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Zhang, Jiangfan.  2019.  Quickest Detection of Time-Varying False Data Injection Attacks in Dynamic Smart Grids. ICASSP 2019 - 2019 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP). :2432-2436.

Quickest detection of false data injection attacks (FDIAs) in dynamic smart grids is considered in this paper. The unknown time-varying state variables of the smart grid and the FDIAs impose a significant challenge for designing a computationally efficient detector. To address this challenge, we propose new Cumulative-Sum-type algorithms with computational complex scaling linearly with the number of meters. Moreover, for any constraint on the expected false alarm period, a lower bound on the threshold employed in the proposed algorithm is provided. For any given threshold employed in the proposed algorithm, an upper bound on the worstcase expected detection delay is also derived. The proposed algorithm is numerically investigated in the context of an IEEE standard power system under FDIAs, and is shown to outperform some representative algorithm in the test case.

Barros, Bettina D., Venkategowda, Naveen K. D., Werner, Stefan.  2021.  Quickest Detection of Stochastic False Data Injection Attacks with Unknown Parameters. 2021 IEEE Statistical Signal Processing Workshop (SSP). :426—430.
This paper considers a multivariate quickest detection problem with false data injection (FDI) attacks in internet of things (IoT) systems. We derive a sequential generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) for zero-mean Gaussian FDI attacks. Exploiting the fact that covariance matrices are positive, we propose strategies to detect positive semi-definite matrix additions rather than arbitrary changes in the covariance matrix. The distribution of the GLRT is only known asymptotically whereas quickest detectors deal with short sequences, thereby leading to loss of performance. Therefore, we use a finite-sample correction to reduce the false alarm rate. Further, we provide a numerical approach to estimate the threshold sequences, which are analytically intractable to compute. We also compare the average detection delay of the proposed detector for constant and varying threshold sequences. Simulations showed that the proposed detector outperforms the standard sequential GLRT detector.
Sahabandu, D., Allen, J., Moothedath, S., Bushnell, L., Lee, W., Poovendran, R..  2020.  Quickest Detection of Advanced Persistent Threats: A Semi-Markov Game Approach. 2020 ACM/IEEE 11th International Conference on Cyber-Physical Systems (ICCPS). :9—19.
Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs) are stealthy, sophisticated, long-term, multi-stage attacks that threaten the security of sensitive information. Dynamic Information Flow Tracking (DIFT) has been proposed as a promising mechanism to detect and prevent various cyber attacks in computer systems. DIFT tracks suspicious information flows in the system and generates security analysis when anomalous behavior is detected. The number of information flows in a system is typically large and the amount of resources (such as memory, processing power and storage) required for analyzing different flows at different system locations varies. Hence, efficient use of resources is essential to maintain an acceptable level of system performance when using DIFT. On the other hand, the quickest detection of APTs is crucial as APTs are persistent and the damage caused to the system is more when the attacker spends more time in the system. We address the problem of detecting APTs and model the trade-off between resource efficiency and quickest detection of APTs. We propose a game model that captures the interaction of APT and a DIFT-based defender as a two-player, multi-stage, zero-sum, Stackelberg semi-Markov game. Our game considers the performance parameters such as false-negatives generated by DIFT and the time required for executing various operations in the system. We propose a two-time scale Q-learning algorithm that converges to a Stackelberg equilibrium under infinite horizon, limiting average payoff criteria. We validate our model and algorithm on a real-word attack dataset obtained using Refinable Attack INvestigation (RAIN) framework.
Ullah, Faheem, Ali Babar, M..  2019.  QuickAdapt: Scalable Adaptation for Big Data Cyber Security Analytics. 2019 24th International Conference on Engineering of Complex Computer Systems (ICECCS). :81–86.
Big Data Cyber Security Analytics (BDCA) leverages big data technologies for collecting, storing, and analyzing a large volume of security events data to detect cyber-attacks. Accuracy and response time, being the most important quality concerns for BDCA, are impacted by changes in security events data. Whilst it is promising to adapt a BDCA system's architecture to the changes in security events data for optimizing accuracy and response time, it is important to consider large search space of architectural configurations. Searching a large space of configurations for potential adaptation incurs an overwhelming adaptation time, which may cancel the benefits of adaptation. We present an adaptation approach, QuickAdapt, to enable quick adaptation of a BDCA system. QuickAdapt uses descriptive statistics (e.g., mean and variance) of security events data and fuzzy rules to (re) compose a system with a set of components to ensure optimal accuracy and response time. We have evaluated QuickAdapt for a distributed BDCA system using four datasets. Our evaluation shows that on average QuickAdapt reduces adaptation time by 105× with a competitive adaptation accuracy of 70% as compared to an existing solution.
Ismail, Safwati, Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim, Kumar, Alvin Ebenazer.  2021.  Quick Response Code Validation and Phishing Detection Tool. 2021 IEEE 11th IEEE Symposium on Computer Applications & Industrial Electronics (ISCAIE). :261–266.
A Quick Response (QR) Code is a type of barcode that can be read by the digital devices and which stores the information in a square-shaped. The QR Code readers can extract data from the patterns which are presented in the QR Code matrix. A QR Code can be acting as an attack vector that can harm indirectly. In such case a QR Code can carry malicious or phishing URLs and redirect users to a site which is well conceived by the attacker and pretends to be an authorized one. Once the QR Code is decoded the commands are triggered and executed, causing damage to information, operating system and other possible sequence the attacker expects to gain. In this paper, a new model for QR Code authentication and phishing detection has been presented. The proposed model will be able to detect the phishing and malicious URLs in the process of the QR Code validation as well as to prevent the user from validating it. The development of this application will help to prevent users from being tricked by the harmful QR Codes.
Xie, Kun, Li, Xiaocan, Wang, Xin, Xie, Gaogang, Xie, Dongliang, Li, Zhenyu, Wen, Jigang, Diao, Zulong.  2019.  Quick and Accurate False Data Detection in Mobile Crowd Sensing. IEEE INFOCOM 2019 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. :2215—2223.

With the proliferation of smartphones, a novel sensing paradigm called Mobile Crowd Sensing (MCS) has emerged very recently. However, the attacks and faults in MCS cause a serious false data problem. Observing the intrinsic low dimensionality of general monitoring data and the sparsity of false data, false data detection can be performed based on the separation of normal data and anomalies. Although the existing separation algorithm based on Direct Robust Matrix Factorization (DRMF) is proven to be effective, requiring iteratively performing Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) for low-rank matrix approximation would result in a prohibitively high accumulated computation cost when the data matrix is large. In this work, we observe the quick false data location feature from our empirical study of DRMF, based on which we propose an intelligent Light weight Low Rank and False Matrix Separation algorithm (LightLRFMS) that can reuse the previous result of the matrix decomposition to deduce the one for the current iteration step. Our algorithm can largely speed up the whole iteration process. From a theoretical perspective, we validate that LightLRFMS only requires one round of SVD computation and thus has very low computation cost. We have done extensive experiments using a PM 2.5 air condition trace and a road traffic trace. Our results demonstrate that LightLRFMS can achieve very good false data detection performance with the same highest detection accuracy as DRMF but with up to 10 times faster speed thanks to its lower computation cost.

Michel, François, De Coninck, Quentin, Bonaventure, Olivier.  2019.  QUIC-FEC: Bringing the benefits of Forward Erasure Correction to QUIC. 2019 IFIP Networking Conference (IFIP Networking). :1—9.

Originally implemented by Google, QUIC gathers a growing interest by providing, on top of UDP, the same service as the classical TCP/TLS/HTTP/2 stack. The IETF will finalise the QUIC specification in 2019. A key feature of QUIC is that almost all its packets, including most of its headers, are fully encrypted. This prevents eavesdropping and interferences caused by middleboxes. Thanks to this feature and its clean design, QUIC is easier to extend than TCP. In this paper, we revisit the reliable transmission mechanisms that are included in QUIC. More specifically, we design, implement and evaluate Forward Erasure Correction (FEC) extensions to QUIC. These extensions are mainly intended for high-delays and lossy communications such as In-Flight Communications. Our design includes a generic FEC frame and our implementation supports the XOR, Reed-Solomon and Convolutional RLC error-correcting codes. We also conservatively avoid hindering the loss-based congestion signal by distinguishing the packets that have been received from the packets that have been recovered by the FEC. We evaluate its performance by applying an experimental design covering a wide range of delay and packet loss conditions with reproducible experiments. These confirm that our modular design allows the protocol to adapt to the network conditions. For long data transfers or when the loss rate and delay are small, the FEC overhead negatively impacts the download completion time. However, with high packet loss rates and long delays or smaller files, FEC allows drastically reducing the download completion time by avoiding costly retransmission timeouts. These results show that there is a need to use FEC adaptively to the network conditions.

Yaegashi, Ryo, Hisano, Daisuke, Nakayama, Yu.  2021.  Queue Allocation-Based DDoS Mitigation at Edge Switch. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC Workshops). :1—6.

It has been a hot research topic to detect and mitigate Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attacks due to the significant increase of serious threat of such attacks. The rapid growth of Internet of Things (IoT) has intensified this trend, e.g. the Mirai botnet and variants. To address this issue, a light-weight DDoS mitigation mechanism was presented. In the proposed scheme, flooding attacks are detected by stochastic queue allocation which can be executed with widespread and inexpensive commercial products at a network edge. However, the detection process is delayed when the number of incoming flows is large because of the randomness of queue allocation. Thus, in this paper we propose an efficient queue allocation algorithm for rapid DDoS mitigation using limited resources. The idea behind the proposed scheme is to avoid duplicate allocation by decreasing the randomness of the existing scheme. The performance of the proposed scheme was confirmed via theoretical analysis and computer simulation. As a result, it was confirmed that malicious flows are efficiently detected and discarded with the proposed algorithm.

Wu, Yifan, Drucker, Steven, Philipose, Matthai, Ravindranath, Lenin.  2018.  Querying Videos Using DNN Generated Labels. Proceedings of the Workshop on Human-In-the-Loop Data Analytics. :6:1–6:6.
Massive amounts of videos are generated for entertainment, security, and science, powered by a growing supply of user-produced video hosting services. Unfortunately, searching for videos is difficult due to the lack of content annotations. Recent breakthroughs in image labeling with deep neural networks (DNNs) create a unique opportunity to address this problem. While many automated end-to-end solutions have been developed, such as natural language queries, we take on a different perspective: to leverage both the development of algorithms and human capabilities. To this end, we design a query language in tandem with a user interface to help users quickly identify segments of interest from the video based on labels and corresponding bounding boxes. We combine techniques from the database and information visualization communities to help the user make sense of the object labels in spite of errors and inconsistencies.
Liu, Yin, Song, Zheng, Tilevich, Eli.  2017.  Querying Invisible Objects: Supporting Data-Driven, Privacy-Preserving Distributed Applications. Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Managed Languages and Runtimes. :60–72.

When transferring sensitive data to a non-trusted party, end-users require that the data be kept private. Mobile and IoT application developers want to leverage the sensitive data to provide better user experience and intelligent services. Unfortunately, existing programming abstractions make it impossible to reconcile these two seemingly conflicting objectives. In this paper, we present a novel programming mechanism for distributed managed execution environments that hides sensitive user data, while enabling developers to build powerful and intelligent applications, driven by the properties of the sensitive data. Specifically, the sensitive data is never revealed to clients, being protected by the runtime system. Our abstractions provide declarative and configurable data query interfaces, enforced by a lightweight distributed runtime system. Developers define when and how clients can query the sensitive data's properties (i.e., how long the data remains accessible, how many times its properties can be queried, which data query methods apply, etc.). Based on our evaluation, we argue that integrating our novel mechanism with the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) can address some of the most pertinent privacy problems of IoT and mobile applications.

Moraffah, Raha, Liu, Huan.  2022.  Query-Efficient Target-Agnostic Black-Box Attack. 2022 IEEE International Conference on Data Mining (ICDM). :368–377.
Adversarial attacks have recently been proposed to scrutinize the security of deep neural networks. Most blackbox adversarial attacks, which have partial access to the target through queries, are target-specific; e.g., they require a well-trained surrogate that accurately mimics a given target. In contrast, target-agnostic black-box attacks are developed to attack any target; e.g., they learn a generalized surrogate that can adapt to any target via fine-tuning on samples queried from the target. Despite their success, current state-of-the-art target-agnostic attacks require tremendous fine-tuning steps and consequently an immense number of queries to the target to generate successful attacks. The high query complexity of these attacks makes them easily detectable and thus defendable. We propose a novel query-efficient target-agnostic attack that trains a generalized surrogate network to output the adversarial directions iv.r.t. the inputs and equip it with an effective fine-tuning strategy that only fine-tunes the surrogate when it fails to provide useful directions to generate the attacks. Particularly, we show that to effectively adapt to any target and generate successful attacks, it is sufficient to fine-tune the surrogate with informative samples that help the surrogate get out of the failure mode with additional information on the target’s local behavior. Extensive experiments on CIFAR10 and CIFAR-100 datasets demonstrate that the proposed target-agnostic approach can generate highly successful attacks for any target network with very few fine-tuning steps and thus significantly smaller number of queries (reduced by several order of magnitudes) compared to the state-of-the-art baselines.
Pengcheng, Li, Yi, Jinfeng, Zhang, Lijun.  2018.  Query-Efficient Black-Box Attack by Active Learning. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Data Mining (ICDM). :1200–1205.
Deep neural network (DNN) as a popular machine learning model is found to be vulnerable to adversarial attack. This attack constructs adversarial examples by adding small perturbations to the raw input, while appearing unmodified to human eyes but will be misclassified by a well-trained classifier. In this paper, we focus on the black-box attack setting where attackers have almost no access to the underlying models. To conduct black-box attack, a popular approach aims to train a substitute model based on the information queried from the target DNN. The substitute model can then be attacked using existing white-box attack approaches, and the generated adversarial examples will be used to attack the target DNN. Despite its encouraging results, this approach suffers from poor query efficiency, i.e., attackers usually needs to query a huge amount of times to collect enough information for training an accurate substitute model. To this end, we first utilize state-of-the-art white-box attack methods to generate samples for querying, and then introduce an active learning strategy to significantly reduce the number of queries needed. Besides, we also propose a diversity criterion to avoid the sampling bias. Our extensive experimental results on MNIST and CIFAR-10 show that the proposed method can reduce more than 90% of queries while preserve attacking success rates and obtain an accurate substitute model which is more than 85% similar with the target oracle.
Chang, Sang-Yoon, Park, Younghee, Kengalahalli, Nikhil Vijayakumar, Zhou, Xiaobo.  2020.  Query-Crafting DoS Threats Against Internet DNS. 2020 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1–9.
Domain name system (DNS) resolves the IP addresses of domain names and is critical for IP networking. Recent denial-of-service (DoS) attacks on Internet targeted the DNS system (e.g., Dyn), which has the cascading effect of denying the availability of the services and applications relying on the targeted DNS. In view of these attacks, we investigate the DoS on DNS system and introduce the query-crafting threats where the attacker controls the DNS query payload (the domain name) to maximize the threat impact per query (increasing the communications between the DNS servers and the threat time duration), which is orthogonal to other DoS approaches to increase the attack impact such as flooding and DNS amplification. We model the DNS system using a state diagram and comprehensively analyze the threat space, identifying the threat vectors which include not only the random/invalid domains but also those using the domain name structure to combine valid strings and random strings. Query-crafting DoS threats generate new domain-name payloads for each query and force increased complexity in the DNS query resolution. We test the query-crafting DoS threats by taking empirical measurements on the Internet and show that they amplify the DoS impact on the DNS system (recursive resolver) by involving more communications and taking greater time duration. To defend against such DoS or DDoS threats, we identify the relevant detection features specific to query-crafting threats and evaluate the defense using our prototype in CloudLab.
Shen, M., Liu, F..  2015.  Query of Uncertain QoS of Web Service. 2015 IEEE 12th Intl Conf on Ubiquitous Intelligence and Computing and 2015 IEEE 12th Intl Conf on Autonomic and Trusted Computing and 2015 IEEE 15th Intl Conf on Scalable Computing and Communications and Its Associate. :1780–1785.

Quality of service (QoS) has been considered as a significant criterion for querying among functionally similar web services. Most researches focus on the search of QoS under certain data which may not cover some practical scenarios. Recent approaches for uncertain QoS of web service deal with discrete data domain. In this paper, we try to build the search of QoS under continuous probability distribution. We offer the definition of two kinds of queries under uncertain QoS and form the optimization approaches for specific distributions. Based on that, the search is extended to general cases. With experiments, we show the feasibility of the proposed methods.

Luowei Zhou, Sucheng Liu, Weiguo Lu, Shuchang Hu.  2014.  Quasi-steady-state large-signal modelling of DC #8211;DC switching converter: justification and application for varying operating conditions. Power Electronics, IET. 7:2455-2464.

Quasi-steady-state (QSS) large-signal models are often taken for granted in the analysis and design of DC-DC switching converters, particularly for varying operating conditions. In this study, the premise for the QSS is justified quantitatively for the first time. Based on the QSS, the DC-DC switching converter under varying operating conditions is reduced to the linear time varying systems model. Thereafter, the QSS concept is applied to analysis of frequency-domain properties of the DC-DC switching converters by using three-dimensional Bode plots, which is then utilised to the optimisation of the controller parameters for wide variations of input voltage and load resistance. An experimental prototype of an average-current-mode-controlled boost DC-DC converter is built to verify the analysis and design by both frequency-domain and time-domain measurements.

Timothy Bretl, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Zoe McCarthy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.  2013.  Quasi-Static Manipulation of a Kirchhoff Elastic Road Based on Geometric Analysis of Equilibrium Configurations. The International Journal of Robotics Research. 33(1)

Consider a thin, flexible wire of fixed length that is held at each end by a robotic gripper. Any curve traced by this wire when in static equilibrium is a local solution to a geometric optimal control problem, with boundary conditions that vary with the position and orientation of each gripper. We prove that the set of all local solutions to this problem over all possible boundary conditions is a smooth manifold of finite dimension that can be parameterized by a single chart. We show that this chart makes it easy to implement a sampling-based algorithm for quasi-static manipulation planning. We characterize the performance of such an algorithm with experiments in simulation.

Published in The International Journal of Robotics Research

Timothy Bretl, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Zoe McCarthy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.  2014.  Quasi-Static Manipulation of a Kirchhoff Elastic Road Based on a Geometric Analysis of Equilibrium Configurations. International Journal of Robotics Research. 33(1)

Consider a thin, flexible wire of fixed length that is held at each end by a robotic gripper. Any curve traced by this wire when in static equilibrium is a local solution to a geometric optimal control problem, with boundary conditions that vary with the position and orientation of each gripper. We prove that the set of all local solutions to this problem over all possible boundary conditions is a smooth manifold of finite dimension that can be parameterized by a single chart. We show that this chart makes it easy to implement a sampling-based algorithm for quasi-static manipulation planning. We characterize the performance of such an algorithm with experiments in simulation.

Chen, Tianlong, Zhang, Zhenyu, Zhang, Yihua, Chang, Shiyu, Liu, Sijia, Wang, Zhangyang.  2022.  Quarantine: Sparsity Can Uncover the Trojan Attack Trigger for Free. 2022 IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR). :588—599.
Trojan attacks threaten deep neural networks (DNNs) by poisoning them to behave normally on most samples, yet to produce manipulated results for inputs attached with a particular trigger. Several works attempt to detect whether a given DNN has been injected with a specific trigger during the training. In a parallel line of research, the lottery ticket hypothesis reveals the existence of sparse sub-networks which are capable of reaching competitive performance as the dense network after independent training. Connecting these two dots, we investigate the problem of Trojan DNN detection from the brand new lens of sparsity, even when no clean training data is available. Our crucial observation is that the Trojan features are significantly more stable to network pruning than benign features. Leveraging that, we propose a novel Trojan network detection regime: first locating a “winning Trojan lottery ticket” which preserves nearly full Trojan information yet only chance-level performance on clean inputs; then recovering the trigger embedded in this already isolated sub-network. Extensive experiments on various datasets, i.e., CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, and ImageNet, with different network architectures, i.e., VGG-16, ResNet-18, ResNet-20s, and DenseNet-100 demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposal. Codes are available at
Lardier, W., Varo, Q., Yan, J..  2019.  Quantum-Sim: An Open-Source Co-Simulation Platform for Quantum Key Distribution-Based Smart Grid Communications. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm). :1—6.
Grid modernization efforts with the latest information and communication technologies will significantly benefit smart grids in the coming years. More optical fibre communications between consumers and the control center will promise better demand response and customer engagement, yet the increasing attack surface and man-in-the-middle (MITM) threats can result in security and privacy challenges. Among the studies for more secure smart grid communications, quantum key distribution protocols (QKD) have emerged as a promising option. To bridge the theoretical advantages of quantum communication to its practical utilization, however, comprehensive investigations have to be conducted with realistic cyber-physical smart grid structures and scenarios. To facilitate research in this direction, this paper proposes an open-source, research-oriented co-simulation platform that orchestrates cyber and power simulators under the MOSAIK framework. The proposed platform allows flexible and realistic power flow-based co-simulation of quantum communications and electrical grids, where different cyber and power topologies, QKD protocols, and attack threats can be investigated. Using quantum-based communication under MITM attacks, the paper presented detailed case studies to demonstrate how the platform enables quick setup of a lowvoltage distribution grid, implementation of different protocols and cryptosystems, as well as evaluations of both communication efficiency and security against MITM attacks. The platform has been made available online to empower researchers in the modelling of quantum-based cyber-physical systems, pilot studies on quantum communications in smart grid, as well as improved attack resilience against malicious intruders.
Tang, Zefan, Qin, Yanyuan, Jiang, Zimin, Krawec, Walter O., Zhang, Peng.  2020.  Quantum-Secure Networked Microgrids. 2020 IEEE Power Energy Society General Meeting (PESGM). :1—5.
The classical key distribution systems used for data transmission in networked microgrids (NMGs) rely on mathematical assumptions, which however can be broken by attacks from quantum computers. This paper addresses this quantum-era challenge by using quantum key distribution (QKD). Specifically, the novelty of this paper includes 1) a QKD-enabled communication architecture it devises for NMGs, 2) a real-time QKD- enabled NMGs testbed it builds in an RTDS environment, and 3) a novel two-level key pool sharing (TLKPS) strategy it designs to improve the system resilience against cyberattacks. Test results validate the effectiveness of the presented strategy, and provide insightful resources for building quantum-secure NMGs.
Román, Roberto, Arjona, Rosario, López-González, Paula, Baturone, Iluminada.  2022.  A Quantum-Resistant Face Template Protection Scheme using Kyber and Saber Public Key Encryption Algorithms. 2022 International Conference of the Biometrics Special Interest Group (BIOSIG). :1–5.
Considered sensitive information by the ISO/IEC 24745, biometric data should be stored and used in a protected way. If not, privacy and security of end-users can be compromised. Also, the advent of quantum computers demands quantum-resistant solutions. This work proposes the use of Kyber and Saber public key encryption (PKE) algorithms together with homomorphic encryption (HE) in a face recognition system. Kyber and Saber, both based on lattice cryptography, were two finalists of the third round of NIST post-quantum cryptography standardization process. After the third round was completed, Kyber was selected as the PKE algorithm to be standardized. Experimental results show that recognition performance of the non-protected face recognition system is preserved with the protection, achieving smaller sizes of protected templates and keys, and shorter execution times than other HE schemes reported in literature that employ lattices. The parameter sets considered achieve security levels of 128, 192 and 256 bits.
ISSN: 1617-5468
Brito, J. P., López, D. R., Aguado, A., Abellán, C., López, V., Pastor-Perales, A., la Iglesia, F. de, Martín, V..  2019.  Quantum Services Architecture in Softwarized Infrastructures. 2019 21st International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON). :1–4.
Quantum computing is posing new threats on our security infrastructure. This has triggered a new research field on quantum-safe methods, and those that rely on the application of quantum principles are commonly referred as quantum cryptography. The most mature development in the field of quantum cryptography is called Quantum Key Distribution (QKD). QKD is a key exchange primitive that can replace existing mechanisms that can become obsolete in the near future. Although QKD has reached a high level of maturity, there is still a long path for a mass market implementation. QKD shall overcome issues such as miniaturization, network integration and the reduction of production costs to make the technology affordable. In this direction, we foresee that QKD systems will evolve following the same path as other networking technologies, where systems will run on specific network cards, integrable in commodity chassis. This work describes part of our activity in the EU H2020 project CiViQ in which quantum technologies, as QKD systems or quantum random number generators (QRNG), will become a single network element that we define as Quantum Switch. This allows for quantum resources (keys or random numbers) to be provided as a service, while the different components are integrated to cooperate for providing the most random and secure bit streams. Furthermore, with the purpose of making our proposal closer to current networking technology, this work also proposes an abstraction logic for making our Quantum Switch suitable to become part of software-defined networking (SDN) architectures. The model fits in the architecture of the SDN quantum node architecture, that is being under standardization by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute. It permits to operate an entire quantum network using a logically centralized SDN controller, and quantum switches to generate and to forward key material and random numbers across the entire network. This scheme, demonstrated for the first time at the Madrid Quantum Network, will allow for a faster and seamless integration of quantum technologies in the telecommunications infrastructure.
Wang, Hongji, Yao, Gang, Wang, Beizhan.  2021.  A Quantum Ring Signature Scheme Based on the Quantum Finite Automata Signature Scheme. 2021 IEEE 15th International Conference on Anti-counterfeiting, Security, and Identification (ASID). :135–139.

In quantum cryptography research area, quantum digital signature is an important research field. To provide a better privacy for users in constructing quantum digital signature, the stronger anonymity of quantum digital signatures is required. Quantum ring signature scheme focuses on anonymity in certain scenarios. Using quantum ring signature scheme, the quantum message signer hides his identity into a group. At the same time, there is no need for any centralized organization when the user uses the quantum ring signature scheme. The group used to hide the signer identity can be immediately selected by the signer himself, and no collaboration between users.Since the quantum finite automaton signature scheme is very efficient quantum digital signature scheme, based on it, we propose a new quantum ring signature scheme. We also showed that the new scheme we proposed is of feasibility, correctness, anonymity, and unforgeability. And furthermore, the new scheme can be implemented only by logical operations, so it is easy to implement.

Adhikari, Tinku, Ghosh, Arindam, Khan, Ajoy Kumar, Laha, Swarnalina, Mitra, Purbita, Karmakar, Raja.  2021.  Quantum Resistance for Cryptographic Keys in Classical Cryptosystems: A Study on QKD Protocols. 2021 12th International Conference on Computing Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1—7.
Distribution of keys in classical cryptography is one of the most significant affairs to deal with. The computational hardness is the fundamental basis of the security of these keys. However, in the era of quantum computing, quantum computers can break down these keys with their substantially more computation capability than normal computers. For instance, a quantum computer can easily break down RSA or ECC in polynomial time. In order to make the keys quantum resistant, Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) is developed to enforce security of the classical cryptographic keys from the attack of quantum computers. By using quantum mechanics, QKD can reinforce the durability of the keys of classical cryptography, which were practically unbreakable during the pre-quantum era. Thus, an extensive study is required to understand the importance of QKD to make the classical cryptographic key distributions secure against both classical and quantum computers. Therefore, in this paper, we discuss trends and limitations of key management protocols in classical cryptography, and demonstrates a relative study of different QKD protocols. In addition, we highlight the security implementation aspects of QKD, which lead to the solution of threats occurring in a quantum computing scenario, such that the cryptographic keys can be quantum resistant.
Shapiro, Jeffrey H., Boroson, Don M., Dixon, P. Ben, Grein, Matthew E., Hamilton, Scott A..  2019.  Quantum Low Probability of Intercept. 2019 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO). :1—2.

Quantum low probability of intercept transmits ciphertext in a way that prevents an eavesdropper possessing the decryption key from recovering the plaintext. It is capable of Gbps communication rates on optical fiber over metropolitan-area distances.