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Su, G., Bai, G..  2017.  The undetectable clock cycle sensitive hardware trojan. 2017 International Conference on Electron Devices and Solid-State Circuits (EDSSC). :1–2.

We have proposed a method of designing embedded clock-cycle-sensitive Hardware Trojans (HTs) to manipulate finite state machine (FSM). By using pipeline to choose and customize critical path, the Trojans can facilitate a series of attack and need no redundant circuits. One cannot detect any malicious architecture through logic analysis because the proposed circuitry is the part of FSM. Furthermore, this kind of HTs alerts the trusted systems designers to the importance of clock tree structure. The attackers may utilize modified clock to bypass certain security model or change the circuit behavior.

Anyfantis, D. I., Sarigiannidou, E., Rapenne, L., Stamatelatos, A., Ntemogiannis, D., Kapaklis, V., Poulopoulos, P..  2019.  Unexpected Development of Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy in Ni/NiO Multilayers After Mild Thermal Annealing. IEEE Magnetics Letters. 10:1–5.
We report on the significant enhancement of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of Ni/NiO multilayers after mild annealing up to 90 min at 250 °C. Transmission electron microscopy shows that after annealing, a partial crystallization of the initially amorphous NiO layers occurs. This turns out to be the source of the anisotropy enhancement. Magnetic measurements reveal that even multilayers with Ni layers as thick as 7 nm, which in the as-deposited state showed inplane anisotropy with square hysteresis loops, show reduced in-plane remanence after thermal treatment. Hysteresis loops recorded with the field in the normal-to-film-plane direction provide evidence for perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with up and down magnetic domains at remanence. A plot of effective uniaxial magnetic anisotropy constant times individual Ni layer thickness as a function of individual Ni layer thickness shows a large change in the slope of the data attributed to a drastic change of volume anisotropy. Surface anisotropy showed a small decrease because of some layer roughening introduced by annealing.
Shehzad, Muhammad Karam, Ahmed, Abbirah.  2016.  Unified Analysis of Semi-Blind Spectrum Sensing Techniques Under Low-SNR for CRNWs. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Signal Processing Systems. :208–211.

Spectrum sensing (signal detection) under low signal to noise ratio is a fundamental problem in cognitive radio networks. In this paper, we have analyzed maximum eigenvalue detection (MED) and energy detection (ED) techniques known as semi-blind spectrum sensing techniques. Simulations are performed by using independent and identically distributed (iid) signals to verify the results. Maximum eigenvalue detection algorithm exploits correlation in received signal samples and hence, performs same as energy detection algorithm under high signal to noise ratio. Energy detection performs well under low signal to noise ratio for iid signals and its performance reaches maximum eigenvalue detection under high signal to noise ratio. Both algorithms don't need any prior knowledge of primary user signal for detection and hence can be used in various applications.

Zahilah, R., Tahir, F., Zainal, A., Abdullah, A. H., Ismail, A. S..  2017.  Unified Approach for Operating System Comparisons with Windows OS Case Study. 2017 IEEE Conference on Application, Information and Network Security (AINS). :91–96.

The advancement in technology has changed how people work and what software and hardware people use. From conventional personal computer to GPU, hardware technology and capability have dramatically improved so does the operating systems that come along. Unfortunately, current industry practice to compare OS is performed with single perspective. It is either benchmark the hardware level performance or performs penetration testing to check the security features of an OS. This rigid method of benchmarking does not really reflect the true performance of an OS as the performance analysis is not comprehensive and conclusive. To illustrate this deficiency, the study performed hardware level and operational level benchmarking on Windows XP, Windows 7 and Windows 8 and the results indicate that there are instances where Windows XP excels over its newer counterparts. Overall, the research shows Windows 8 is a superior OS in comparison to its predecessors running on the same hardware. Furthermore, the findings also show that the automated benchmarking tools are proved less efficient benchmark systems that run on Windows XP and older OS as they do not support DirectX 11 and other advanced features that the hardware supports. There lies the need to have a unified benchmarking approach to compare other aspects of OS such as user oriented tasks and security parameters to provide a complete comparison. Therefore, this paper is proposing a unified approach for Operating System (OS) comparisons with the help of a Windows OS case study. This unified approach includes comparison of OS from three aspects which are; hardware level, operational level performance and security tests.

Babaie, T., Chawla, S., Ardon, S., Yue Yu.  2014.  A unified approach to network anomaly detection. Big Data (Big Data), 2014 IEEE International Conference on. :650-655.

This paper presents a unified approach for the detection of network anomalies. Current state of the art methods are often able to detect one class of anomalies at the cost of others. Our approach is based on using a Linear Dynamical System (LDS) to model network traffic. An LDS is equivalent to Hidden Markov Model (HMM) for continuous-valued data and can be computed using incremental methods to manage high-throughput (volume) and velocity that characterizes Big Data. Detailed experiments on synthetic and real network traces shows a significant improvement in detection capability over competing approaches. In the process we also address the issue of robustness of network anomaly detection systems in a principled fashion.
 

Hansch, Gerhard, Schneider, Peter, Fischer, Kai, Böttinger, Konstantin.  2019.  A Unified Architecture for Industrial IoT Security Requirements in Open Platform Communications. 2019 24th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA). :325—332.

We present a unified communication architecture for security requirements in the industrial internet of things. Formulating security requirements in the language of OPC UA provides a unified method to communicate and compare security requirements within a heavily heterogeneous landscape of machines in the field. Our machine-readable data model provides a fully automatable approach for security requirement communication within the rapidly evolving fourth industrial revolution, which is characterized by high-grade interconnection of industrial infrastructures and self-configuring production systems. Capturing security requirements in an OPC UA compliant and unified data model for industrial control systems enables strong use cases within modern production plants and future supply chains. We implement our data model as well as an OPC UA server that operates on this model to show the feasibility of our approach. Further, we deploy and evaluate our framework within a reference project realized by 14 industrial partners and 7 research facilities within Germany.

Mtsweni, Jabu, Gcaza, Noluxolo, Thaba, Mphahlele.  2018.  A Unified Cybersecurity Framework for Complex Environments. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the South African Institute of Computer Scientists and Information Technologists. :1–9.
Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) present a number of vulnerabilities, threats and risks that could lead to devastating cyber-attacks resulting into huge financial losses, legal implications, and reputational damage for large and small organizations. As such, in this digital transformation and 4th industrial revolution era, nations and organizations have accepted that cybersecurity must be part of their strategic objectives and priorities. However, cybersecurity in itself is a multifaceted problem to address and the voluntary "one-size-fits-all" cybersecurity approaches have proven not effective in dealing with cyber incidents, especially in complex operational environments (e.g. large technology-centric organizations) that are multi-disciplinary, multi-departmental, multi-role, multinational, and operating across different locations. Addressing modern cybersecurity challenges requires more than a technical solution. A contextual and systematic approach that considers the complexities of these large digital environments in order to achieve resilient, sustainable, cost-effective and proactive cybersecurity is desirable. This paper aims to highlight through a single case study approach the multifaceted nature and complexity of the cybersecurity environment, pertinently in multi-disciplinary organizations. Essentially, this paper contributes a unified cybersecurity framework underpinned by an integrated capability management (ICM) approach that addresses the multifaceted nature of cybersecurity as well as the challenges and requirements eminent in complex environments, such as national government, municipalities or large corporations. The unified framework incorporates realistic and practical guidelines to bridge the gap between cybersecurity capability requirements, governance instruments and cybersecurity capability specification, implementation, employment and sustainment drawing from well-tested military capability development approaches.
Mohammad Naghnaeian, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Petros G. Voulgaris, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Geir Dullerud, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.  2016.  A Unified Framework for lp Analysis and Synthesis of Linear Switched Sytems. American Control Confernce.

In this paper we develop a new framework to analyze stability and stabilizability of Linear Switched Systems (LSS) as well as their gain computations. Our approach is based on a combination of state space operator descritions and the Youda parametrization and provides a unified way to analysis an synthesis of LSS and in fact of Linear Time Varying (LTV) systems, in any lp induced norm sense. By specializing to the l case, we show how Linear Programming (LP) can be used to test stability, stabiliazbility and to synthesize stabilizing controllers that guarantee a near optimal closed-loop gain.

Mohammad Naghnaeian, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Petros G. Voulgaris, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Geir Dullerud, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.  2016.  A Unified Frameworks for LpAnalysis and Synthesis of Linear Switched Systems.

In this paper, we develop a new framework to analyze stability and stabilizability of Linear Switched Systems (LSS) as well as their gain computations. Our approach is based on a combination of state space operator descriptions and the Youla parametrization and provides a unified way for analysis and synthesis of LSS, and in fact of Linear Time Varying (LTV) systems, in any lp induced norm sense. By specializing to the l∞ case, we show how Linear Programming (LP) can be used to test stability, stabilizability and to synthesize stabilizing controllers that guarantee a near optimal closed-loop gain.

Jabeen, Gul, Ping, Luo.  2019.  A Unified Measurable Software Trustworthy Model Based on Vulnerability Loss Speed Index. 2019 18th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/13th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :18—25.

As trust becomes increasingly important in the software domain. Due to its complex composite concept, people face great challenges, especially in today's dynamic and constantly changing internet technology. In addition, measuring the software trustworthiness correctly and effectively plays a significant role in gaining users trust in choosing different software. In the context of security, trust is previously measured based on the vulnerability time occurrence to predict the total number of vulnerabilities or their future occurrence time. In this study, we proposed a new unified index called "loss speed index" that integrates the most important variables of software security such as vulnerability occurrence time, number and severity loss, which are used to evaluate the overall software trust measurement. Based on this new definition, a new model called software trustworthy security growth model (STSGM) has been proposed. This paper also aims at filling the gap by addressing the severity of vulnerabilities and proposed a vulnerability severity prediction model, the results are further evaluated by STSGM to estimate the future loss speed index. Our work has several features such as: (1) It is used to predict the vulnerability severity/type in future, (2) Unlike traditional evaluation methods like expert scoring, our model uses historical data to predict the future loss speed of software, (3) The loss metric value is used to evaluate the risk associated with different software, which has a direct impact on software trustworthiness. Experiments performed on real software vulnerability datasets and its results are analyzed to check the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed model.

Myalapalli, V.K., Chakravarthy, A.S.N..  2014.  A unified model for cherishing privacy in database system an approach to overhaul vulnerabilities. Networks Soft Computing (ICNSC), 2014 First International Conference on. :263-266.

Privacy is the most anticipated aspect in many perspectives especially with sensitive data and the database is being targeted incessantly for vulnerability. The database must be persistently monitored for ensuring comprehensive security. The proposed model is intended to cherish the database privacy by thwarting intrusions and inferences. The Database Static protection and Intrusion Tolerance Subsystem proposed in the architecture bolster this practice. This paper enunciates Privacy Cherished Database architecture model and how it achieves security under sundry circumstances.

Myalapalli, V.K., Chakravarthy, A.S.N..  2014.  A unified model for cherishing privacy in database system an approach to overhaul vulnerabilities. Networks Soft Computing (ICNSC), 2014 First International Conference on. :263-266.

Privacy is the most anticipated aspect in many perspectives especially with sensitive data and the database is being targeted incessantly for vulnerability. The database must be persistently monitored for ensuring comprehensive security. The proposed model is intended to cherish the database privacy by thwarting intrusions and inferences. The Database Static protection and Intrusion Tolerance Subsystem proposed in the architecture bolster this practice. This paper enunciates Privacy Cherished Database architecture model and how it achieves security under sundry circumstances.

Myalapalli, V.K., Chakravarthy, A.S.N..  2014.  A unified model for cherishing privacy in database system an approach to overhaul vulnerabilities. Networks Soft Computing (ICNSC), 2014 First International Conference on. :263-266.

Privacy is the most anticipated aspect in many perspectives especially with sensitive data and the database is being targeted incessantly for vulnerability. The database must be persistently monitored for ensuring comprehensive security. The proposed model is intended to cherish the database privacy by thwarting intrusions and inferences. The Database Static protection and Intrusion Tolerance Subsystem proposed in the architecture bolster this practice. This paper enunciates Privacy Cherished Database architecture model and how it achieves security under sundry circumstances.

Okathe, T., Heydari, S.S., Sood, V., El-khatib, K..  2014.  Unified multi-critical infrastructure communication architecture. Communications (QBSC), 2014 27th Biennial Symposium on. :178-183.

Recent events have brought to light the increasingly intertwined nature of modern infrastructures. As a result much effort is being put towards protecting these vital infrastructures without which modern society suffers dire consequences. These infrastructures, due to their intricate nature, behave in complex ways. Improving their resilience and understanding their behavior requires a collaborative effort between the private sector that operates these infrastructures and the government sector that regulates them. This collaboration in the form of information sharing requires a new type of information network whose goal is in two parts to enable infrastructure operators share status information among interdependent infrastructure nodes and also allow for the sharing of vital information concerning threats and other contingencies in the form of alerts. A communication model that meets these requirements while maintaining flexibility and scalability is presented in this paper.
 

Castro Marquez, C.I., Strum, M., Wang Jiang Chau.  2014.  A unified sequential equivalence checking approach to verify high-level functionality and protocol specification implementations in RTL designs. Test Workshop - LATW, 2014 15th Latin American. :1-6.

Formal techniques provide exhaustive design verification, but computational margins have an important negative impact on its efficiency. Sequential equivalence checking is an effective approach, but traditionally it has been only applied between circuit descriptions with one-to-one correspondence for states. Applying it between RTL descriptions and high-level reference models requires removing signals, variables and states exclusive of the RTL description so as to comply with the state correspondence restriction. In this paper, we extend a previous formal methodology for RTL verification with high-level models, to check also the signals and protocol implemented in the RTL design. This protocol implementation is compared formally to a description captured from the specification. Thus, we can prove thoroughly the sequential behavior of a design under verification.
 

Šišejković, Dominik, Leupers, Rainer, Ascheid, Gerd, Metzner, Simon.  2018.  A Unifying Logic Encryption Security Metric. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Embedded Computer Systems: Architectures, Modeling, and Simulation. :179–186.
The globalization of the IC supply chain has brought forth the era of fabless companies. Due to security issues during design and fabrication processes, various security concerns have risen, ranging from IP piracy and reverse engineering to hardware Trojans. Logic encryption has emerged as a mitigation against these threats. However, no generic metrics for quantifying the security of logic encryption algorithms has been reported so far, making it impossible to formally compare different approaches. In this paper, we propose a unifying metric, capturing the key security aspects of logic encryption algorithms. The metric is evaluated on state-of-the-art algorithms and benchmarks.
Ahmed, Farooq, Li, Xudong, Niu, Yukun, Zhang, Chi, Wei, Lingbo, Gu, Chengjie.  2020.  UniRoam: An Anonymous and Accountable Authentication Scheme for Cross-Domain Access. 2020 International Conference on Networking and Network Applications (NaNA). :198—205.
In recent years, cross-domain roaming through Wi-Fi is ubiquitous, and the number of roaming users has increased dramatically. It is essential to authenticate users belonging to different institutes to ensure network privacy and security. Existing systems, such as eduroam, have centralized and hierarchical structure on indorse accounts that create privacy and security issues. We have proposed UniRoam, a blockchain-based cross-domain authentication scheme that provides accountability and anonymity without any trusted authority. Unlike traditional centralized approaches, UniRoam provides access authentication for its servers and users to provide anonymity and accountability without any privacy leakage issues efficiently. By using the sovrin identifier as an anonymous identity, we integrate our system with Hyperledger and Intel SGX to authenticate users that preserves both anonymity and trust when the user connects to the network. Therefore, UniRoam is highly “faulted-tolerant” to deal with different attacks and provides an effective solution that can be deployed easily in different environments.
Lu, Kangjie, Song, Chengyu, Kim, Taesoo, Lee, Wenke.  2016.  UniSan: Proactive Kernel Memory Initialization to Eliminate Data Leakages. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :920–932.

Operating system kernel is the de facto trusted computing base for most computer systems. To secure the OS kernel, many security mechanisms, e.g., kASLR and StackGuard, have been increasingly deployed to defend against attacks (e.g., code reuse attack). However, the effectiveness of these protections has been proven to be inadequate-there are many information leak vulnerabilities in the kernel to leak the randomized pointer or canary, thus bypassing kASLR and StackGuard. Other sensitive data in the kernel, such as cryptographic keys and file caches, can also be leaked. According to our study, most kernel information leaks are caused by uninitialized data reads. Unfortunately, existing techniques like memory safety enforcements and dynamic access tracking tools are not adequate or efficient enough to mitigate this threat. In this paper, we propose UniSan, a novel, compiler-based approach to eliminate all information leaks caused by uninitialized read in the OS kernel. UniSan achieves this goal using byte-level, flow-sensitive, context-sensitive, and field-sensitive initialization analysis and reachability analysis to check whether an allocation has been fully initialized when it leaves kernel space; if not, it automatically instruments the kernel to initialize this allocation. UniSan's analyses are conservative to avoid false negatives and are robust by preserving the semantics of the OS kernel. We have implemented UniSan as passes in LLVM and applied it to the latest Linux kernel (x86\_64) and Android kernel (AArch64). Our evaluation showed that UniSan can successfully prevent 43 known and many new uninitialized data leak vulnerabilities. Further, 19 new vulnerabilities in the latest kernels have been confirmed by Linux and Google. Our extensive performance evaluation with LMBench, ApacheBench, Android benchmarks, and the SPEC benchmarks also showed that UniSan imposes a negligible performance overhead.

Hovhannes, H. Hakobyan, Arman, V. Vardumyan, Harutyun, T. Kostanyan.  2019.  Unit Regression Test Selection According To Different Hashing Algorithms. 2019 IEEE East-West Design Test Symposium (EWDTS). :1–4.
An approach for effective regression test selection is proposed, which minimizes the resource usage and amount of time required for complete testing of new features. Provided are the details of the analysis of hashing algorithms used during implementation in-depth review of the software, together with the results achieved during the testing process.
Chatterjee, Urbi, Santikellur, Pranesh, Sadhukhan, Rajat, Govindan, Vidya, Mukhopadhyay, Debdeep, Chakraborty, Rajat Subhra.  2019.  United We Stand: A Threshold Signature Scheme for Identifying Outliers in PLCs. 2019 56th ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC). :1—2.

This work proposes a scheme to detect, isolate and mitigate malicious disruption of electro-mechanical processes in legacy PLCs where each PLC works as a finite state machine (FSM) and goes through predefined states depending on the control flow of the programs and input-output mechanism. The scheme generates a group-signature for a particular state combining the signature shares from each of these PLCs using \$(k,\textbackslashtextbackslash l)\$-threshold signature scheme.If some of them are affected by the malicious code, signature can be verified by k out of l uncorrupted PLCs and can be used to detect the corrupted PLCs and the compromised state. We use OpenPLC software to simulate Legacy PLC system on Raspberry Pi and show İ/O\$ pin configuration attack on digital and pulse width modulation (PWM) pins. We describe the protocol using a small prototype of five instances of legacy PLCs simultaneously running on OpenPLC software. We show that when our proposed protocol is deployed, the aforementioned attacks get successfully detected and the controller takes corrective measures. This work has been developed as a part of the problem statement given in the Cyber Security Awareness Week-2017 competition.

Sun, Yunhe, Yang, Dongsheng, Meng, Lei, Gao, Xiaoting, Hu, Bo.  2018.  Universal Framework for Vulnerability Assessment of Power Grid Based on Complex Networks. 2018 Chinese Control And Decision Conference (CCDC). :136-141.

Traditionally, power grid vulnerability assessment methods are separated to the study of nodes vulnerability and edges vulnerability, resulting in the evaluation results are not accurate. A framework for vulnerability assessment is still required for power grid. Thus, this paper proposes a universal method for vulnerability assessment of power grid by establishing a complex network model with uniform weight of nodes and edges. The concept of virtual edge is introduced into the distinct weighted complex network model of power system, and the selection function of edge weight and virtual edge weight are constructed based on electrical and physical parameters. In addition, in order to reflect the electrical characteristics of power grids more accurately, a weighted betweenness evaluation index with transmission efficiency is defined. Finally, the method has been demonstrated on the IEEE 39 buses system, and the results prove the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Tyagi, H., Vardy, A..  2015.  Universal Hashing for Information-Theoretic Security. Proceedings of the IEEE. 103:1781–1795.
The information-theoretic approach to security entails harnessing the correlated randomness available in nature to establish security. It uses tools from information theory and coding and yields provable security, even against an adversary with unbounded computational power. However, the feasibility of this approach in practice depends on the development of efficiently implementable schemes. In this paper, we review a special class of practical schemes for information-theoretic security that are based on 2-universal hash families. Specific cases of secret key agreement and wiretap coding are considered, and general themes are identified. The scheme presented for wiretap coding is modular and can be implemented easily by including an extra preprocessing layer over the existing transmission codes.
Arrieta, Miguel, Esnaola, Iñaki, Effros, Michelle.  2019.  Universal Privacy Guarantees for Smart Meters. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT). :2154–2158.
Smart meters enable improvements in electricity distribution system efficiency at some cost in customer privacy. Users with home batteries can mitigate this privacy loss by applying charging policies that mask their underlying energy use. A battery charging policy is proposed and shown to provide universal privacy guarantees subject to a constraint on energy cost. The guarantee bounds our strategy's maximal information leakage from the user to the utility provider under general stochastic models of user energy consumption. The policy construction adapts coding strategies for non-probabilistic permuting channels to this privacy problem.
Merhav, Neri, Cohen, Asaf.  2019.  Universal Randomized Guessing with Application to Asynchronous Decentralized Brute—Force Attacks. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT). :485—489.
Consider the problem of guessing a random vector X by submitting queries (guesses) of the form "Is X equal to x?" until an affirmative answer is obtained. A key figure of merit is the number of queries required until the right vector is guessed, termed the guesswork. The goal is to devise a guessing strategy which minimizes a certain guesswork moment. We study a universal, decentralized scenario where the guesser does not know the distribution of X, and is not allowed to prepare a list of words to be guessed in advance, or to remember its past guesses. Such a scenario is useful, for example, if bots within a Botnet carry out a brute-force attack to guess a password or decrypt a message, yet cannot coordinate the guesses or even know how many bots actually participate in the attack. We devise universal decentralized guessing strategies, first, for memoryless sources, and then generalize them to finite-state sources. For both, we derive the guessing exponent and prove its asymptotic optimality by deriving a matching converse. The strategies are based on randomized guessing using a universal distribution. We also extend the results to guessing with side information (SI). Finally, we design simple algorithms for sampling from the universal distributions.
Sani, Abubakar Sadiq, Yuan, Dong, Bao, Wei, Dong, Zhao Yang, Vucetic, Branka, Bertino, Elisa.  2019.  Universally Composable Key Bootstrapping and Secure Communication Protocols for the Energy Internet. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security. 14:2113–2127.
The Energy Internet is an advanced smart grid solution to increase energy efficiency by jointly operating multiple energy resources via the Internet. However, such an increasing integration of energy resources requires secure and efficient communication in the Energy Internet. To address such a requirement, we propose a new secure key bootstrapping protocol to support the integration and operation of energy resources. By using a universal composability model that provides a strong security notion for designing and analyzing cryptographic protocols, we define an ideal functionality that supports several cryptographic primitives used in this paper. Furthermore, we provide an ideal functionality for key bootstrapping and secure communication, which allows exchanged session keys to be used for secure communication in an ideal manner. We propose the first secure key bootstrapping protocol that enables a user to verify the identities of other users before key bootstrapping. We also present a secure communication protocol for unicast and multicast communications. The ideal functionalities help in the design and analysis of the proposed protocols. We perform some experiments to validate the performance of our protocols, and the results show that our protocols are superior to the existing related protocols and are suitable for the Energy Internet. As a proof of concept, we apply our functionalities to a practical key bootstrapping protocol, namely generic bootstrapping architecture.