users and by hiding the data from cloud services that cannot be trusted. Hiding data from the cloud services involves encrypting the data before storing it into the cloud. Data to be shared with other users can be encrypted by utilizing Cipher Text-Policy Attribute Based Encryption (CP-ABE). CP-ABE is used which is a cryptographic technique that controls access to the encrypted data. The pairing-based computation based on bilinearity is used in ABE due to which the requirements for resources like memory and power supply increases rapidly. Most of the devices that we use today have limited memory. Therefore, an efficient pairing free CP- ABE access control scheme using elliptic curve cryptography has been used. Pairing based computation is replaced with scalar product on elliptic curves that reduces the necessary memory and resource requirements for the users. Even though pairing free CP-ABE is used, it is easier to retrieve the plaintext of a secret message if cryptanalysis is used. Therefore, this paper proposes to combine cryptography with steganography in such a way by embedding crypto text into an image to provide increased level of data security and data ownership for sub-optimal multimedia applications. It makes it harder for a cryptanalyst to retrieve the plaintext of a secret message from a stego-object if steganalysis were not used. This scheme significantly improved the data security as well as data privacy.

Iula, Antonio, Micucci, Monica.  2019.  Palmprint recognition based on ultrasound imaging. 2019 42nd International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing (TSP). :621–624.
Biometric recognition systems based on ultrasound images have been investigated for several decades, and nowadays ultrasonic fingerprint sensors are fully integrated in portable devices. Main advantage of the Ultrasound over other technologies are the possibility to collect 3D images, allowing to gain information on under-skin features, which improve recognition accuracy and resistance to spoofing. Also, ultrasound images are not sensible to several skin contaminations, humidity and not uniform ambient illumination. An ultrasound system, able to acquire 3D images of the human palm has been recently proposed. In this work, a recognition procedure based on 2D palmprint images collected with this system is proposed and evaluated through verification experiments carried out on a home made database composed of 141 samples collected from 24 users. Perspective of the proposed method by upgrading the recognition procedure to provide a 3D template able to accounts for palm lines' depth are finally highlighted and discussed.
Flores, Hugo, Tran, Vincent, Tang, Bin.  2020.  PAM PAL: Policy-Aware Virtual Machine Migration and Placement in Dynamic Cloud Data Centers. IEEE INFOCOM 2020 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. :2549—2558.
We focus on policy-aware data centers (PADCs), wherein virtual machine (VM) traffic traverses a sequence of middleboxes (MBs) for security and performance purposes, and propose two new VM placement and migration problems. We first study PAL: policy-aware virtual machine placement. Given a PADC with a data center policy that communicating VM pairs must satisfy, the goal of PAL is to place the VMs into the PADC to minimize their total communication cost. Due to dynamic traffic loads in PADCs, however, above VM placement may no longer be optimal after some time. We thus study PAM: policy-aware virtual machine migration. Given an existing VM placement in the PADC and dynamic traffic rates among communicating VMs, PAM migrates VMs in order to minimize the total cost of migration and communication of the VM pairs. We design optimal, approximation, and heuristic policyaware VM placement and migration algorithms. Our experiments show that i) VM migration is an effective technique, reducing total communication cost of VM pairs by 25%, ii) our PAL algorithms outperform state-of-the-art VM placement algorithm that is oblivious to data center policies by 40-50%, and iii) our PAM algorithms outperform the only existing policy-aware VM migration scheme by 30%.
Lu, Chang, Lei, Xiaochun, Xie, Junlin, Wang, Xiaolong, Mu, XiangBoge.  2020.  Panoptic Feature Pyramid Network Applications In Intelligent Traffic. 2020 16th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Security (CIS). :40–43.
Intelligenta transportation is an important part of urban development. The core of realizing intelligent transportation is to master the urban road condition. This system processes the video of dashcam based on the Panoptic Segmentation network and adds a tracking module based on the comparison of front and rear frames and KM algorithm. The system mainly includes the following parts: embedded device, Panoptic Feature Pyramid Network, cloud server and Web site.
Agarwal, Pankaj K., Fox, Kyle, Munagala, Kamesh, Nath, Abhinandan.  2016.  Parallel Algorithms for Constructing Range and Nearest-Neighbor Searching Data Structures. Proceedings of the 35th ACM SIGMOD-SIGACT-SIGAI Symposium on Principles of Database Systems. :429–440.

With the massive amounts of data available today, it is common to store and process data using multiple machines. Parallel programming platforms such as MapReduce and its variants are popular frameworks for handling such large data. We present the first provably efficient algorithms to compute, store, and query data structures for range queries and approximate nearest neighbor queries in a popular parallel computing abstraction that captures the salient features of MapReduce and other massively parallel communication (MPC) models. In particular, we describe algorithms for \$kd\$-trees, range trees, and BBD-trees that only require O(1) rounds of communication for both preprocessing and querying while staying competitive in terms of running time and workload to their classical counterparts. Our algorithms are randomized, but they can be made deterministic at some increase in their running time and workload while keeping the number of rounds of communication to be constant.

Chen, B., Wu, L., Li, L., Choo, K. R., He, D..  2020.  A Parallel and Forward Private Searchable Public-Key Encryption for Cloud-Based Data Sharing. IEEE Access. 8:28009–28020.
Data sharing through the cloud is flourishing with the development of cloud computing technology. The new wave of technology will also give rise to new security challenges, particularly the data confidentiality in cloud-based sharing applications. Searchable encryption is considered as one of the most promising solutions for balancing data confidentiality and usability. However, most existing searchable encryption schemes cannot simultaneously satisfy requirements for both high search efficiency and strong security due to lack of some must-have properties, such as parallel search and forward security. To address this problem, we propose a variant searchable encryption with parallelism and forward privacy, namely the parallel and forward private searchable public-key encryption (PFP-SPE). PFP-SPE scheme achieves both the parallelism and forward privacy at the expense of slightly higher storage costs. PFP-SPE has similar search efficiency with that of some searchable symmetric encryption schemes but no key distribution problem. The security analysis and the performance evaluation on a real-world dataset demonstrate that the proposed scheme is suitable for practical application.
Yang, J.-S., Chang, J.-M., Pai, K.-J., Chan, H.-C..  2015.  Parallel Construction of Independent Spanning Trees on Enhanced Hypercubes. Parallel and Distributed Systems, IEEE Transactions on. PP:1-1.

The use of multiple independent spanning trees (ISTs) for data broadcasting in networks provides a number of advantages, including the increase of fault-tolerance, bandwidth and security. Thus, the designs of multiple ISTs on several classes of networks have been widely investigated. In this paper, we give an algorithm to construct ISTs on enhanced hypercubes Qn,k, which contain folded hypercubes as a subclass. Moreover, we show that these ISTs are near optimal for heights and path lengths. Let D(Qn,k) denote the diameter of Qn,k. If n - k is odd or n - k ∈ {2; n}, we show that all the heights of ISTs are equal to D(Qn,k) + 1, and thus are optimal. Otherwise, we show that each path from a node to the root in a spanning tree has length at most D(Qn,k) + 2. In particular, no more than 2.15 percent of nodes have the maximum path length. As a by-product, we improve the upper bound of wide diameter (respectively, fault diameter) of Qn,k from these path lengths.

Li, Yongnan, Xiao, Limin.  2019.  Parallel DNA Computing Model of Point-Doubling in Conic Curves Cryptosystem over Finite Field GF(2ˆn). 2019 IEEE 21st International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications; IEEE 17th International Conference on Smart City; IEEE 5th International Conference on Data Science and Systems (HPCC/SmartCity/DSS). :1564-1571.

DNA cryptography becomes a burgeoning new area of study along with the fast-developing of DNA computing and modern cryptography. Point-doubling, point-addition and point-multiplication are three fundamental point-operations to construct encryption protocols in some cryptosystem over mathematical curves such as elliptic curves and conic curves. This paper proposes a DNA computing model to calculate point-doubling in conic curves cryptosystem over finite held GF(2n). By decomposing and rearranging the computing steps of point-doubling, the assembly process could be fulfilled by using 8 different types of computation tiles performing different functions with 1097 encoding ways. This model could also figure out point-multiplication if its coefficient is 2k. The assembly time complexity is 2kn+n-k-1, and the space complexity is k2n2+kn2-k2n.

Despotovski, Filip, Gusev, Marjan, Zdraveski, Vladimir.  2018.  Parallel Implementation of K-Nearest-Neighbors for Face Recognition. 2018 26th Telecommunications Forum (℡FOR). :1—4.
Face recognition is a fast-expanding field of research. Countless classification algorithms have found use in face recognition, with more still being developed, searching for better performance and accuracy. For high-dimensional data such as images, the K-Nearest-Neighbours classifier is a tempting choice. However, it is very computationally-intensive, as it has to perform calculations on all items in the stored dataset for each classification it makes. Fortunately, there is a way to speed up the process by performing some of the calculations in parallel. We propose a parallel CUDA implementation of the KNN classifier and then compare it to a serial implementation to demonstrate its performance superiority.
Hazari, S. S., Mahmoud, Q. H..  2019.  A Parallel Proof of Work to Improve Transaction Speed and Scalability in Blockchain Systems. 2019 IEEE 9th Annual Computing and Communication Workshop and Conference (CCWC). :0916-0921.

A blockchain is a distributed ledger forming a distributed consensus on a history of transactions, and is the underlying technology for the Bitcoin cryptocurrency. However, its applications are far beyond the financial sector. The transaction verification process for cryptocurrencies is much slower than traditional digital transaction systems. One approach to increase transaction speed and scalability is to identify a solution that offers faster Proof of Work. In this paper, we propose a method for accelerating the process of Proof of Work based on parallel mining rather than solo mining. The goal is to ensure that no more than two or more miners put the same effort into solving a specific block. The proposed method includes a process for selection of a manager, distribution of work and a reward system. This method has been implemented in a test environment that contains all the characteristics needed to perform Proof of Work for Bitcoin and has been tested, using a variety of case scenarios, by varying the difficulty level and number of validators. Preliminary results show improvement in the scalability of Proof of Work up to 34% compared to the current system.