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Hunt, Tyler, Zhu, Zhiting, Xu, Yuanzhong, Peter, Simon, Witchel, Emmett.  2016.  Ryoan: A Distributed Sandbox for Untrusted Computation on Secret Data. Proceedings of the 12th USENIX Conference on Operating Systems Design and Implementation. :533–549.

Users of modern data-processing services such as tax preparation or genomic screening are forced to trust them with data that the users wish to keep secret. Ryoan protects secret data while it is processed by services that the data owner does not trust. Accomplishing this goal in a distributed setting is difficult because the user has no control over the service providers or the computational platform. Confining code to prevent it from leaking secrets is notoriously difficult, but Ryoan benefits from new hardware and a request-oriented data model. Ryoan provides a distributed sandbox, leveraging hardware enclaves (e.g., Intel's software guard extensions (SGX) [15]) to protect sandbox instances from potentially malicious computing platforms. The protected sandbox instances confine untrusted data-processing modules to prevent leakage of the user's input data. Ryoan is designed for a request-oriented data model, where confined modules only process input once and do not persist state about the input. We present the design and prototype implementation of Ryoan and evaluate it on a series of challenging problems including email filtering, heath analysis, image processing and machine translation.

Hunt, Tyler, Zhu, Zhiting, Xu, Yuanzhong, Peter, Simon, Witchel, Emmett.  2018.  Ryoan: A Distributed Sandbox for Untrusted Computation on Secret Data. ACM Trans. Comput. Syst.. 35:13:1–13:32.
Users of modern data-processing services such as tax preparation or genomic screening are forced to trust them with data that the users wish to keep secret. Ryoan1 protects secret data while it is processed by services that the data owner does not trust. Accomplishing this goal in a distributed setting is difficult, because the user has no control over the service providers or the computational platform. Confining code to prevent it from leaking secrets is notoriously difficult, but Ryoan benefits from new hardware and a request-oriented data model. Ryoan provides a distributed sandbox, leveraging hardware enclaves (e.g., Intel’s software guard extensions (SGX) [40]) to protect sandbox instances from potentially malicious computing platforms. The protected sandbox instances confine untrusted data-processing modules to prevent leakage of the user’s input data. Ryoan is designed for a request-oriented data model, where confined modules only process input once and do not persist state about the input. We present the design and prototype implementation of Ryoan and evaluate it on a series of challenging problems including email filtering, health analysis, image processing and machine translation.
Pinisetty, Srinivas, Schneider, Gerardo, Sands, David.  2018.  Runtime Verification of Hyperproperties for Deterministic Programs. 2018 IEEE/ACM 6th International FME Workshop on Formal Methods in Software Engineering (FormaliSE). :20—29.
In this paper, we consider the runtime verification problem of safety hyperproperties for deterministic programs. Several security and information-flow policies such as data minimality, non-interference, integrity, and software doping are naturally expressed formally as safety hyperproperties. Although there are monitoring results for hyperproperties, the algorithms are very complex since these are properties over set of traces, and not over single traces. For the deterministic input-output programs that we consider, and the specific safety hyperproperties we are interested in, the problem can be reduced to monitoring of trace properties. In this paper, we present a simpler monitoring approach for safety hyperproperties of deterministic programs. The approach involves transforming the given safety hyperproperty into a trace property, extracting a characteristic predicate for the given hyperproperty, and providing a parametric monitor taking such predicate as parameter. For any hyperproperty in the considered subclass, we show how runtime verification monitors can be synthesised. We have implemented our approach in the form of a parameterised monitor for the given class, and have applied it to a number of hyperproperties including data minimisation, non-interference, integrity and software doping. We show results concerning both offline and online monitoring.
Luo, Lan, Zhang, Yue, Zou, Cliff, Shao, Xinhui, Ling, Zhen, Fu, Xinwen.  2020.  On Runtime Software Security of TrustZone-M Based IoT Devices. GLOBECOM 2020 - 2020 IEEE Global Communications Conference. :1–7.
Internet of Things (IoT) devices have been increasingly integrated into our daily life. However, such smart devices suffer a broad attack surface. Particularly, attacks targeting the device software at runtime are challenging to defend against if IoT devices use resource-constrained microcontrollers (MCUs). TrustZone-M, a TrustZone extension for MCUs, is an emerging security technique fortifying MCU based IoT devices. This paper presents the first security analysis of potential software security issues in TrustZone-M enabled MCUs. We explore the stack-based buffer overflow (BOF) attack for code injection, return-oriented programming (ROP) attack, heap-based BOF attack, format string attack, and attacks against Non-secure Callable (NSC) functions in the context of TrustZone-M. We validate these attacks using the Microchip SAM L11 MCU, which uses the ARM Cortex-M23 processor with the TrustZone-M technology. Strategies to mitigate these software attacks are also discussed.
Cho, Sangwook, Kim, Gyoosik, Cho, Seong-je, Choi, Jongmoo, Park, Minkyu, Han, Sangchul.  2016.  Runtime Input Validation for Java Web Applications Using Static Bytecode Instrumentation. Proceedings of the International Conference on Research in Adaptive and Convergent Systems. :148–152.

As web applications is becoming more prominent due to the ubiquity of web services, web applications have become main targets for attackers. In order to steal or leak sensitive user data managed by web applications, attackers exploit a wide range of input validation vulnerabilities such as SQL injection, path traversal (or directory traversal), cross-site scripting (XSS), etc. This paper propose a technique that can verify input values of Java-based web applications using static bytecode instrumentation and runtime input validation. The technique searches for target methods or object constructors in compiled Java class files, and statically inserts bytecode modules. At runtime, the instrumented bytecode modules validate input values of the targets, and take countermeasure against malicious inputs. The proposed technique can mitigate the input validation vulnerabilities in Java-based web applications without source codes. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed technique, experiments are carried out with an insecure web application maintained by OWASP WebGoat Project. The experimental results show that the proposed technique successfully mitigates input validation vulnerabilities such as SQL injection and path traversal.

Lanotte, R., Merro, M., Munteanu, A..  2020.  Runtime Enforcement for Control System Security. 2020 IEEE 33rd Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF). :246–261.
With the explosion of Industry 4.0, industrial facilities and critical infrastructures are transforming into “smart” systems that dynamically adapt to external events. The result is an ecosystem of heterogeneous physical and cyber components, such as programmable logic controllers, which are more and more exposed to cyber-physical attacks, i.e., security breaches in cyberspace that adversely affect the physical processes at the core of industrial control systems. We apply runtime enforcement techniques, based on an ad-hoc sub-class of Ligatti et al.'s edit automata, to enforce specification compliance in networks of potentially compromised controllers, formalised in Hennessy and Regan's Timed Process Language. We define a synthesis algorithm that, given an alphabet P of observable actions and an enforceable regular expression e capturing a timed property for controllers, returns a monitor that enforces the property e during the execution of any (potentially corrupted) controller with alphabet P and complying with the property e. Our monitors correct and suppress incorrect actions coming from corrupted controllers and emit actions in full autonomy when the controller under scrutiny is not able to do so in a correct manner. Besides classical properties, such as transparency and soundness, the proposed enforcement ensures non-obvious properties, such as polynomial complexity of the synthesis, deadlock- and diverge-freedom of monitored controllers, together with scalability when dealing with networks of controllers.
Tenentes, Vasileios, Das, Shidhartha, Rossi, Daniele, Al-Hashimi, Bashir M..  2019.  Run-time Detection and Mitigation of Power-Noise Viruses. 2019 IEEE 25th International Symposium on On-Line Testing and Robust System Design (IOLTS). :275–280.
Power-noise viruses can be used as denial-of-service attacks by causing voltage emergencies in multi-core microprocessors that may lead to data corruptions and system crashes. In this paper, we present a run-time system for detecting and mitigating power-noise viruses. We present voltage noise data from a power-noise virus and benchmarks collected from an Arm multi-core processor, and we observe that the frequency of voltage emergencies is dramatically increasing during the execution of power-noise attacks. Based on this observation, we propose a regression model that allows for a run-time estimation of the severity of voltage emergencies by monitoring the frequency of voltage emergencies and the operating frequency of the microprocessor. For mitigating the problem, during the execution of critical tasks that require protection, we propose a system which periodically evaluates the severity of voltage emergencies and adapts its operating frequency in order to honour a predefined severity constraint. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed run-time system.
Focardi, R., Squarcina, M..  2017.  Run-Time Attack Detection in Cryptographic APIs. 2017 IEEE 30th Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF). :176–188.

Cryptographic APIs are often vulnerable to attacks that compromise sensitive cryptographic keys. In the literature we find many proposals for preventing or mitigating such attacks but they typically require to modify the API or to configure it in a way that might break existing applications. This makes it hard to adopt such proposals, especially because security APIs are often used in highly sensitive settings, such as financial and critical infrastructures, where systems are rarely modified and legacy applications are very common. In this paper we take a different approach. We propose an effective method to monitor existing cryptographic systems in order to detect, and possibly prevent, the leakage of sensitive cryptographic keys. The method collects logs for various devices and cryptographic services and is able to detect, offline, any leakage of sensitive keys, under the assumption that a key fingerprint is provided for each sensitive key. We define key security formally and we prove that the method is sound, complete and efficient. We also show that without key fingerprinting completeness is lost, i.e., some attacks cannot be detected. We discuss possible practical implementations and we develop a proof-of-concept log analysis tool for PKCS\#11 that is able to detect, on a significant fragment of the API, all key-management attacks from the literature.

Papachristou, Konstantinos, Theodorou, Traianos, Papadopoulos, Stavros, Protogerou, Aikaterini, Drosou, Anastasios, Tzovaras, Dimitrios.  2019.  Runtime and Routing Security Policy Verification for Enhanced Quality of Service of IoT Networks. 2019 Global IoT Summit (GIoTS). :1–6.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is growing rapidly controlling and connecting thousands of devices every day. The increased number of interconnected devices increase the network traffic leading to energy and Quality of Service efficiency problems of the IoT network. Therefore, IoT platforms and networks are susceptible to failures and attacks that have significant economic and security consequences. In this regard, implementing effective secure IoT platforms and networks are valuable for both the industry and society. In this paper, we propose two frameworks that aim to verify a number of security policies related to runtime information of the network and dynamic flow routing paths, respectively. The underlying rationale is to allow the operator of an IoT network in order to have an overall control of the network and to define different policies based on the demands of the network and the use cases (e.g., achieving more secure or faster network).
J.Y.V., Manoj Kumar, Swain, Ayas Kanta, Kumar, Sudeendra, Sahoo, Sauvagya Ranjan, Mahapatra, Kamalakanta.  2018.  Run Time Mitigation of Performance Degradation Hardware Trojan Attacks in Network on Chip. 2018 IEEE Computer Society Annual Symposium on VLSI (ISVLSI). :738—743.
Globalization of semiconductor design and manufacturing has led to several hardware security issues. The problem of Hardware Trojans (HT) is one such security issue discussed widely in industry and academia. Adversary design engineer can insert the HT to leak confidential data, cause a denial of service attack or any other intention specific to the design. HT in cryptographic modules and processors are widely discussed. HT in Multi-Processor System on Chips (MPSoC) are also catastrophic, as most of the military applications use MPSoCs. Network on Chips (NoC) are standard communication infrastructure in modern day MPSoC. In this paper, we present a novel hardware Trojan which is capable of inducing performance degradation and denial of service attacks in a NoC. The presence of the Hardware Trojan in a NoC can compromise the crucial details of packets communicated through NoC. The proposed Trojan is triggered by a particular complex bit pattern from input messages and tries to mislead the packets away from the destined addresses. A mitigation method based on bit shuffling mechanism inside the router with a key directly extracted from input message is proposed to limit the adverse effects of the Trojan. The performance of a 4×4 NoC is evaluated under uniform traffic with the proposed Trojan and mitigation method. Simulation results show that the proposed mitigation scheme is useful in limiting the malicious effect of hardware Trojan.
Giulia Fanti, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Peter Kairouz, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Sewoong Oh, University of at Urbana-Champaign, Kannan Ramchandra, University of California, Berkeley, Pramod Viswanath, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.  2016.  Rumor Source Obfuscation on Irregular Trees. ACM SIGMETRICS.

Anonymous messaging applications have recently gained popularity as a means for sharing opinions without fear of judgment or repercussion. These messages propagate anonymously over a network, typically de ned by social connections or physical proximity. However, recent advances in rumor source detection show that the source of such an anonymous message can be inferred by certain statistical inference attacks. Adaptive di usion was recently proposed as a solution that achieves optimal source obfuscation over regular trees. However, in real social networks, the degrees difer from node to node, and adaptive di usion can be signicantly sub-optimal. This gap increases as the degrees become more irregular.

In order to quantify this gap, we model the underlying network as coming from standard branching processes with i.i.d. degree distributions. Building upon the analysis techniques from branching processes, we give an analytical characterization of the dependence of the probability of detection achieved by adaptive di usion on the degree distribution. Further, this analysis provides a key insight: passing a rumor to a friend who has many friends makes the source more ambiguous. This leads to a new family of protocols that we call Preferential Attachment Adaptive Di usion (PAAD). When messages are propagated according to PAAD, we give both the MAP estimator for nding the source and also an analysis of the probability of detection achieved by this adversary. The analytical results are not directly comparable, since the adversary's observed information has a di erent distribution under adaptive di usion than under PAAD. Instead, we present results from numerical experiments that suggest that PAAD achieves a lower probability of detection, at the cost of increased communication for coordination.

Caso, J.S..  2014.  The rules of engagement for cyber-warfare and the Tallinn Manual: A case study. Cyber Technology in Automation, Control, and Intelligent Systems (CYBER), 2014 IEEE 4th Annual International Conference on. :252-257.

Documents such as the Geneva (1949) and Hague Conventions (1899 and 1907) that have clearly outlined the rules of engagement for warfare find themselves challenged by the presence of a new arena: cyber. Considering the potential nature of these offenses, operations taking place in the realm of cyber cannot simply be generalized as “cyber-warfare,” as they may also be acts of cyber-espionage, cyber-terrorism, cyber-sabaotge, etc. Cyber-attacks, such as those on Estonia in 2007, have begun to test the limits of NATO's Article 5 and the UN Charter's Article 2(4) against the use of force. What defines “force” as it relates to cyber, and what kind of response is merited in the case of uncertainty regarding attribution? In 2009, NATO's Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence commissioned a group of experts to publish a study on the application of international law to cyber-warfare. This document, the Tallinn Manual, was published in 2013 as a non-binding exercise to stimulate discussion on the codification of international law on the subject. After analysis, this paper concludes that the Tallinn Manual classifies the 2010 Stuxnet attack on Iran's nuclear program as an illegal act of force. The purpose of this paper is the following: (1) to analyze the historical and technical background of cyber-warfare, (2) to evaluate the Tallinn Manual as it relates to the justification cyber-warfare, and (3) to examine the applicability of the Tallinn Manual in a case study of a historical example of a cyber-attacks.
 

Chia-Feng Juang, Chi-Wei Hung, Chia-Hung Hsu.  2014.  Rule-Based Cooperative Continuous Ant Colony Optimization to Improve the Accuracy of Fuzzy System Design. Fuzzy Systems, IEEE Transactions on. 22:723-735.

This paper proposes a cooperative continuous ant colony optimization (CCACO) algorithm and applies it to address the accuracy-oriented fuzzy systems (FSs) design problems. All of the free parameters in a zero- or first-order Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) FS are optimized through CCACO. The CCACO algorithm performs optimization through multiple ant colonies, where each ant colony is only responsible for optimizing the free parameters in a single fuzzy rule. The ant colonies cooperate to design a complete FS, with a complete parameter solution vector (encoding a complete FS) that is formed by selecting a subsolution component (encoding a single fuzzy rule) from each colony. Subsolutions in each ant colony are evolved independently using a new continuous ant colony optimization algorithm. In the CCACO, solutions are updated via the techniques of pheromone-based tournament ant path selection, ant wandering operation, and best-ant-attraction refinement. The performance of the CCACO is verified through applications to fuzzy controller and predictor design problems. Comparisons with other population-based optimization algorithms verify the superiority of the CCACO.

Harada, T., Tanaka, K., Ogasawara, R., Mikawa, K..  2020.  A Rule Reordering Method via Pairing Dependent Rules. 2020 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1–9.
Packet classification is used to determine the behavior of incoming packets to network devices. Because it is achieved using a linear search on a classification rule list, a larger number of rules leads to a longer communication latency. To decrease this latency, the problem is generalized as Optimal Rule Ordering (ORO), which aims to identify the order of rules that minimizes the classification latency caused by packet classification while preserving the classification policy. Because ORO is known to be NP-complete by Hamed and Al-Shaer [Dynamic rule-ordering optimization for high-speed firewall filtering, ASIACCS (2006) 332-342], various heuristics for ORO have been proposed. Sub-graph merging (SGM) by Tapdiya and Fulp [Towards optimal firewall rule ordering utilizing directed acyclical graphs, ICCCN (2009) 1-6] is the state of the art heuristic algorithm for ORO. In this paper, we propose a novel heuristic method for ORO. Although most heuristics try to recursively determine the maximum-weight rule and move it as far as possible to an upper position, our algorithm pairs rules that cause policy violations until there are no such rules to simply sort the rules by these weights. Our algorithm markedly decreases the classification latency and reordering time compared with SGM in experiments. The sets consisting of thousands of rules that require one or more hours for reordering by SGM can be reordered by the proposed method within one minute.
Waqar Ali, Heechul Yun.  2019.  RT-Gang: Real-Time Gang Scheduling Framework for Safety-Critical Systems. Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS). :143-155.

In this paper, we present RT-Gang: a novel real-time gang scheduling framework that enforces a one-gang-at-a-time policy. We find that, in a multicore platform, co-scheduling multiple parallel real-time tasks would require highly pessimistic worst-case execution time (WCET) and schedulability analysis - even when there are enough cores - due to contention in shared hardware resources such as cache and DRAM controller. In RT-Gang, all threads of a parallel real-time task form a real-time gang and the scheduler globally enforces the one-gang-at-a-time scheduling policy to guarantee tight and accurate task WCET. To minimize under-utilization, we integrate a state-of-the-art memory bandwidth throttling framework to allow safe execution of best-effort tasks. Specifically, any idle cores, if exist, are used to schedule best-effort tasks but their maximum memory bandwidth usages are strictly throttled to tightly bound interference to real-time gang tasks. We implement RT-Gang in the Linux kernel and evaluate it on two representative embedded multicore platforms using both synthetic and real-world DNN workloads. The results show that RT-Gang dramatically improves system predictability and the overhead is negligible.

Li, Wei, Zhang, Dongmei.  2019.  RSSI Sequence and Vehicle Driving Matrix Based Sybil Nodes Detection in VANET. 2019 IEEE 11th International Conference on Communication Software and Networks (ICCSN). :763–767.

In VANET, Sybil nodes generated by attackers cause serious damages to network protocols, resource allocation mechanisms, and reputation models. Other types of attacks can also be launched on the basis of Sybil attack, which bring more threats to VANET. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a Sybil nodes detection method based on RSSI sequence and vehicle driving matrix - RSDM. RSDM evaluates the difference between the RSSI sequence and the driving matrix by dynamic distance matching to detect Sybil nodes. Moreover, RSDM does not rely on VANET infrastructure, neighbor nodes or specific hardware. The experimental results show that RSDM performs well with a higher detection rate and a lower error rate.

Bouabdellah, Mounia, Ghribi, Elias, Kaabouch, Naima.  2019.  RSS-Based Localization with Maximum Likelihood Estimation for PUE Attacker Detection in Cognitive Radio Networks. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Electro Information Technology (EIT). :1-6.

With the rapid proliferation of mobile users, the spectrum scarcity has become one of the issues that have to be addressed. Cognitive Radio technology addresses this problem by allowing an opportunistic use of the spectrum bands. In cognitive radio networks, unlicensed users can use licensed channels without causing harmful interference to licensed users. However, cognitive radio networks can be subject to different security threats which can cause severe performance degradation. One of the main attacks on these networks is the primary user emulation in which a malicious node emulates the characteristics of the primary user signals. In this paper, we propose a detection technique of this attack based on the RSS-based localization with the maximum likelihood estimation. The simulation results show that the proposed technique outperforms the RSS-based localization method in detecting the primary user emulation attacker.

A. Rawat, A. K. Singh, J. Jithin, N. Jeyanthi, R. Thandeeswaran.  2016.  RSJ Approach for User Authentication. Proceeding AICTC '16 Proceedings of the International Conference on Advances in Information Communication Technology & Computing Article No. 101 .

Some of the common works like, upload and retrieval of data, buying and selling things, earning and donating or transaction of money etc., are the most common works performed in daily life through internet. For every user who is accessing the internet regularly, their highest priority is to make sure that there data is secured. Users are willing to pay huge amount of money to the service provider for maintaining the security. But the intention of malicious users is to access and misuse others data. For that they are using zombie bots. Always Bots are not the only malicious, legitimate authorized user can also impersonate to access the data illegally. This makes the job tougher to discriminate between the bots and boots. For providing security form that threats, here we are proposing a novel RSJ Approach by User Authentication. RSJ approach is a secure way for providing the security to the user form both bots and malicious users.

Wang, X., Shen, Q., Luo, W., Wu, P..  2020.  RSDS: Getting System Call Whitelist for Container Through Dynamic and Static Analysis. 2020 IEEE 13th International Conference on Cloud Computing (CLOUD). :600—608.
Container technology has been used for running multiple isolated operating system distros on a host or deploying large scale microservice-based applications. In most cases, containers share the same kernel with the host and other containers on the same host, and the application in the container can make system calls of the host kernel like a normal process on the host. Seccomp is a security mechanism for the Linux kernel, through which we can prohibit certain system calls from being executed by the program. Docker began to support the seccomp mechanism from version 1.10 and disables around 44 system calls out of 300+ by default. However, for a particular container, there are still many system calls that are unnecessary for running it allowed to be executed, and the abuse of system calls by a compromised container can trigger the security vulnerabilities of a host kernel. Unfortunately, Docker does not provide a way to get the necessary system calls for a particular container. In this paper, we propose RSDS, a method combining dynamic analysis and static analysis to get the necessary system calls for a particular container. Our experiments show that our solution can reduce system calls by 69.27%-85.89% compared to the default configuration on an x86-64 PC with Ubuntu 16.04 host OS and does not affect the functionalities of these containers.
Rabie, Asmaa.  2016.  The RSA Trap. XRDS. 23:65–65.
Joye, Marc, Michalevsky, Yan.  2018.  RSA Signatures Under Hardware Restrictions. Proceedings of the 2018 Workshop on Attacks and Solutions in Hardware Security. :51-54.

We would like to compute RSA signatures with the help of a Hardware Security Module (HSM). But what can we do when we want to use a certain public exponent that the HSM does not allow or support? Surprisingly, this scenario comes up in real-world settings such as code-signing of Intel SGX enclaves. Intel SGX enclaves have to be signed in order to execute in release mode, using 3072-bit RSA signature scheme with a particular public exponent. However, we encountered commercial hardware security modules that do not support storing RSA keys corresponding to this exponent. We ask whether it is possible to overcome such a limitation of an HSM and answer it in the affirmative (under stated assumptions). We show how to convert RSA signatures corresponding to one public exponent, to valid RSA signatures corresponding to another exponent. We define security and show that it is not compromised by the additional public knowledge available to an adversary in this setting.

Mumtaz, Majid, Akram, Junaid, Ping, Luo.  2019.  An RSA Based Authentication System for Smart IoT Environment. 2019 IEEE 21st International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications; IEEE 17th International Conference on Smart City; IEEE 5th International Conference on Data Science and Systems (HPCC/SmartCity/DSS). :758–765.
Authentication is the fundamental security service used in almost all remote applications. All such sensitive applications over an open network need authentication mechanism that should be delivered in a trusted way. In this paper, we design an RSA based authentication system for smart IoT environment over the air network using state-of-the-art industry standards. Our system provide security services including X.509 certificate, RSA based Public Key Infrastructure (PKI), challenge/response protocols with the help of proxy induced security service provider. We describe an innovative system model, protocol design, system architecture and evaluation against known threats. Also the implemented solution designed as an add on service for multiple other sensitive applications (smart city apps, cyber physical systems etc.) which needs the support of X.509 certificate based on hard tokens to populate other security services including confidentiality, integrity, non-repudiation, privacy and anonymity of the identities. The proposed scheme is evaluated against known vulnerabilities and given detail comparisons with popular known authentication schemes. The result shows that our proposed scheme mitigate all the known security risks and provide highest level assurance to smart gadgets.
Zonouz, S.A., Khurana, H., Sanders, W.H., Yardley, T.M..  2014.  RRE: A Game-Theoretic Intrusion Response and Recovery Engine. Parallel and Distributed Systems, IEEE Transactions on. 25:395-406.

Preserving the availability and integrity of networked computing systems in the face of fast-spreading intrusions requires advances not only in detection algorithms, but also in automated response techniques. In this paper, we propose a new approach to automated response called the response and recovery engine (RRE). Our engine employs a game-theoretic response strategy against adversaries modeled as opponents in a two-player Stackelberg stochastic game. The RRE applies attack-response trees (ART) to analyze undesired system-level security events within host computers and their countermeasures using Boolean logic to combine lower level attack consequences. In addition, the RRE accounts for uncertainties in intrusion detection alert notifications. The RRE then chooses optimal response actions by solving a partially observable competitive Markov decision process that is automatically derived from attack-response trees. To support network-level multiobjective response selection and consider possibly conflicting network security properties, we employ fuzzy logic theory to calculate the network-level security metric values, i.e., security levels of the system's current and potentially future states in each stage of the game. In particular, inputs to the network-level game-theoretic response selection engine, are first fed into the fuzzy system that is in charge of a nonlinear inference and quantitative ranking of the possible actions using its previously defined fuzzy rule set. Consequently, the optimal network-level response actions are chosen through a game-theoretic optimization process. Experimental results show that the RRE, using Snort's alerts, can protect large networks for which attack-response trees have more than 500 nodes.

IBRAHIMY, S., LAMAAZI, H., BENAMAR, N..  2020.  RPL Assessment using the Rank Attack in Static and Mobile Environments. 2020 International Conference on Innovation and Intelligence for Informatics, Computing and Technologies (3ICT). :1—6.
Routing protocol running over low power and lossy networks (RPL) is currently one of the main routing protocols for the Internet of Things (IoT). This protocol has some vulnerabilities that can be exploited by attackers to change its behavior and deteriorate its performance. In the RPL rank attack, a malicious node announces a wrong rank, which leads the neighboring’s nodes to choose this node as a preferred parent. In this study, we used different metrics to assess RPL protocol in the presence of misbehaving nodes, namely the overhead, convergence time, energy consumption, preferred parent changes, and network lifetime. Our simulations results show that a mobile environment is more damaged by the rank attack than a static environment.
Fischer, T., Lesjak, C., Pirker, D., Steger, C..  2019.  RPC Based Framework for Partitioning IoT Security Software for Trusted Execution Environments. 2019 IEEE 10th Annual Information Technology, Electronics and Mobile Communication Conference (IEMCON). :0430–0435.
Partitioning security components of IoT devices to enable the use of Trusted Execution Environments adds resilience against side-channel attacks. Devices are hardened against extraction of sensitive information, but at the same time additional effort must be spent for the integration of the TEE and software partitioning. To perform partitioning, the developer typically inserts Remote Procedure Calls into the software. Existing RPC-based solutions require the developer to write Interface Definition Language files to generate RPC stubs. In this work, we present an RPC-based framework that supports software partitioning via a graphical user interface. The framework extracts required information about the interfaces from source-code header files to eliminate the need for IDL files. With this approach the TEE integration time is reduced and reuse of existing libraries is supported. We evaluate a Proof-of-Concept by partitioning a TLS library for IoT devices and compare our approach to other RPC-based solutions.