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Li, Guyue, Hu, Aiqun.  2016.  Virtual MIMO-based cooperative beamforming and jamming scheme for the clustered wireless sensor network security. 2016 2nd IEEE International Conference on Computer and Communications (ICCC). :2246–2250.

This paper considers the physical layer security for the cluster-based cooperative wireless sensor networks (WSNs), where each node is equipped with a single antenna and sensor nodes cooperate at each cluster of the network to form a virtual multi-input multi-output (MIMO) communication architecture. We propose a joint cooperative beamforming and jamming scheme to enhance the security of the WSNs where a part of sensor nodes in Alice's cluster are deployed to transmit beamforming signals to Bob while a part of sensor nodes in Bob's cluster are utilized to jam Eve with artificial noise. The optimization of beamforming and jamming vectors to minimize total energy consumption satisfying the quality-of-service (QoS) constraints is a NP-hard problem. Fortunately, through reformulation, the problem is proved to be a quadratically constrained quadratic problem (QCQP) which can be solved by solving constraint integer programs (SCIP) algorithm. Finally, we give the simulation results of our proposed scheme.

Zhao, Guowei, Zhao, Rui, Wang, Qiang, Xue, Hui, Luo, Fang.  2019.  Virtual Network Mapping Algorithm for Self-Healing of Distribution Network. 2019 IEEE 3rd Information Technology, Networking, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (ITNEC). :1442–1445.
This paper focuses on how to provide virtual network (VN) with the survivability of node failure. In the SVNE that responds to node failures, the backup mechanism provided by the VN initial mapping method should be as flexible as possible, so that backup resources can be shared among the VNs, thereby providing survivability support for the most VNs with the least backup overhead, which can improve The utilization of backup resources can also improve the survivability of VN to deal with multi-node failures. For the remapping method of virtual networks, it needs to be higher because it involves both remapping of virtual nodes and remapping of related virtual links. The remapping efficiency, so as to restore the affected VN to a normal state as soon as possible, to avoid affecting the user's business experience. Considering that the SVNE method that actively responds to node failures always has a certain degree of backup resource-specific phenomenon, this section provides a SVNE method that passively responds to node failures. This paper mainly introduces the survivability virtual network initial mapping method based on physical node recoverability in this method.
Morley, David C., Lawrence, Grayson, Smith, Scott.  2016.  Virtual Reality User Experience As a Deterrent for Smartphone Use While Driving. Proceedings of the 9th ACM International Conference on PErvasive Technologies Related to Assistive Environments. :67:1–67:3.

This study examines the effectiveness of virtual reality technology at creating an immersive user experience in which participants experience first hand the extreme negative consequences of smartphone use while driving. Research suggests that distracted driving caused by smartphones is related to smartphone addiction and causes fatalities. Twenty-two individuals participated in the virtual reality user experience (VRUE) in which they were asked to drive a virtual car using a Oculus Rift headset, LeapMotion hand tracking device, and a force feedback steering wheel and pedals. While driving in the simulation participants were asked to interact with a smartphone and after a period of time trying to manage both tasks a vehicle appears before them and they are involved in a head-on collision. Initial results indicated a strong sense of presence was felt by participants and a change or re-enforcement of the participant's perception of the dangers of smartphone use while driving was observed.

Jiaqi Yan, Illinois Institute of Technology, Dong Jin, Illinois Institute of Technology.  2015.  A Virtual Time System for Linux-container-based Emulation of Software-defined Networks. ACM SIGSIM Conference on Principles of Advanced Discrete Simulation.

Realistic and scalable testing systems are critical to evaluate network applications and protocols to ensure successful real system deployments. Container-based network emula- tion is attractive because of the combination of many desired features of network simulators and physical testbeds . The success of Mininet, a popular software- defined networking (SDN) emulation testbed, demonstrates the value of such approach that we can execute unmodified binary code on a large- scale emulated network with lightweight OS-level vir- tualization techniques. However, an ordinary network em- ulator uses the system clock across all the containers even if a container is not being scheduled to run. This leads to the issue of temporal fidelity, especially with high workloads. Virtual time sheds the light on the issue of preserving tem- poral fidelity for large-scale emulation. The key insight is to trade time with system resources via precisely scaling the time of interactions between containers and physical devices by a factor of n, hence, making an emulated network ap- pear to be n times faster from the viewpoints of applications in the container. In this paper, we develop a lightweight Linux-container-based virtual time system and integrate the system to Mininet for fidelity and scalability enhancement. We also design an adaptive time dilation scheduling mod- ule for balancing speed and accuracy. Experimental results demonstrate that (1) with virtual time, Mininet is able to accurately emulate a network n times larger in scale, where n is the scaling factor, with the system behaviors closely match data obtained from a physical testbed; and (2) with the adaptive time dilation scheduling, we reduce the running time by 46% with little accuracy loss. Finally, we present a case study using the virtual-time-enabled Mininet to evalu- ate the limitations of equal-cost multi-path (ECMP) routing in a data center network.

Yu, F., Chen, L., Zhang, H..  2016.  Virtual TPM Dynamic Trust Extension Suitable for Frequent Migrations. 2016 IEEE Trustcom/BigDataSE/ISPA. :57–65.

This paper has presented an approach of vTPM (virtual Trusted Platform Module) Dynamic Trust Extension (DTE) to satisfy the requirements of frequent migrations. With DTE, vTPM is a delegation of the capability of signing attestation data from the underlying pTPM (physical TPM), with one valid time token issued by an Authentication Server (AS). DTE maintains a strong association between vTPM and its underlying pTPM, and has clear distinguishability between vTPM and pTPM because of the different security strength of the two types of TPM. In DTE, there is no need for vTPM to re-acquire Identity Key (IK) certificate(s) after migration, and pTPM can have a trust revocation in real time. Furthermore, DTE can provide forward security. Seen from the performance measurements of its prototype, DTE is feasible.

Yoon, Man-Ki, Liu, Bo, Hovakimyan, Naira, Sha, Lui.  2017.  VirtualDrone: Virtual Sensing, Actuation, and Communication for Attack-resilient Unmanned Aerial Systems. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Cyber-Physical Systems. :143–154.

As modern unmanned aerial systems (UAS) continue to expand the frontiers of automation, new challenges to security and thus its safety are emerging. It is now difficult to completely secure modern UAS platforms due to their openness and increasing complexity. We present the VirtualDrone Framework, a software architecture that enables an attack-resilient control of modern UAS. It allows the system to operate with potentially untrustworthy software environment by virtualizing the sensors, actuators, and communication channels. The framework provides mechanisms to monitor physical and logical system behaviors and to detect security and safety violations. Upon detection of such an event, the framework switches to a trusted control mode in order to override malicious system state and to prevent potential safety violations. We built a prototype quadcoper running an embedded multicore processor that features a hardware-assisted virtualization technology. We present extensive experimental study and implementation details, and demonstrate how the framework can ensure the robustness of the UAS in the presence of security breaches.

Xu, Dongyan.  2014.  Virtualization and Security: Happily Ever After? Proceedings of the 4th ACM Conference on Data and Application Security and Privacy. :73–74.

Virtualization has been a major enabling technology for improving trustworthiness and tamper-resistance of computer security functions. In the past decade, we have witnessed the development of virtualization-based techniques for attack/malware monitoring, detection, prevention, and profiling. Virtual platforms have been widely adopted for system security experimentation and evaluation, because of their strong isolation, maneuverability, and scalability properties. Conversely, the demand from security research has led to significant advances in virtualization technology itself, for example, in the aspects of virtual machine introspection, check-pointing, and replay. In this talk, I will present an overview of research efforts (including our own) in virtualization-based security and security-driven virtualization. I will also discuss a number of challenges and opportunities in maintaining and elevating the synergies between virtualization and security.

Alves, Thiago, Das, Rishabh, Morris, Thomas.  2016.  Virtualization of Industrial Control System Testbeds for Cybersecurity. Proceedings of the 2Nd Annual Industrial Control System Security Workshop. :10–14.

With an immense number of threats pouring in from nation states and hacktivists as well as terrorists and cybercriminals, the requirement of a globally secure infrastructure becomes a major obligation. Most critical infrastructures were primarily designed to work isolated from the normal communication network, but due to the advent of the "Smart Grid" that uses advanced and intelligent approaches to control critical infrastructure, it is necessary for these cyber-physical systems to have access to the communication system. Consequently, such critical systems have become prime targets; hence security of critical infrastructure is currently one of the most challenging research problems. Performing an extensive security analysis involving experiments with cyber-attacks on a live industrial control system (ICS) is not possible. Therefore, researchers generally resort to test beds and complex simulations to answer questions related to SCADA systems. Since all conclusions are drawn from the test bed, it is necessary to perform validation against a physical model. This paper examines the fidelity of a virtual SCADA testbed to a physical test bed and allows for the study of the effects of cyber- attacks on both of the systems.

Marwecki, Sebastian, Brehm, Maximilian, Wagner, Lukas, Cheng, Lung-Pan, Mueller, Florian 'Floyd', Baudisch, Patrick.  2018.  VirtualSpace - Overloading Physical Space with Multiple Virtual Reality Users. Proceedings of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. :241:1-241:10.

Although virtual reality hardware is now widely available, the uptake of real walking is hindered by the fact that it requires often impractically large amounts of physical space. To address this, we present VirtualSpace, a novel system that allows overloading multiple users immersed in different VR experiences into the same physical space. VirtualSpace accomplishes this by containing each user in a subset of the physical space at all times, which we call tiles; app-invoked maneuvers then shuffle tiles and users across the entire physical space. This allows apps to move their users to where their narrative requires them to be while hiding from users that they are confined to a tile. We show how this enables VirtualSpace to pack four users into 16m2. In our study we found that VirtualSpace allowed participants to use more space and to feel less confined than in a control condition with static, pre-allocated space.

Syrivelis, D., Paschos, G.S., Tassiulas, L..  2014.  VirtueMAN: A software-defined network architecture for WiFi-based metropolitan applications. Computer Aided Modeling and Design of Communication Links and Networks (CAMAD), 2014 IEEE 19th International Workshop on. :95-99.

Metropolitan scale WiFi deployments face several challenges including controllability and management, which prohibit the provision of Seamless Access, Quality of Service (QoS) and Security to mobile users. Thus, they remain largely an untapped networking resource. In this work, a SDN-based network architecture is proposed; it is comprised of a distributed network-wide controller and a novel datapath for wireless access points. Virtualization of network functions is employed for configurable user access control as well as for supporting an IP-independent forwarding scheme. The proposed architecture is a flat network across the deployment area, providing seamless connectivity and reachability without the need of intermediary servers over the Internet, enabling thus a wide variety of localized applications, like for instance video surveillance. Also, the provided interface allows for transparent implementation of intra-network distributed cross-layer traffic control protocols that can optimize the multihop performance of the wireless network.

Narayanaswamy, Ganesh, Joshi, Saurabh, Kroening, Daniel.  2016.  The Virtues of Conflict: Analysing Modern Concurrency. Proceedings of the 21st ACM SIGPLAN Symposium on Principles and Practice of Parallel Programming. :25:1–25:12.

Modern shared memory multiprocessors permit reordering of memory operations for performance reasons. These reorderings are often a source of subtle bugs in programs written for such architectures. Traditional approaches to verify weak memory programs often rely on interleaving semantics, which is prone to state space explosion, and thus severely limits the scalability of the analysis. In recent times, there has been a renewed interest in modelling dynamic executions of weak memory programs using partial orders. However, such an approach typically requires ad-hoc mechanisms to correctly capture the data and control-flow choices/conflicts present in real-world programs. In this work, we propose a novel, conflict-aware, composable, truly concurrent semantics for programs written using C/C++ for modern weak memory architectures. We exploit our symbolic semantics based on general event structures to build an efficient decision procedure that detects assertion violations in bounded multi-threaded programs. Using a large, representative set of benchmarks, we show that our conflict-aware semantics outperforms the state-of-the-art partial-order based approaches.

Wang, Q., Geiger, R. L..  2017.  Visible but Transparent Hardware Trojans in Clock Generation Circuits. 2017 IEEE National Aerospace and Electronics Conference (NAECON). :354–357.

Hardware Trojans that can be easily embedded in synchronous clock generation circuits typical of what are used in large digital systems are discussed. These Trojans are both visible and transparent. Since they are visible, they will penetrate split-lot manufacturing security methods and their transparency will render existing detection methods ineffective.

Zhao, J., Kong, K., Hei, X., Tu, Y., Du, X..  2018.  A Visible Light Channel Based Access Control Scheme for Wireless Insulin Pump Systems. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–6.
Smart personal insulin pumps have been widely adopted by type 1 diabetes. However, many wireless insulin pump systems lack security mechanisms to protect them from malicious attacks. In previous works, the read-write attacks over RF channels can be launched stealthily and could jeopardize patients' lives. Protecting patients from such attacks is urgent. To address this issue, we propose a novel visible light channel based access control scheme for wireless infusion insulin pumps. This scheme employs an infrared photodiode sensor as a receiver in an insulin pump, and an infrared LED as an emitter in a doctor's reader (USB) to transmit a PIN/shared key to authenticate the doctor's USB. The evaluation results demonstrate that our scheme can reliably pass the authentication process with a low false accept rate (0.05% at a distance of 5cm).
Luo, X., Chen, K., Pang, G., Shou, L., Chen, G..  2017.  Visible Nearest Neighbor Search for Objects Moving on Consecutive Trajectories. 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Processing with Applications and 2017 IEEE International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing and Communications (ISPA/IUCC). :1296–1303.

A visible nearest neighbor (VNN) query returns the k nearest objects that are visible to a query point, which is used to support various applications such as route planning, target monitoring, and antenna placement. However, with the proliferation of wireless communications and advances in positioning technology for mobile equipments, efficiently searching for VNN among moving objects are required. While most previous work on VNN query focused on static objects, in this paper, we treats the objects as moving consecutively when indexing them, and study the visible nearest neighbor query for moving objects (MVNN) . Assuming that the objects are represented as trajectories given by linear functions of time, we propose a scheme which indexes the moving objects by time-parameterized R-tree (TPR-tree) and obstacles by R-tree. The paper offers four heuristics for visibility and space pruning. New algorithms, Post-pruning and United-pruning, are developed for efficiently solving MVNN queries with all four heuristics. The effectiveness and efficiency of our solutions are verified by extensive experiments over synthetic datasets on real road network.

Almohanna, S., Alogayyel, M. S., Ajaji, A. A., Alkhdrawi, H. A., Alleli, M. A., Tareq, Q., Mukhtar, Sani, Mohammed Khan, Z. M..  2019.  Visible-NIR Laser Based Bi-directional Indoor Optical Wireless Communication. 2019 IEEE 10th GCC Conference Exhibition (GCC). :1–4.
We propose and demonstrate an indoor optical bi-directional communication system employing near-infrared (NIR) and visible light as carriers. Such a communication technology is attractive wherein red color could be deployed for down streaming purpose via, for instance, LiFi (light fidelity) system, and NIR color for up streaming purpose. This system concept is implemented over a simultaneous bidirectional audio signal transmission and reception over 0.6m indoor wireless channel. Besides, designing the transceiver circuits from off the shelf components, frequency scrambling encryption and decryption technique is also integrated in the system for security purpose. The communication system is optically characterized in terms of line-of-sight laser misalignment and communication distance.
Iffländer, Lukas, Walter, Jürgen, Eismann, Simon, Kounev, Samuel.  2018.  The Vision of Self-Aware Reordering of Security Network Function Chains. Companion of the 2018 ACM/SPEC International Conference on Performance Engineering. :1-4.

Services provided online are subject to various types of attacks. Security appliances can be chained to protect a system against multiple types of network attacks. The sequence of appliances has a significant impact on the efficiency of the whole chain. While the operation of security appliance chains is currently based on a static order, traffic-aware reordering of security appliances may significantly improve efficiency and accuracy. In this paper, we present the vision of a self-aware system to automatically reorder security appliances according to incoming traffic. To achieve this, we propose to apply a model-based learning, reasoning, and acting (LRA-M) loop. To this end, we describe a corresponding system architecture and explain its building blocks.

Tolsdorf, J., Iacono, L. Lo.  2020.  Vision: Shred If Insecure – Persuasive Message Design as a Lesson and Alternative to Previous Approaches to Usable Secure Email Interfaces. 2020 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy Workshops (EuroS PW). :172–177.
Despite the advances in research on usable secure email, the majority of mail user agents found in practice still violates best practices in UI design and uses ineffective and inhomogeneous design strategies to communicate and let users control the security status of an email message.We propose a novel interaction and design concept that we refer to as persuasive message design. Our approach is derived from heuristics and a systematic meta-study of existing HCI literature on email management, usable secure email and phishing research. Concluding on this body of knowledge we propose the design of interfaces that suppress weak cues and instead manipulate the display of emails according to their technical security level. Persuasive message design addresses several shortcomings of current secure email user interfaces and provides a consistent user experience that can be deployed even by email providers.
Ameur, S. B., Smaoui, S., Zarai, F..  2017.  Visiting Mobile Node Authentication Protocol for Proxy MIPv6-Based NEtwork MObility. 2017 IEEE/ACS 14th International Conference on Computer Systems and Applications (AICCSA). :1314–1321.

NEtwork MObility (NEMO) has gained recently a lot of attention from a number of standardization and researches committees. Although NEMO-Basic Support Protocol (NEMO-BSP) seems to be suitable in the context of the Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), it has several shortcomings, such as packets loss and lack of security, since it is a host-based mobility scheme. Therefore, in order to improve handoff performance and solve these limitations, schemes adapting Proxy MIPv6 for NEMO have been appeared. But the majorities did not deal with the case of the handover of the Visiting Mobile Nodes (VMN) located below the Mobile Router (MR). Thus, this paper proposes a Visiting Mobile Node Authentication Protocol for Proxy MIPv6-Based NEtwork MObility which ensures strong authentication between entities. To evaluate the security performance of our proposition, we have used the AVISPA/SPAN software which guarantees that our proposed protocol is a safe scheme.

Sandifort, Maguell L.T.L., Liu, Jianquan, Nishimura, Shoji, Hürst, Wolfgang.  2018.  VisLoiter+: An Entropy Model-Based Loiterer Retrieval System with User-Friendly Interfaces. Proceedings of the 2018 ACM on International Conference on Multimedia Retrieval. :505–508.

It is very difficult to fully automate the detection of loitering behavior in video surveillance, therefore humans are often required for monitoring. Alternatively, we could provide a list of potential loiterer candidates for a final yes/no judgment of a human operator. Our system, VisLoiter+, realizes this idea with a unique, user-friendly interface and by employing an entropy model for improved loitering analysis. Rather than using only frequency of appearance, we expand the loiter analysis with new methods measuring the amount of person movements across multiple camera views. The interface gives an overview of loiterer candidates to show their behavior at a glance, complemented by a lightweight video playback for further details about why a candidate was selected. We demonstrate that our system outperforms state-of-the-art solutions using real-life data sets.

Ross, Caitlin, Carothers, Christopher D., Mubarak, Misbah, Carns, Philip, Ross, Robert, Li, Jianping Kelvin, Ma, Kwan-Liu.  2016.  Visual Data-analytics of Large-scale Parallel Discrete-event Simulations. Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Performance Modeling, Benchmarking and Simulation of High Performance Computing Systems. :87–97.

Parallel discrete-event simulation (PDES) is an important tool in the codesign of extreme-scale systems because PDES provides a cost-effective way to evaluate designs of high-performance computing systems. Optimistic synchronization algorithms for PDES, such as Time Warp, allow events to be processed without global synchronization among the processing elements. A rollback mechanism is provided when events are processed out of timestamp order. Although optimistic synchronization protocols enable the scalability of large-scale PDES, the performance of the simulations must be tuned to reduce the number of rollbacks and provide an improved simulation runtime. To enable efficient large-scale optimistic simulations, one has to gain insight into the factors that affect the rollback behavior and simulation performance. We developed a tool for ROSS model developers that gives them detailed metrics on the performance of their large-scale optimistic simulations at varying levels of simulation granularity. Model developers can use this information for parameter tuning of optimistic simulations in order to achieve better runtime and fewer rollbacks. In this work, we instrument the ROSS optimistic PDES framework to gather detailed statistics about the simulation engine. We have also developed an interactive visualization interface that uses the data collected by the ROSS instrumentation to understand the underlying behavior of the simulation engine. The interface connects real time to virtual time in the simulation and provides the ability to view simulation data at different granularities. We demonstrate the usefulness of our framework by performing a visual analysis of the dragonfly network topology model provided by the CODES simulation framework built on top of ROSS. The instrumentation needs to minimize overhead in order to accurately collect data about the simulation performance. To ensure that the instrumentation does not introduce unnecessary overhead, we perform a scaling study that compares instrumented ROSS simulations with their noninstrumented counterparts in order to determine the amount of perturbation when running at different simulation scales.

Liang, Tyng-Yeu, Yeh, Li-Wei, Wu, Chi-Hong.  2018.  A Visual MapReduce Program Development Environment for Heterogeneous Computing on Clouds. Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Computing and Data Engineering. :83–87.
This paper is aimed at proposing a visual MapReduce program development environment called VMR for heterogeneous computing on Clouds. This development environment mainly has three advantages as follows. First, it allows users to drag and drop graphical blocks instead of text typing for editing programs. Therefore, users can save their effort and time spent on MapReduce programming especially when they analyze data on clouds through mobile devices. Second, it can automatically translate the blocks of users' MapReduce programs into three different versions including Java, C and CUDA of source codes, and select one of these three versions according to the processor architecture of allocated resources for execution. Consequently, users can transparently and effectively exploit heterogeneous resources in clouds for executing their MapReduce programs while they has no need to individually write programs for each of different processor architectures by themselves. Third, it can enable clouds to outsource the computation tasks of MapReduce programs to mobile devices in order for increasing job throughput or program performance.
Tan, L., Liu, K., Yan, X., Wan, S., Chen, J., Chang, C..  2018.  Visual Secret Sharing Scheme for Color QR Code. 2018 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Image, Vision and Computing (ICIVC). :961–965.

In this paper, we propose a novel visual secret sharing (VSS) scheme for color QR code (VSSCQR) with (n, n) threshold based on high capacity, admirable visual effects and popularity of color QR code. By splitting and encoding a secret image into QR codes and then fusing QR codes to generate color QR code shares, the scheme can share the secret among a certain number of participants. However, less than n participants cannot reveal any information about the secret. The embedding amount and position of the secret image bits generated by VSS are in the range of the error correction ability of the QR code. Each color share is readable, which can be decoded and thus may not come into notice. On one hand, the secret image can be reconstructed by first decomposing three QR codes from each color QR code share and then stacking the corresponding QR codes based on only human visual system without computational devices. On the other hand, by decomposing three QR codes from each color QR code share and then XORing the three QR codes respectively, we can reconstruct the secret image losslessly. The experiment results display the effect of our scheme.

Ay, Betül, Aydın, Galip, Koyun, Zeynep, Demir, Mehmet.  2019.  A Visual Similarity Recommendation System using Generative Adversarial Networks. 2019 International Conference on Deep Learning and Machine Learning in Emerging Applications (Deep-ML). :44—48.

The goal of content-based recommendation system is to retrieve and rank the list of items that are closest to the query item. Today, almost every e-commerce platform has a recommendation system strategy for products that customers can decide to buy. In this paper we describe our work on creating a Generative Adversarial Network based image retrieval system for e-commerce platforms to retrieve best similar images for a given product image specifically for shoes. We compare state-of-the-art solutions and provide results for the proposed deep learning network on a standard data set.

Ebert, David S..  2019.  Visual Spatial Analytics and Trusted Information for Effective Decision Making. Proceedings of the 27th ACM SIGSPATIAL International Conference on Advances in Geographic Information Systems. :2.

Information, not just data, is key to today's global challenges. To solve these challenges requires not only advancing geospatial and big data analytics but requires new analysis and decision-making environments that enable reliable decisions from trustable, understandable information that go beyond current approaches to machine learning and artificial intelligence. These environments are successful when they effectively couple human decision making with advanced, guided spatial analytics in human-computer collaborative discourse and decision making (HCCD). Our HCCD approach builds upon visual analytics, natural scale templates, traceable information, human-guided analytics, and explainable and interactive machine learning, focusing on empowering the decisionmaker through interactive visual spatial analytic environments where non-digital human expertise and experience can be combined with state-of-the-art and transparent analytical techniques. When we combine this approach with real-world application-driven research, not only does the pace of scientific innovation accelerate, but impactful change occurs. I'll describe how we have applied these techniques to challenges in sustainability, security, resiliency, public safety, and disaster management.

Stoll, J., Bengez, R. Z..  2015.  Visual structures for seeing cyber policy strategies. 2015 7th International Conference on Cyber Conflict: Architectures in Cyberspace. :135–152.

In the pursuit of cyber security for organizations, there are tens of thousands of tools, guidelines, best practices, forensics, platforms, toolkits, diagnostics, and analytics available. However according to the Verizon 2014 Data Breach Report: “after analysing 10 years of data... organizations cannot keep up with cyber crime-and the bad guys are winning.” Although billions are expended worldwide on cyber security, organizations struggle with complexity, e.g., the NISTIR 7628 guidelines for cyber-physical systems are over 600 pages of text. And there is a lack of information visibility. Organizations must bridge the gap between technical cyber operations and the business/social priorities since both sides are essential for ensuring cyber security. Identifying visual structures for information synthesis could help reduce the complexity while increasing information visibility within organizations. This paper lays the foundation for investigating such visual structures by first identifying where current visual structures are succeeding or failing. To do this, we examined publicly available analyses related to three types of security issues: 1) epidemic, 2) cyber attacks on an industrial network, and 3) threat of terrorist attack. We found that existing visual structures are largely inadequate for reducing complexity and improving information visibility. However, based on our analysis, we identified a range of different visual structures, and their possible trade-offs/limitation is framing strategies for cyber policy. These structures form the basis of evolving visualization to support information synthesis for policy actions, which has rarely been done but is promising based on the efficacy of existing visualizations for cyber incident detection, attacks, and situation awareness.