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Hussein, A., Elhajj, I. H., Chehab, A., Kayssi, A..  2016.  SDN Security Plane: An Architecture for Resilient Security Services. 2016 IEEE International Conference on Cloud Engineering Workshop (IC2EW). :54–59.

Software Defined Networking (SDN) is the new promise towards an easily configured and remotely controlled network. Based on Centralized control, SDN technology has proved its positive impact on the world of network communications from different aspects. Security in SDN, as in traditional networks, is an essential feature that every communication system should possess. In this paper, we propose an SDN security design approach, which strikes a good balance between network performance and security features. We show how such an approach can be used to prevent DDoS attacks targeting either the controller or the different hosts in the network, and how to trace back the source of the attack. The solution lies in introducing a third plane, the security plane, in addition to the data plane, which is responsible for forwarding data packets between SDN switches, and parallel to the control plane, which is responsible for rule and data exchange between the switches and the SDN controller. The security plane is designed to exchange security-related data between a third party agent on the switch and a third party software module alongside the controller. Our evaluation shows the capability of the proposed system to enforce different levels of real-time user-defined security with low overhead and minimal configuration.

Wrona, K., Amanowicz, M., Szwaczyk, S., Gierłowski, K..  2017.  SDN testbed for validation of cross-layer data-centric security policies. 2017 International Conference on Military Communications and Information Systems (ICMCIS). :1–6.

Software-defined networks offer a promising framework for the implementation of cross-layer data-centric security policies in military systems. An important aspect of the design process for such advanced security solutions is the thorough experimental assessment and validation of proposed technical concepts prior to their deployment in operational military systems. In this paper, we describe an OpenFlow-based testbed, which was developed with a specific focus on validation of SDN security mechanisms - including both the mechanisms for protecting the software-defined network layer and the cross-layer enforcement of higher level policies, such as data-centric security policies. We also present initial experimentation results obtained using the testbed, which confirm its ability to validate simulation and analytic predictions. Our objective is to provide a sufficiently detailed description of the configuration used in our testbed so that it can be easily re-plicated and re-used by other security researchers in their experiments.

Hussein, A., Elhajj, I. H., Chehab, A., Kayssi, A..  2017.  SDN VANETs in 5G: An architecture for resilient security services. 2017 Fourth International Conference on Software Defined Systems (SDS). :67–74.

Vehicular ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs) have been promoted as a key technology that can provide a wide variety of services such as traffic management, passenger safety, as well as travel convenience and comfort. VANETs are now proposed to be part of the upcoming Fifth Generation (5G) technology, integrated with Software Defined Networking (SDN), as key enabler of 5G. The technology of fog computing in 5G turned out to be an adequate solution for faster processing in delay sensitive application, such as VANETs, being a hybrid solution between fully centralized and fully distributed networks. In this paper, we propose a three-way integration between VANETs, SDN, and 5G for a resilient VANET security design approach, which strikes a good balance between network, mobility, performance and security features. We show how such an approach can secure VANETs from different types of attacks such as Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) targeting either the controllers or the vehicles in the network, and how to trace back the source of the attack. Our evaluation shows the capability of the proposed system to enforce different levels of real-time user-defined security, while maintaining low overhead and minimal configuration.

Liang, Xiao, Chen, Heyao.  2019.  A SDN-Based Hierarchical Authentication Mechanism for IPv6 Address. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics (ISI). :225–225.
The emergence of IPv6 protocol extends the address pool, but it also exposes all the Internet-connected devices to danger. Currently, there are some traditional schemes on security management of network addresses, such as prevention, traceability and encryption authentication, but few studies work on IPv6 protocol. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical authentication mechanism for the IPv6 source address with the technology of software defined network (SDN). This mechanism combines the authentication of three parts, namely the access network, the intra-domain and the inter-domain. And it can provide a fine-grained security protection for the devices using IPv6 addresses.
Wang, He, Wu, Bin.  2019.  SDN-based hybrid honeypot for attack capture. 2019 IEEE 3rd Information Technology, Networking, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (ITNEC). :1602–1606.
Honeypots have become an important tool for capturing attacks. Hybrid honeypots, including the front end and the back end, are widely used in research because of the scalability of the front end and the high interactivity of the back end. However, traditional hybrid honeypots have some problems that the flow control is difficult and topology simulation is not realistic. This paper proposes a new architecture based on SDN applied to the hybrid honeypot system for network topology simulation and attack traffic migration. Our system uses the good expansibility and controllability of the SDN controller to simulate a large and realistic network to attract attackers and redirect high-level attacks to a high-interaction honeypot for attack capture and further analysis. It improves the deficiencies in the network spoofing technology and flow control technology in the traditional honeynet. Finally, we set up the experimental environment on the mininet and verified the mechanism. The test results show that the system is more intelligent and the traffic migration is more stealthy.
Narantuya, J., Yoon, S., Lim, H., Cho, J., Kim, D. S., Moore, T., Nelson, F..  2019.  SDN-Based IP Shuffling Moving Target Defense with Multiple SDN Controllers. 2019 49th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks – Supplemental Volume (DSN-S). :15–16.

Conventional SDN-based MTD techniques have been mainly developed with a single SDN controller which exposes a single point of failure as well as raises a scalability issue for large-scale networks in achieving both security and performance. The use of multiple SDN controllers has been proposed to ensure both performance and security of SDN-based MTD systems for large-scale networks; however, the effect of using multiple SDN controllers has not been investigated in the state-of-the-art research. In this paper, we propose the SDN based MTD architecture using multiple SDN controllers and validate their security effect (i.e., attack success probability) by implementing an IP shuffling MTD in a testbed using ONOS SDN controllers.

Boualouache, A., Soua, R., Engel, T..  2020.  SDN-based Misbehavior Detection System for Vehicular Networks. 2020 IEEE 91st Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2020-Spring). :1–5.
Vehicular networks are vulnerable to a variety of internal attacks. Misbehavior Detection Systems (MDS) are preferred over the cryptography solutions to detect such attacks. However, the existing misbehavior detection systems are static and do not adapt to the context of vehicles. To this end, we exploit the Software-Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm to propose a context-aware MDS. Based on the context, our proposed system can tune security parameters to provide accurate detection with low false positives. Our system is Sybil attack-resistant and compliant with vehicular privacy standards. The simulation results show that, under different contexts, our system provides a high detection ratio and low false positives compared to a static MDS.
Cabaj, Krzysztof, Gregorczyk, Marcin, Mazurczyk, Wojciech, Nowakowski, Piotr, \textbackslashtextbackslash.Zórawski, Piotr.  2018.  SDN-based Mitigation of Scanning Attacks for the 5G Internet of Radio Light System. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security. :49:1–49:10.
Currently 5G communication networks are gaining on importance among industry, academia, and governments worldwide as they are envisioned to offer wide range of high-quality services and unfaltering user experiences. However, certain security, privacy and trust challenges need to be addressed in order for the 5G networks to be widely welcomed and accepted. That is why in this paper, we take a step towards these requirements and we introduce a dedicated SDN-based integrated security framework for the Internet of Radio Light (IoRL) system that is following 5G architecture design. In particular, we present how TCP SYN-based scanning activities which typically comprise the first phase of the attack chain can be detected and mitigated using such an approach. Enclosed experimental results prove that the proposed security framework has potential to become an effective defensive solution.
Wei, D., Wei, N., Yang, L., Kong, Z..  2020.  SDN-based multi-controller optimization deployment strategy for satellite network. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Power, Intelligent Computing and Systems (ICPICS). :467—473.
Due to the network topology high dynamic changes, the number of ground users and the impact of uneven traffic, the load difference between SDN-based satellite network controllers varies widely, which will cause network performance such as network delay and throughput to drop dramatically. Aiming at the above problems, a multi-controller optimized deployment strategy of satellite network based on SDN was proposed. First, the controller's load state is divided into four types: overload state, high load state, normal state, and idle state; second, when a controller in the network is idle, the switch under its jurisdiction is migrated to the adjacent low load controller and turn off the controller to reduce waste of resources. When the controller is in a high-load state and an overload state, consider both the controller and the switch, and migrate the high-load switch to the adjacent low-load controller. Balance the load between controllers, improve network performance, and improve network performance and network security. Simulation results show that the method has an average throughput improvement of 2.7% and a delay reduction of 3.1% compared with MCDALB and SDCLB methods.
Hyun, D., Kim, J., Hong, D., Jeong, J. P..  2017.  SDN-based network security functions for effective DDoS attack mitigation. 2017 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC). :834–839.

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack has been bringing serious security concerns on banks, finance incorporation, public institutions, and data centers. Also, the emerging wave of Internet of Things (IoT) raises new concerns on the smart devices. Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) have provided a new paradigm for network security. In this paper, we propose a new method to efficiently prevent DDoS attacks, based on a SDN/NFV framework. To resolve the problem that normal packets are blocked due to the inspection on suspicious packets, we developed a threshold-based method that provides a client with an efficient, fast DDoS attack mitigation. In addition, we use open source code to develop the security functions in order to implement our solution for SDN-based network security functions. The source code is based on NETCONF protocol [1] and YANG Data Model [2].

Khayat, Mohamad, Barka, Ezedin, Sallabi, Farag.  2019.  SDN\_Based Secure Healthcare Monitoring System(SDN-SHMS). 2019 28th International Conference on Computer Communication and Networks (ICCCN). :1–7.
Healthcare experts and researchers have been promoting the need for IoT-based remote health monitoring systems that take care of the health of elderly people. However, such systems may generate large amounts of data, which makes the security and privacy of such data to become imperative. This paper studies the security and privacy concerns of the existing Healthcare Monitoring System (HMS) and proposes a reference architecture (security integration framework) for managing IoT-based healthcare monitoring systems that ensures security, privacy, and reliable service delivery for patients and elderly people to reduce and avoid health related risks. Our proposed framework will be in the form of state-of-the-art Security Platform, for HMS, using the emerging Software Defined Network (SDN) networking paradigm. Our proposed integration framework eliminates the dependency on specific Software or vendor for different security systems, and allows for the benefits from the functional and secure applications, and services provided by the SDN platform.
Kampanakis, P., Perros, H., Beyene, T..  2014.  SDN-based solutions for Moving Target Defense network protection. A World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM), 2014 IEEE 15th International Symposium on. :1-6.

Software-Defined Networking (SDN) allows network capabilities and services to be managed through a central control point. Moving Target Defense (MTD) on the other hand, introduces a constantly adapting environment in order to delay or prevent attacks on a system. MTD is a use case where SDN can be leveraged in order to provide attack surface obfuscation. In this paper, we investigate how SDN can be used in some network-based MTD techniques. We first describe the advantages and disadvantages of these techniques, the potential countermeasures attackers could take to circumvent them, and the overhead of implementing MTD using SDN. Subsequently, we study the performance of the SDN-based MTD methods using Cisco's One Platform Kit and we show that they significantly increase the attacker's overheads.

Dietzel, Christoph, Antichi, Gianni, Castro, Ignacio, Fernandes, Eder L., Chiesa, Marco, Kopp, Daniel.  2017.  SDN-enabled Traffic Engineering and Advanced Blackholing at IXPs. Proceedings of the Symposium on SDN Research. :181–182.

While the clean slate approach proposed by Software Defined Networking (SDN) promises radical changes in the stagnant state of network management, SDN innovation has not gone beyond the intra-domain level. For the inter-domain ecosystem to benefit from the advantages of SDN, Internet Exchange Points (IXPs) are the ideal place: a central interconnection hub through which a large share of the Internet can be affected. In this demo, we showcase the ENDEAVOUR platform: a new software defined exchange approach readily deployable in commercial IXPs. We demonstrate here our implementations of traffic engineering and Distributed Denial of Service mitigation, as well as how member networks cash in on the advanced SDN-features of ENDEAVOUR, typically not available in legacy networks.

Duy, Phan The, Do Hoang, Hien, Thu Hien, Do Thi, Ba Khanh, Nguyen, Pham, Van-Hau.  2019.  SDNLog-Foren: Ensuring the Integrity and Tamper Resistance of Log Files for SDN Forensics using Blockchain. 2019 6th NAFOSTED Conference on Information and Computer Science (NICS). :416—421.

Despite bringing many benefits of global network configuration and control, Software Defined Networking (SDN) also presents potential challenges for both digital forensics and cybersecurity. In fact, there are various attacks targeting a range of vulnerabilities on vital elements of this paradigm such as controller, Northbound and Southbound interfaces. In addition to solutions of security enhancement, it is important to build mechanisms for digital forensics in SDN which provide the ability to investigate and evaluate the security of the whole network system. It should provide features of identifying, collecting and analyzing log files and detailed information about network devices and their traffic. However, upon penetrating a machine or device, hackers can edit, even delete log files to remove the evidences about their presence and actions in the system. In this case, securing log files with fine-grained access control in proper storage without any modification plays a crucial role in digital forensics and cybersecurity. This work proposes a blockchain-based approach to improve the security of log management in SDN for network forensics, called SDNLog-Foren. This model is also evaluated with different experiments to prove that it can help organizations keep sensitive log data of their network system in a secure way regardless of being compromised at some different components of SDN.

Hao, Zheng, Lin, Zhaowen, Li, Ran.  2018.  A SDN/NFV Security Protection Architecture with a Function Composition Algorithm Based on Trie. Proceedings of the 2Nd International Conference on Computer Science and Application Engineering. :176:1–176:8.
Software1 Defined Network (SDN) is a new type of network architecture that has advantages over traditional network. For SDN, security is a basic issue. SDN controller has received considerable attention in the researches on SDN security. Researchers assign security tasks to SDN controllers generally, but it puts a heavy burden on the SDN controller and leads to a decrease in system stability. On the basis of previous work, we propose a new security protection architecture based on SDN/NFV. Meanwhile, a security function virtual machine pool is designed in infrastructure layer in architecture. It can create virtual machines and manage the ip addresses of the virtual machines automatically, which improves the flexibility and expandability of the architecture. Moreover, a function composition algorithm based on Trie (FCT) has been introduced. We deploy the security protection architecture on VMware cloud platform to validate the availability of the architecture and use experimental data to prove FCT algorithm has good performance.
Go, Sharleen Joy Y., Guinto, Richard, Festin, Cedric Angelo M., Austria, Isabel, Ocampo, Roel, Tan, Wilson M..  2019.  An SDN/NFV-Enabled Architecture for Detecting Personally Identifiable Information Leaks on Network Traffic. 2019 Eleventh International Conference on Ubiquitous and Future Networks (ICUFN). :306—311.

The widespread adoption of social networking and cloud computing has transformed today's Internet to a trove of personal information. As a consequence, data breaches are expected to increase in gravity and occurrence. To counteract unintended data disclosure, a great deal of effort has been dedicated in devising methods for uncovering privacy leaks. Existing solutions, however, have not addressed the time- and data-intensive nature of leak detection. The shift from hardware-specific implementation to software-based solutions is the core idea behind the concept of Network Function Virtualization (NFV). On the other hand, the Software Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm is characterized by the decoupling of the forwarding and control planes. In this paper, an SDN/NFV-enabled architecture is proposed for improving the efficiency of leak detection systems. Employing a previously developed identification strategy, Personally Identifiable Information detector (PIID) and load balancer VNFs are packaged and deployed in OpenStack through an NFV MANO. Meanwhile, SDN controllers permit the load balancer to dynamically redistribute traffic among the PIID instances. In a physical testbed, tests are conducted to evaluate the proposed architecture. Experimental results indicate that the proportions of forwarding and parsing on total overhead is influenced by the traffic intensity. Furthermore, an NFV-enabled system with scalability features was found to outperform a non-virtualized implementation in terms of latency (85.1%), packet loss (98.3%) and throughput (8.41%).

Li, Chunlei, Wu, Qian, Li, Hewu, Zhou, Jiang.  2019.  SDN-Ti: A General Solution Based on SDN to Attacker Traceback and Identification in IPv6 Networks. ICC 2019 - 2019 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–7.

Network attacks have become a growing threat to the current Internet. For the enhancement of network security and accountability, it is urgent to find the origin and identity of the adversary who misbehaves in the network. Some studies focus on embedding users' identities into IPv6 addresses, but such design cannot support the Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (SLAAC) protocol which is widely deployed nowadays. In this paper, we propose SDN-Ti, a general solution to traceback and identification for attackers in IPv6 networks based on Software Defined Network (SDN). In our proposal, the SDN switch performs a translation between the source IPv6 address of the packet and its trusted ID-encoded address generated by the SDN controller. The network administrator can effectively identify the attacker by parsing the malicious packets when the attack incident happens. Our solution not only avoids the heavy storage overhead and time synchronism problems, but also supports multiple IPv6 address assignment scenarios. What's more, SDN-Ti does not require any modification on the end device, hence can be easily deployed. We implement SDN-Ti prototype and evaluate it in a real IPv6 testbed. Experiment results show that our solution only brings very little extra performance cost, and it shows considerable performance in terms of latency, CPU consumption and packet loss compared to the normal forwarding method. The results indicate that SDN-Ti is feasible to be deployed in practice with a large number of users.

Almoualem, F., Satam, P., Ki, J. G., Hariri, S..  2017.  SDR-Based Resilient Wireless Communications. 2017 International Conference on Cloud and Autonomic Computing (ICCAC). :114–119.

As the use of wireless technologies increases significantly due to ease of deployment, cost-effectiveness and the increase in bandwidth, there is a critical need to make the wireless communications secure, and resilient to attacks or faults (malicious or natural). Wireless communications are inherently prone to cyberattacks due to the open access to the medium. While current wireless protocols have addressed the privacy issues, they have failed to provide effective solutions against denial of service attacks, session hijacking and jamming attacks. In this paper, we present a resilient wireless communication architecture based on Moving Target Defense, and Software Defined Radios (SDRs). The approach achieves its resilient operations by randomly changing the runtime characteristics of the wireless communications channels between different wireless nodes to make it extremely difficult to succeed in launching attacks. The runtime characteristics that can be changed include packet size, network address, modulation type, and the operating frequency of the channel. In addition, the lifespan for each configuration will be random. To reduce the overhead in switching between two consecutive configurations, we use two radio channels that are selected at random from a finite set of potential channels, one will be designated as an active channel while the second acts as a standby channel. This will harden the wireless communications attacks because the attackers have no clue on what channels are currently being used to exploit existing vulnerability and launch an attack. The experimental results and evaluation show that our approach can tolerate a wide range of attacks (Jamming, DOS and session attacks) against wireless networks.

Shwartz, O., Birk, Y..  2016.  SDSM: Fast and scalable security support for directory-based distributed shared memory. 2016 IEEE International Conference on the Science of Electrical Engineering (ICSEE). :1–5.

Secure computation is increasingly required, most notably when using public clouds. Many secure CPU architectures have been proposed, mostly focusing on single-threaded applications running on a single node. However, security for parallel and distributed computation is also needed, requiring the sharing of secret data among mutually trusting threads running in different compute nodes in an untrusted environment. We propose SDSM, a novel hardware approach for providing a security layer for directory-based distributed shared memory systems. Unlike previously proposed schemes that cannot maintain reasonable performance beyond 32 cores, our approach allows secure parallel applications to scale efficiently to thousands of cores.

Chen, Yunfang, Wu, Que, Zhang, Wei, Liu, Qiangchun.  2018.  SD-WAN Source Route Based on Protocol-oblivious Forwarding. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Communication and Network Security. :95–99.
Larger companies need more sites in the wide area network (WAN). However, internet service providers cannot obtain sufficient capacity to handle peak traffic, causing a terrible delay. The software-defined network (SDN) allows to own more programmability, adaptability, and application-aware, but scalability is a critical problem for merging both. This paper proposes a solution based on Protocol-Oblivious Forwarding (POF). It is a higher degree of decoupling control and data planes. The control plane uses fields unrelated to the protocol to unify packet match and route, and the data plane uses a set of general flow instructions in fast forwarding. As a result, we only save three flow tables on the forwarding paths so that each packet keeps a pipeline in the source route header to mark the next output ports. This solution can support a constant delay while the network expands.
Lansley, M., Kapetanakis, S., Polatidis, N..  2020.  SEADer++ v2: Detecting Social Engineering Attacks using Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning. 2020 International Conference on INnovations in Intelligent SysTems and Applications (INISTA). :1–6.
Social engineering attacks are well known attacks in the cyberspace and relatively easy to try and implement because no technical knowledge is required. In various online environments such as business domains where customers talk through a chat service with employees or in social networks potential hackers can try to manipulate other people by employing social attacks against them to gain information that will benefit them in future attacks. Thus, we have used a number of natural language processing steps and a machine learning algorithm to identify potential attacks. The proposed method has been tested on a semi-synthetic dataset and it is shown to be both practical and effective.
Xue, Kaiping, Zhang, Xiang, Xia, Qiudong, Wei, David S.L., Yue, Hao, Wu, Feng.  2018.  SEAF: A Secure, Efficient and Accountable Access Control Framework for Information Centric Networking. IEEE INFOCOM 2018 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. :2213–2221.
Information Centric Networking (ICN) has been regarded as an ideal architecture for the next-generation network to handle users' increasing demand for content delivery with in-network cache. While making better use of network resources and providing better delivery service, an effective access control mechanism is needed due to wide dissemination of contents. However, in the existing solutions, making cache-enabled routers or content providers authenticate users' requests causes high computation overhead and unnecessary delay. Also, straightforward utilization of advanced encryption algorithms increases the opportunities for DoS attacks. Besides, privacy protection and service accountability are rarely taken into account in this scenario. In this paper, we propose a secure, efficient, and accountable access control framework, called SEAF, for ICN, in which authentication is performed at the network edge to block unauthorized requests at the very beginning. We adopt group signature to achieve anonymous authentication, and use hash chain technique to greatly reduce the overhead when users make continuous requests for the same file. Furthermore, the content providers can affirm the service amount received from the network and extract feedback information from the signatures and hash chains. By formal security analysis and the comparison with related works, we show that SEAF achieves the expected security goals and possesses more useful features. The experimental results also demonstrate that our design is efficient for routers and content providers, and introduces only slight delay for users' content retrieval.
Hussain, Syed Rafiul, Mehnaz, Shagufta, Nirjon, Shahriar, Bertino, Elisa.  2017.  Seamless and Secure Bluetooth LE Connection Migration. Proceedings of the Seventh ACM on Conference on Data and Application Security and Privacy. :147–149.
At present, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is dominantly used in commercially available Internet of Things (IoT) devices – such as smart watches, fitness trackers, and smart appliances. Compared to classic Bluetooth, BLE has been simplified in many ways that include its connection establishment, data exchange, and encryption processes. Unfortunately, this simplification comes at a cost. For example, only a star topology is supported in BLE environments and a peripheral (an IoT device) can communicate with only one gateway (e.g. a smartphone, or a BLE hub) at a set time. When a peripheral goes out of range, it loses connectivity to a gateway, and cannot connect and seamlessly communicate with another gateway without user interventions. In other words, BLE connections do not get automatically migrated or handed-off to another gateway. In this paper, we propose a system which brings seamless connectivity to BLE-capable mobile IoT devices in an environment that consists of a network of gateways. Our framework ensures that unmodified, commercial off-the-shelf BLE devices seamlessly and securely connect to a nearby gateway without any user intervention.
Nelmiawati, Arifandi, W..  2018.  A Seamless Secret Sharing Scheme Implementation for Securing Data in Public Cloud Storage Service. 2018 International Conference on Applied Engineering (ICAE). :1-5.

Public cloud data storage services were considered as a potential alternative to store low-cost digital data in the short term. They are offered by different providers on the Internet. Some providers offer limited free plans for the users who are starting the service. However, data security concern arises when data stored are considered as a valuable asset. This study explores the usage of secret sharing scheme: Rabin's IDA and Shamir's SSA to implement a tool called dCloud for file protection stored in public cloud storage in a seamless way. It addresses data security by hiding its complexities when targeting ordinary non-technical users. The secret key is automatically generated by dCloud in a secure random way on Rabin's IDA. Shamir's SSA completes the process through dispersing the key into each of Rabin's IDA output files. Moreover, the Hash value of the original file is added to each of those output files to confirm the integrity of the file during reconstruction. Besides, the authentication key is used to communicate with all of the defined service providers during storage and reconstruction as well. It is stored into local secure key-store. By having a key to access the key-store, an ordinary non-technical user will be able to use dCloud to store and retrieve targeted file within defined public cloud storage services securely.

Naik, T., Khatiwala, F., Sakadasariya, A..  2017.  Search for secure data transmission in MANET: A review. 2017 International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Informatics (ICEI). :573–575.

Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) comprise of independent ambulant nodes with no any stable infrastructure. All mobile nodes are co-operatively transfer their data packets to different mobile nodes in the network. Mobile nodes are depends on intermediate nodes when transmission range beyond limit i.e. multi hop network. As MANET is a highly dynamic network, mobile nodes can leave and join a network at anytime. Security is the biggest issue in MANET as MANET is infrastructure-less and autonomous. In MANET, correspondence between two mobile nodes is performed by routing protocols wherein every versatile node can make directly communication with other versatile node. In the event that both portable nodes are inside a transmission range of each other, then they can straightforwardly make communication with each other. Otherwise, transmission is done through the intermediate node. The nature of its wireless nature is also additionally turns into the purpose of its greatest vulnerability. In this manner, diminishing the confidence level of the system as it appropriate to availability, integrity, reliability and privacy concerns. There are different routing protocols for providing security that are designed based on various cryptographic techniques. To obtain a rapid knowledge of security design, we are giving a review on different cryptographic techniques to secure MANET. In this review, we presents security techniques and protocols related to cryptographic techniques.