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Schürmann, D., Zengen, G. V., Priedigkeit, M., Wolf, L..  2017.  \#x003BC;DTNSec: A Security Layer for Disruption-Tolerant Networks on Microcontrollers. 2017 16th Annual Mediterranean Ad Hoc Networking Workshop (Med-Hoc-Net). :1–7.

We introduce $μ$DTNSec, the first fully-implemented security layer for Delay/Disruption-Tolerant Networks (DTN) on microcontrollers. It provides protection against eavesdropping and Man-in-the-Middle attacks that are especially easy in these networks. Following the Store-Carry-Forward principle of DTNs, an attacker can simply place itself on the route between source and destination. Our design consists of asymmetric encryption and signatures with Elliptic Curve Cryptography and hardware-backed symmetric encryption with the Advanced Encryption Standard. $μ$DTNSec has been fully implemented as an extension to $μ$DTN on Contiki OS and is based on the Bundle Protocol specification. Our performance evaluation shows that the choice of the curve (secp128r1, secp192r1, secp256r1) dominates the influence of the payload size. We also provide energy measurements for all operations to show the feasibility of our security layer on energy-constrained devices.

Moukarzel, M., Eisenbarth, T., Sunar, B..  2017.  \#x03BC;Leech: A Side-Channel Evaluation Platform for IoT. 2017 IEEE 60th International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS). :25–28.

We propose $μ$Leech, a new embedded trusted platform module for next generation power scavenging devices. Such power scavenging devices are already widely deployed. For instance, the Square point-of-sale reader uses the microphone/speaker interface of a smartphone for communications and as power supply. While such devices are used as trusted devices in security critical applications in the wild, they have not been properly evaluated yet. $μ$Leech can securely store keys and provide cryptographic services to any connected smart phone. Our design also facilitates physical security analysis by providing interfaces to facilitate acquisition of power traces and clock manipulation attacks. Thus $μ$Leech empowers security researchers to analyze leakage in next generation embedded and IoT devices and to evaluate countermeasures before deployment.

Khanuja, H., Suratkar, S.S..  2014.  #x201C;Role of metadata in forensic analysis of database attacks #x201C;. Advance Computing Conference (IACC), 2014 IEEE International. :457-462.

With the spectacular increase in online activities like e-transactions, security and privacy issues are at the peak with respect to their significance. Large numbers of database security breaches are occurring at a very high rate on daily basis. So, there is a crucial need in the field of database forensics to make several redundant copies of sensitive data found in database server artifacts, audit logs, cache, table storage etc. for analysis purposes. Large volume of metadata is available in database infrastructure for investigation purposes but most of the effort lies in the retrieval and analysis of that information from computing systems. Thus, in this paper we mainly focus on the significance of metadata in database forensics. We proposed a system here to perform forensics analysis of database by generating its metadata file independent of the DBMS system used. We also aim to generate the digital evidence against criminals for presenting it in the court of law in the form of who, when, why, what, how and where did the fraudulent transaction occur. Thus, we are presenting a system to detect major database attacks as well as anti-forensics attacks by developing an open source database forensics tool. Eventually, we are pointing out the challenges in the field of forensics and how these challenges can be used as opportunities to stimulate the areas of database forensics.

Jeong, Junho, Son, Yunsik, Oh, Seman.  2017.  The X86/64 Binary Code to Smart Intermediate Language Translation for Software Weakness. Proceedings of the International Conference on Advances in Image Processing. :129–134.

Today, the proportion of software in society as a whole is steadily increasing. In addition to size of software increasing, the number of cases dealing with personal information is also increasing. This shows the importance of weekly software security verification. However, software security is very difficult in cases where libraries do not have source code. To solve this problem, it is necessary to develop a technique for checking existing binary security weaknesses. To this end, techniques for analyzing security weaknesses using intermediate languages are actively being discussed. In this paper, we propose a system that translate binary code to intermediate language to effectively analyze existing security weaknesses within binary code.

Kacimi, Zineb, Benhlima, Laila.  2017.  XACML Policies into mongoDB for Privacy Access Control. Proceedings of the Mediterranean Symposium on Smart City Application. :9:1–9:5.

Nowadays Big data is considered as one of the major technologies used to manage a huge number of data, but there is little consideration of privacy in big data platforms. Indeed, developers don't focus on implementing security best practices in their programs to protect personal and sensitive data, and organizations can face financial lost because of this noncompliance with applied regulations. In this paper, we propose a solution to insert privacy policies written in XACML (eXtensible Access Control Markup Language) in access control solution to NoSQL database, our solution can be used for NoSQL data store which doesn't t include many access control features, it aims basically to ensure fine grained access control considering purpose as the main parameter, we will focus on access control in document level, and apply this approach to MongoDB which is the most used NoSQL data store.

Raza, Ali, Zaki, Yasir, Pötsch, Thomas, Chen, Jay, Subramanian, Lakshmi.  2017.  xCache: Rethinking Edge Caching for Developing Regions. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies and Development. :5:1–5:11.

End-users in emerging markets experience poor web performance due to a combination of three factors: high server response time, limited edge bandwidth and the complexity of web pages. The absence of cloud infrastructure in developing regions and the limited bandwidth experienced by edge nodes constrain the effectiveness of conventional caching solutions for these contexts. This paper describes the design, implementation and deployment of xCache, a cloud-managed Internet caching architecture that aims to proactively profile popular web pages and maintain the liveness of popular content at software defined edge caches to enhance the cache hit rate with minimal bandwidth overhead. xCache uses a Cloud Controller that continuously analyzes active cloud-managed web pages and derives an object-group representation of web pages based on the objects of a page. Using this object-group representation, xCache computes a bandwidth-aware utility measure to derive the most valuable configuration for each edge cache. Our preliminary real-world deployment across university campuses in three developing regions demonstrates its potential compared to conventional caching by improving cache hit rates by about 15%. Our evaluations of xCache have also shown that it can be applied in conjunction with other web optimizations solutions like Shandian, and can improve page load times by more than 50%.

Kalbarczyk, Tomasz, Julien, Christine.  2016.  XD (Exchange-deliver): \#a Middleware for Developing Device-to-device Mobile Applications. Proceedings of the International Conference on Mobile Software Engineering and Systems. :271–274.

In this demonstration, we showcase the XD middleware, a framework for expressive multiplexing of application communication streams onto underlying device-to-device communication links. XD allows applications to remain agnostic about which low-level networking stack is actually delivering messages and instead focus on the application-level content and delivery parameters. The IoT space has been flooded with new communication technologies (e.g., BLE, ZigBee, 6LoWPAN) to add to those already available on modern mobile devices (e.g., BLE, WiFi-Direct), substantially increasing the barrier to entry for developing innovative IoT applications. XD presents application developers with a simple publish-subscribe API for sending and receiving data streams, unburdening them from the task of selecting and coordinating communication channels. Our demonstration shows two Android applications, Disseminate and Prophet, running using our XD middleware for communication. We implemented BLE, WiFi Direct with TCP, and WiFi Direct with UDP communication stacks underneath XD.

Agarwal, N., Paul, K..  2016.  XEBRA: XEn Based Remote Attestation. 2016 IEEE Region 10 Conference (TENCON). :2383–2386.

Modern computing environments are increasingly getting distributed with one machine executing programs on the other remotely. Often, multiple machines work together to complete a task. Its important for collaborating machines to trust each other in order to perform properly. Such scenarios have brought up a key security issue of trustably and securely executing critical code on remote machines. We present a purely software based remote attestation technique XEBRA(XEn Based Remote Attestation) that guarantees the execution of correct code on a remote host, termed as remote attestation. XEBRA can be used to establish dynamic root of trust in a remote computing device using virtualization. We also show our approach to be feasible on embedded platforms by implementing it on an Intel Galileo board.

Johnston, Reece, Kim, Sun-il, Coe, David, Etzkorn, Letha, Kulick, Jeffrey, Milenkovic, Aleksandar.  2016.  Xen Network Flow Analysis for Intrusion Detection. Proceedings of the 11th Annual Cyber and Information Security Research Conference. :18:1–18:4.

Virtualization technology has become ubiquitous in the computing world. With it, a number of security concerns have been amplified as users run adjacently on a single host. In order to prevent attacks from both internal and external sources, the networking of such systems must be secured. Network intrusion detection systems (NIDSs) are an important tool for aiding this effort. These systems work by analyzing flow or packet information to determine malicious intent. However, it is difficult to implement a NIDS on a virtualized system due to their complexity. This is especially true for the Xen hypervisor: Xen has incredible heterogeneity when it comes to implementation, making a generic solution difficult. In this paper, we analyze the network data flow of a typical Xen implementation along with identifying features common to any implementation. We then explore the benefits of placing security checks along the data flow and promote a solution within the hypervisor itself.

Aljuhani, Ahamed, Alharbi, Talal, Liu, Hang.  2017.  XFirewall: A Dynamic and Additional Mitigation Against DDoS Storm. Proceedings of the International Conference on Compute and Data Analysis. :1–5.

The Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack is a main concern in network security. Since the attackers have developed different techniques and methods, preventing DDoS attacks has become more difficult. Traditional firewall is ineffective in preventing DDoS attacks. In this paper, we propose a new type of firewall named XFirewall to defend against DDoS attacks. XFirewall is a temporary firewall and is created when an attack occurs. Also, XFirewall will be configured with dynamic rules based on real-time traffic analysis. We will discuss in detail the design and algorithm for generating an XFirewall.

Guri, M., Zadov, B., Daidakulov, A., Elovici, Y..  2018.  xLED: Covert Data Exfiltration from Air-Gapped Networks via Switch and Router LEDs. 2018 16th Annual Conference on Privacy, Security and Trust (PST). :1–12.

An air-gapped network is a type of IT network that is separated from the Internet - physically - due to the sensitive information it stores. Even if such a network is compromised with a malware, the hermetic isolation from the Internet prevents an attacker from leaking out any data - thanks to the lack of connectivity. In this paper we show how attackers can covertly leak sensitive data from air-gapped networks via the row of status LEDs on networking equipment such as LAN switches and routers. Although it is known that some network equipment emanates optical signals correlated with the information being processed by the device (‘side-channel'), malware controlling the status LEDs to carry any type of data (‘covert-channel') has never studied before. Sensitive data can be covertly encoded over the blinking of the LEDs and received by remote cameras and optical sensors. A malicious code is executed in a compromised LAN switch or router allowing the attacker direct, low-level control of the LEDs. We provide the technical background on the internal architecture of switches and routers at both the hardware and software level which enables these attacks. We present different modulation and encoding schemas, along with a transmission protocol. We implement prototypes of the malware and discuss its design and implementation. We tested various receivers including remote cameras, security cameras, smartphone cameras, and optical sensors, and discuss detection and prevention countermeasures. Our experiments show that sensitive data can be covertly leaked via the status LEDs of switches and routers at bit rates of 1 bit/sec to more than 2000 bit/sec per LED.

Chaudhary, P., Gupta, B. B., Yamaguchi, S..  2016.  XSS detection with automatic view isolation on online social network. 2016 IEEE 5th Global Conference on Consumer Electronics. :1–5.
Online Social Networks (OSNs) are continuously suffering from the negative impact of Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) vulnerabilities. This paper describes a novel framework for mitigating XSS attack on OSN-based platforms. It is completely based on the request authentication and view isolation approach. It detects XSS attack through validating string value extracted from the vulnerable checkpoint present in the web page by implementing string examination algorithm with the help of XSS attack vector repository. Any similarity (i.e. string is not validated) indicates the presence of malicious code injected by the attacker and finally it removes the script code to mitigate XSS attack. To assess the defending ability of our designed model, we have tested it on OSN-based web application i.e. Humhub. The experimental results revealed that our model discovers the XSS attack vectors with low false negatives and false positive rate tolerable performance overhead.
Gupta, M. K., Govil, M. C., Singh, G., Sharma, P..  2015.  XSSDM: Towards detection and mitigation of cross-site scripting vulnerabilities in web applications. 2015 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics (ICACCI). :2010–2015.

With the growth of the Internet, web applications are becoming very popular in the user communities. However, the presence of security vulnerabilities in the source code of these applications is raising cyber crime rate rapidly. It is required to detect and mitigate these vulnerabilities before their exploitation in the execution environment. Recently, Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) and Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CWE) reported Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) as one of the most serious vulnerabilities in the web applications. Though many vulnerability detection approaches have been proposed in the past, existing detection approaches have the limitations in terms of false positive and false negative results. This paper proposes a context-sensitive approach based on static taint analysis and pattern matching techniques to detect and mitigate the XSS vulnerabilities in the source code of web applications. The proposed approach has been implemented in a prototype tool and evaluated on a public data set of 9408 samples. Experimental results show that proposed approach based tool outperforms over existing popular open source tools in the detection of XSS vulnerabilities.

Sani, Abubakar Sadiq, Yuan, Dong, Bao, Wei, Yeoh, Phee Lep, Dong, Zhao Yang, Vucetic, Branka, Bertino, Elisa.  2019.  Xyreum: A High-Performance and Scalable Blockchain for IIoT Security and Privacy. 2019 IEEE 39th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS). :1920–1930.
As cyber attacks to Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) remain a major challenge, blockchain has emerged as a promising technology for IIoT security due to its decentralization and immutability characteristics. Existing blockchain designs, however, introduce high computational complexity and latency challenges which are unsuitable for IIoT. This paper proposes Xyreum, a new high-performance and scalable blockchain for enhanced IIoT security and privacy. Xyreum uses a Time-based Zero-Knowledge Proof of Knowledge (T-ZKPK) with authenticated encryption to perform Mutual Multi-Factor Authentication (MMFA). T-ZKPK properties are also used to support Key Establishment (KE) for securing transactions. Our approach for reaching consensus, which is a blockchain group decision-making process, is based on lightweight cryptographic algorithms. We evaluate our scheme with respect to security, privacy, and performance, and the results show that, compared with existing relevant blockchain solutions, our scheme is secure, privacy-preserving, and achieves a significant decrease in computation complexity and latency performance with high scalability. Furthermore, we explain how to use our scheme to strengthen the security of the REMME protocol, a blockchain-based security protocol deployed in several application domains.