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Miller, A., Bentov, I..  2017.  Zero-Collateral Lotteries in Bitcoin and Ethereum. 2017 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy Workshops (EuroS PW). :4–13.
We present cryptocurrency-based lottery protocols that do not require any collateral from the players. Previous protocols for this task required a security deposit that is O(N2) times larger than the bet amount, where N is the number of players. Our protocols are based on a tournament bracket construction, and require only O(logN) rounds. Our lottery protocols thus represent a significant improvement, both because they allow players with little money to participate, and because of the time value of money. The Ethereum-based implementation of our lottery is highly efficient. The Bitcoin implementation requires an O(2N) off-chain setup phase, which demonstrates that the expressive power of the scripting language can have important implications. We also describe a minimal modification to the Bitcoin protocol that would eliminate the exponential blowup.
Pallaprolu, S. C., Sankineni, R., Thevar, M., Karabatis, G., Wang, J..  2017.  Zero-Day Attack Identification in Streaming Data Using Semantics and Spark. 2017 IEEE International Congress on Big Data (BigData Congress). :121–128.

Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) have been in existence for many years now, but they fall short in efficiently detecting zero-day attacks. This paper presents an organic combination of Semantic Link Networks (SLN) and dynamic semantic graph generation for the on the fly discovery of zero-day attacks using the Spark Streaming platform for parallel detection. In addition, a minimum redundancy maximum relevance (MRMR) feature selection algorithm is deployed to determine the most discriminating features of the dataset. Compared to previous studies on zero-day attack identification, the described method yields better results due to the semantic learning and reasoning on top of the training data and due to the use of collaborative classification methods. We also verified the scalability of our method in a distributed environment.

Kumar, S., Singh, C. Bhim Bhan.  2018.  A Zero-Day Resistant Malware Detection Method for Securing Cloud Using SVM and Sandboxing Techniques. 2018 Second International Conference on Inventive Communication and Computational Technologies (ICICCT). :1397–1402.

Cloud nowaday has become the backbone of the IT infrastructure. Whole of the infrastructure is now being shifted to the clouds, and as the cloud involves all of the networking schemes and the OS images, it inherits all of the vulnerabilities too. And hence securing them is one of our very prior concerns. Malwares are one of the many other problems that have ever growing and hence need to be eradicated from the system. The history of mal wares go long back in time since the advent of computers and hence a lot of techniques has also been already devised to tackle with the problem in some or other way. But most of them fall short in some or other way or are just too heavy to execute on a simple user machine. Our approach devises a 3 - phase exhaustive technique which confirms the detection of any kind of malwares from the host. It also works for the zero-day attacks that are really difficult to cover most times and can be of really high-risk at times. We have thought of a solution to keep the things light weight for the user.

Huang, Huawei, Qu, Yunyun, Deng, Lunzhi.  2017.  Zero-Knowledge Identification Scheme Based on Symmetry Ergodic Matrices Exponentiation Problem. Proceedings of the 2017 International Conference on Cryptography, Security and Privacy. :71–75.

Symmetry ergodic matrices exponentiation (SEME) problem is to find x, given CxMDx, where C and D are the companion matrices of primitive polynomials and M is an invertible matrix over finite field. This paper proposes a new zero-knowledge identification scheme based on SEME problem. It is perfect zero-knowledge for honest verifiers. The scheme could provide a candidate cryptographic primitive in post quantum cryptography. Due to its simplicity and naturalness, low-memory, low-computation costs, the proposed scheme is suitable for using in computationally limited devices for identification such as smart cards.

Yang, Yang, Luo, Yadan, Chen, Weilun, Shen, Fumin, Shao, Jie, Shen, Heng Tao.  2016.  Zero-Shot Hashing via Transferring Supervised Knowledge. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM on Multimedia Conference. :1286–1295.

Hashing has shown its efficiency and effectiveness in facilitating large-scale multimedia applications. Supervised knowledge (\textbackslashemph\e.g.\, semantic labels or pair-wise relationship) associated to data is capable of significantly improving the quality of hash codes and hash functions. However, confronted with the rapid growth of newly-emerging concepts and multimedia data on the Web, existing supervised hashing approaches may easily suffer from the scarcity and validity of supervised information due to the expensive cost of manual labelling. In this paper, we propose a novel hashing scheme, termed \textbackslashemph\zero-shot hashing\ (ZSH), which compresses images of "unseen" categories to binary codes with hash functions learned from limited training data of "seen" categories. Specifically, we project independent data labels (i.e., 0/1-form label vectors) into semantic embedding space, where semantic relationships among all the labels can be precisely characterized and thus seen supervised knowledge can be transferred to unseen classes. Moreover, in order to cope with the semantic shift problem, we rotate the embedded space to more suitably align the embedded semantics with the low-level visual feature space, thereby alleviating the influence of semantic gap. In the meantime, to exert positive effects on learning high-quality hash functions, we further propose to preserve local structural property and discrete nature in binary codes. Besides, we develop an efficient alternating algorithm to solve the ZSH model. Extensive experiments conducted on various real-life datasets show the superior zero-shot image retrieval performance of ZSH as compared to several state-of-the-art hashing methods.

Samaniego, M., Deters, R..  2018.  Zero-Trust Hierarchical Management in IoT. 2018 IEEE International Congress on Internet of Things (ICIOT). :88-95.

Internet of Things (IoT) is experiencing exponential scalability. This scalability introduces new challenges regarding management of IoT networks. The question that emerges is how we can trust the constrained infrastructure that shortly is expected to be formed by millions of 'things.' The answer is not to trust. This research introduces Amatista, a blockchain-based middleware for management in IoT. Amatista presents a novel zero-trust hierarchical mining process that allows validating the infrastructure and transactions at different levels of trust. This research evaluates Amatista on Edison Arduino Boards.

Zhang, Chaoyun, Ouyang, Xi, Patras, Paul.  2017.  ZipNet-GAN: Inferring Fine-Grained Mobile Traffic Patterns via a Generative Adversarial Neural Network. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Emerging Networking EXperiments and Technologies. :363–375.

Large-scale mobile traffic analytics is becoming essential to digital infrastructure provisioning, public transportation, events planning, and other domains. Monitoring city-wide mobile traffic is however a complex and costly process that relies on dedicated probes. Some of these probes have limited precision or coverage, others gather tens of gigabytes of logs daily, which independently offer limited insights. Extracting fine-grained patterns involves expensive spatial aggregation of measurements, storage, and post-processing. In this paper, we propose a mobile traffic super-resolution technique that overcomes these problems by inferring narrowly localised traffic consumption from coarse measurements. We draw inspiration from image processing and design a deep-learning architecture tailored to mobile networking, which combines Zipper Network (ZipNet) and Generative Adversarial neural Network (GAN) models. This enables to uniquely capture spatio-temporal relations between traffic volume snapshots routinely monitored over broad coverage areas ('low-resolution') and the corresponding consumption at 0.05 km2 level ('high-resolution') usually obtained after intensive computation. Experiments we conduct with a real-world data set demonstrate that the proposed ZipNet(-GAN) infers traffic consumption with remarkable accuracy and up to 100X higher granularity as compared to standard probing, while outperforming existing data interpolation techniques. To our knowledge, this is the first time super-resolution concepts are applied to large-scale mobile traffic analysis and our solution is the first to infer fine-grained urban traffic patterns from coarse aggregates.

Korczyński, Maciej, Król, Micha\textbackslashl, van Eeten, Michel.  2016.  Zone Poisoning: The How and Where of Non-Secure DNS Dynamic Updates. Proceedings of the 2016 Internet Measurement Conference. :271–278.

This paper illuminates the problem of non-secure DNS dynamic updates, which allow a miscreant to manipulate DNS entries in the zone files of authoritative name servers. We refer to this type of attack as to zone poisoning. This paper presents the first measurement study of the vulnerability. We analyze a random sample of 2.9 million domains and the Alexa top 1 million domains and find that at least 1,877 (0.065%) and 587 (0.062%) of domains are vulnerable, respectively. Among the vulnerable domains are governments, health care providers and banks, demonstrating that the threat impacts important services. Via this study and subsequent notifications to affected parties, we aim to improve the security of the DNS ecosystem.

Chen, Pin-Yu, Zhang, Huan, Sharma, Yash, Yi, Jinfeng, Hsieh, Cho-Jui.  2017.  ZOO: Zeroth Order Optimization Based Black-box Attacks to Deep Neural Networks Without Training Substitute Models. Proceedings of the 10th ACM Workshop on Artificial Intelligence and Security. :15–26.
Deep neural networks (DNNs) are one of the most prominent technologies of our time, as they achieve state-of-the-art performance in many machine learning tasks, including but not limited to image classification, text mining, and speech processing. However, recent research on DNNs has indicated ever-increasing concern on the robustness to adversarial examples, especially for security-critical tasks such as traffic sign identification for autonomous driving. Studies have unveiled the vulnerability of a well-trained DNN by demonstrating the ability of generating barely noticeable (to both human and machines) adversarial images that lead to misclassification. Furthermore, researchers have shown that these adversarial images are highly transferable by simply training and attacking a substitute model built upon the target model, known as a black-box attack to DNNs. Similar to the setting of training substitute models, in this paper we propose an effective black-box attack that also only has access to the input (images) and the output (confidence scores) of a targeted DNN. However, different from leveraging attack transferability from substitute models, we propose zeroth order optimization (ZOO) based attacks to directly estimate the gradients of the targeted DNN for generating adversarial examples. We use zeroth order stochastic coordinate descent along with dimension reduction, hierarchical attack and importance sampling techniques to efficiently attack black-box models. By exploiting zeroth order optimization, improved attacks to the targeted DNN can be accomplished, sparing the need for training substitute models and avoiding the loss in attack transferability. Experimental results on MNIST, CIFAR10 and ImageNet show that the proposed ZOO attack is as effective as the state-of-the-art white-box attack (e.g., Carlini and Wagner's attack) and significantly outperforms existing black-box attacks via substitute models.
Zhang, Feng, Zhai, Jidong, Shen, Xipeng, Mutlu, Onur, Chen, Wenguang.  2018.  Zwift: A Programming Framework for High Performance Text Analytics on Compressed Data. Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Supercomputing. :195-206.
Today's rapidly growing document volumes pose pressing challenges to modern document analytics frameworks, in both space usage and processing time. Recently, a promising method, called text analytics directly on compressed data (TADOC), was proposed for improving both the time and space efficiency of text analytics. The main idea of the technique is to enable direct document analytics on compressed data. This paper focuses on the programming challenges for developing efficient TADOC programs. It presents Zwift, the first programming framework for TADOC, which consists of a Domain Specific Language, a compiler and runtime, and a utility library. Experiments show that Zwift significantly improves programming productivity, while effectively unleashing the power of TADOC, producing code that reduces storage usage by 90.8% and execution time by 41.0% on six text analytics problems.
Eetha, S., Agrawal, S., Neelam, S..  2018.  Zynq FPGA Based System Design for Video Surveillance with Sobel Edge Detection. 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Smart Electronic Systems (iSES) (Formerly iNiS). :76–79.

Advancements in semiconductor domain gave way to realize numerous applications in Video Surveillance using Computer vision and Deep learning, Video Surveillances in Industrial automation, Security, ADAS, Live traffic analysis etc. through image understanding improves efficiency. Image understanding requires input data with high precision which is dependent on Image resolution and location of camera. The data of interest can be thermal image or live feed coming for various sensors. Composite(CVBS) is a popular video interface capable of streaming upto HD(1920x1080) quality. Unlike high speed serial interfaces like HDMI/MIPI CSI, Analog composite video interface is a single wire standard supporting longer distances. Image understanding requires edge detection and classification for further processing. Sobel filter is one the most used edge detection filter which can be embedded into live stream. This paper proposes Zynq FPGA based system design for video surveillance with Sobel edge detection, where the input Composite video decoded (Analog CVBS input to YCbCr digital output), processed in HW and streamed to HDMI display simultaneously storing in SD memory for later processing. The HW design is scalable for resolutions from VGA to Full HD for 60fps and 4K for 24fps. The system is built on Xilinx ZC702 platform and TVP5146 to showcase the functional path.