Visible to the public Biblio

Found 12094 results

Conference Paper
Al-Aaridhi, R., Yueksektepe, A., Graffi, K..  2017.  Access Control for Secure Distributed Data Structures in Distributed Hash Tables. 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Local and Metropolitan Area Networks (LANMAN). :1–3.
Peer-To-Peer (P2P) networks open up great possibilities for intercommunication, collaborative and social projects like file sharing, communication protocols or social networks while offering advantages over the conventional Client-Server model of computing pattern. Such networks counter the problems of centralized servers such as that P2P networks can scale to millions without additional costs. In previous work, we presented Distributed Data Structure (DDS) which offers a middle-ware scheme for distributed applications. This scheme builds on top of DHT (Distributed Hash Table) based P2P overlays, and offers distributed data storage services as a middle-ware it still needs to address security issues. The main objective of this paper is to investigate possible ways to handle the security problem for DDS, and to develop a possibly reusable security architecture for access control for secure distributed data structures in P2P networks without depending on trusted third parties.
Colombo, Pietro, Ferrari, Elena.  2018.  Access Control in the Era of Big Data: State of the Art and Research Directions. Proceedings of the 23Nd ACM on Symposium on Access Control Models and Technologies. :185-192.
Data security and privacy issues are magnified by the volume, the variety, and the velocity of Big Data and by the lack, up to now, of a standard data model and related data manipulation language. In this paper, we focus on one of the key data security services, that is, access control, by highlighting the differences with traditional data management systems and describing a set of requirements that any access control solution for Big Data platforms may fulfill. We then describe the state of the art and discuss open research issues.
Alshehri, Asma, Benson, James, Patwa, Farhan, Sandhu, Ravi.  2018.  Access Control Model for Virtual Objects (Shadows) Communication for AWS Internet of Things. Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Data and Application Security and Privacy. :175–185.

The concept of Internet of Things (IoT) has received considerable attention and development in recent years. There have been significant studies on access control models for IoT in academia, while companies have already deployed several cloud-enabled IoT platforms. However, there is no consensus on a formal access control model for cloud-enabled IoT. The access-control oriented (ACO) architecture was recently proposed for cloud-enabled IoT, with virtual objects (VOs) and cloud services in the middle layers. Building upon ACO, operational and administrative access control models have been published for virtual object communication in cloud-enabled IoT illustrated by a use case of sensing speeding cars as a running example. In this paper, we study AWS IoT as a major commercial cloud-IoT platform and investigate its suitability for implementing the afore-mentioned academic models of ACO and VO communication control. While AWS IoT has a notion of digital shadows closely analogous to VOs, it lacks explicit capability for VO communication and thereby for VO communication control. Thus there is a significant mismatch between AWS IoT and these academic models. The principal contribution of this paper is to reconcile this mismatch by showing how to use the mechanisms of AWS IoT to effectively implement VO communication models. To this end, we develop an access control model for virtual objects (shadows) communication in AWS IoT called AWS-IoT-ACMVO. We develop a proof-of-concept implementation of the speeding cars use case in AWS IoT under guidance of this model, and provide selected performance measurements. We conclude with a discussion of possible alternate implementations of this use case in AWS IoT.

Zhang, Xianzhen, Chen, Zhanfang, Gong, Yue, Liu, Wen.  2019.  A Access Control Model of Associated Data Sets Based on Game Theory. 2019 International Conference on Machine Learning, Big Data and Business Intelligence (MLBDBI). :1–4.
With the popularity of Internet applications and rapid development, data using and sharing process may lead to the sensitive information divulgence. To deal with the privacy protection issue more effectively, in this paper, we propose the associated data sets protection model based on game theory from the point of view of realizing benefits from the access of privacy is about happen, quantify the extent to which visitors gain sensitive information, then compares the tolerance of the sensitive information owner and finally decides whether to allow the visitor to make an access request.
Alshehri, A., Sandhu, R..  2017.  Access Control Models for Virtual Object Communication in Cloud-Enabled IoT. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration (IRI). :16–25.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is the latest evolution of the Internet, encompassing an enormous number of connected physical "things." The access-control oriented (ACO) architecture was recently proposed for cloud-enabled IoT, with virtual objects (VOs) and cloud services in the middle layers. A central aspect of ACO is to control communication among VOs. This paper develops operational and administrative access control models for this purpose, assuming topic-based publishsubscribe interaction among VOs. Operational models are developed using (i) access control lists for topics and capabilities for virtual objects and (ii) attribute-based access control, and it is argued that role-based access control is not suitable for this purpose. Administrative models for these two operational models are developed using (i) access control lists, (ii) role-based access control, and (iii) attribute-based access control. A use case illustrates the details of these access control models for VO communication, and their differences. An assessment of these models with respect to security and privacy preserving objectives of IoT is also provided.
Rezaeibagha, F., Mu, Y..  2017.  Access Control Policy Combination from Similarity Analysis for Secure Privacy-Preserved EHR Systems. 2017 IEEE Trustcom/BigDataSE/ICESS. :386–393.

In distributed systems, there is often a need to combine the heterogeneous access control policies to offer more comprehensive services to users in the local or national level. A large scale healthcare system is usually distributed in a computer network and might require sophisticated access control policies to protect the system. Therefore, the need for integrating the electronic healthcare systems might be important to provide a comprehensive care for patients while preserving patients' privacy and data security. However, there are major impediments in healthcare systems concerning not well-defined and flexible access control policy implementations, hindering the progress towards secure integrated systems. In this paper, we introduce an access control policy combination framework for EHR systems that preserves patients' privacy and ensures data security. We achieve our goal through an access control mechanism which handles multiple access control policies through a similarity analysis phase. In that phase, we evaluate different XACML policies to decide whether or not a policy combination is applicable. We have provided a case study to show the applicability of our proposed approach based on XACML. Our study results can be applied to the electronic health record (EHR) access control policy, which fosters interoperability and scalability among healthcare providers while preserving patients' privacy and data security. 

Vanickis, R., Jacob, P., Dehghanzadeh, S., Lee, B..  2018.  Access Control Policy Enforcement for Zero-Trust-Networking. 2018 29th Irish Signals and Systems Conference (ISSC). :1-6.

The evolution of the enterprise computing landscape towards emerging trends such as fog/edge computing and the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) are leading to a change of approach to securing computer networks to deal with challenges such as mobility, virtualized infrastructures, dynamic and heterogeneous user contexts and transaction-based interactions. The uncertainty introduced by such dynamicity introduces greater uncertainty into the access control process and motivates the need for risk-based access control decision making. Thus, the traditional perimeter-based security paradigm is increasingly being abandoned in favour of a so called "zero trust networking" (ZTN). In ZTN networks are partitioned into zones with different levels of trust required to access the zone resources depending on the assets protected by the zone. All accesses to sensitive information is subject to rigorous access control based on user and device profile and context. In this paper we outline a policy enforcement framework to address many of open challenges for risk-based access control for ZTN. We specify the design of required policy languages including a generic firewall policy language to express firewall rules. We design a mechanism to map these rules to specific firewall syntax and to install the rules on the firewall. We show the viability of our design with a small proof-of-concept.

Hwang, JeeHyun, Williams, Laurie, Vouk, Mladen.  2014.  Access Control Policy Evolution: An Empirical Study. Proceedings of the 2014 Symposium and Bootcamp on the Science of Security. :28:1–28:2.

Access Control Policies (ACPs) evolve. Understanding the trends and evolution patterns of ACPs could provide guidance about the reliability and maintenance of ACPs. Our research goal is to help policy authors improve the quality of ACP evolution based on the understanding of trends and evolution patterns in ACPs We performed an empirical study by analyzing the ACP changes over time for two systems: Security Enhanced Linux (SELinux), and an open-source virtual computing platform (VCL). We measured trends in terms of the number of policy lines and lines of code (LOC), respectively. We observed evolution patterns. For example, an evolution pattern st1 → st2 says that st1 (e.g., "read") evolves into st2 (e.g., "read" and "write"). This pattern indicates that policy authors add "write" permission in addition to existing "read" permission. We found that some of evolution patterns appear to occur more frequently.

Marxer, Claudio, Scherb, Christopher, Tschudin, Christian.  2016.  Access-Controlled In-Network Processing of Named Data. Proceedings of the 3rd ACM Conference on Information-Centric Networking. :77–82.

In content-based security, encrypted content as well as wrapped access keys are made freely available by an Information Centric Network: Only those clients which are able to unwrap the encryption key can access the protected content. In this paper we extend this model to computation chains where derived data (e.g. produced by a Named Function Network) also has to comply to the content-based security approach. A central problem to solve is the synchronized on-demand publishing of encrypted results and wrapped keys as well as defining the set of consumers which are authorized to access the derived data. In this paper we introduce "content-attendant policies" and report on a running prototype that demonstrates how to enforce data owner-defined access control policies despite fully decentralized and arbitrarily long computation chains.

Sharif, Mahmood, Bhagavatula, Sruti, Bauer, Lujo, Reiter, Michael K..  2016.  Accessorize to a Crime: Real and Stealthy Attacks on State-of-the-Art Face Recognition. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :1528–1540.

Machine learning is enabling a myriad innovations, including new algorithms for cancer diagnosis and self-driving cars. The broad use of machine learning makes it important to understand the extent to which machine-learning algorithms are subject to attack, particularly when used in applications where physical security or safety is at risk. In this paper, we focus on facial biometric systems, which are widely used in surveillance and access control. We define and investigate a novel class of attacks: attacks that are physically realizable and inconspicuous, and allow an attacker to evade recognition or impersonate another individual. We develop a systematic method to automatically generate such attacks, which are realized through printing a pair of eyeglass frames. When worn by the attacker whose image is supplied to a state-of-the-art face-recognition algorithm, the eyeglasses allow her to evade being recognized or to impersonate another individual. Our investigation focuses on white-box face-recognition systems, but we also demonstrate how similar techniques can be used in black-box scenarios, as well as to avoid face detection.

Datta, A., Kar, S., Sinopoli, B., Weerakkody, S..  2016.  Accountability in cyber-physical systems. 2016 Science of Security for Cyber-Physical Systems Workshop (SOSCYPS). :1–3.

Our position is that a key component of securing cyber-physical systems (CPS) is to develop a theory of accountability that encompasses both control and computing systems. We envision that a unified theory of accountability in CPS can be built on a foundation of causal information flow analysis. This theory will support design and analysis of mechanisms at various stages of the accountability regime: attack detection, responsibility-assignment (e.g., attack identification or localization), and corrective measures (e.g., via resilient control) As an initial step in this direction, we summarize our results on attack detection in control systems. We use the Kullback-Liebler (KL) divergence as a causal information flow measure. We then recover, using information flow analyses, a set of existing results in the literature that were previously proved using different techniques. These results cover passive detection, stealthy attack characterization, and active detection. This research direction is related to recent work on accountability in computational systems [1], [2], [3], [4]. We envision that by casting accountability theories in computing and control systems in terms of causal information flow, we can provide a common foundation to develop a theory for CPS that compose elements from both domains.

Crabtree, A., Lodge, T., Colley, J., Greenghalgh, C., Mortier, R..  2017.  Accountable Internet of Things? Outline of the IoT databox model 2017 IEEE 18th International Symposium on A World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM). :1–6.

This paper outlines the IoT Databox model as a means of making the Internet of Things (IoT) accountable to individuals. Accountability is a key to building consumer trust and mandated in data protection legislation. We briefly outline the `external' data subject accountability requirement specified in actual legislation in Europe and proposed legislation in the US, and how meeting requirement this turns on surfacing the invisible actions and interactions of connected devices and the social arrangements in which they are embedded. The IoT Databox model is proposed as an in principle means of enabling accountability and providing individuals with the mechanisms needed to build trust in the IoT.

Noureddine, M. A., Marturano, A., Keefe, K., Bashir, M., Sanders, W. H..  2017.  Accounting for the Human User in Predictive Security Models. 2017 IEEE 22nd Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing (PRDC). :329–338.

Given the growing sophistication of cyber attacks, designing a perfectly secure system is not generally possible. Quantitative security metrics are thus needed to measure and compare the relative security of proposed security designs and policies. Since the investigation of security breaches has shown a strong impact of human errors, ignoring the human user in computing these metrics can lead to misleading results. Despite this, and although security researchers have long observed the impact of human behavior on system security, few improvements have been made in designing systems that are resilient to the uncertainties in how humans interact with a cyber system. In this work, we develop an approach for including models of user behavior, emanating from the fields of social sciences and psychology, in the modeling of systems intended to be secure. We then illustrate how one of these models, namely general deterrence theory, can be used to study the effectiveness of the password security requirements policy and the frequency of security audits in a typical organization. Finally, we discuss the many challenges that arise when adopting such a modeling approach, and then present our recommendations for future work.

Kyoungwoo Heo.  2014.  An Accumulated Loss Recovery Algorithm on Overlay Multicast System Using Fountain Codes. Information Science and Applications (ICISA), 2014 International Conference on. :1-3.

In this paper, we propose an accumulated loss recovery algorithm on overlay multicast system using Fountain codes. Fountain code successfully decodes the packet loss, but it is weak in accumulated losses on multicast tree. The proposed algorithm overcomes an accumulated loss and significantly reduces delay on overlay multicast tree.
 

Baldimtsi, F., Camenisch, J., Dubovitskaya, M., Lysyanskaya, A., Reyzin, L., Samelin, K., Yakoubov, S..  2017.  Accumulators with Applications to Anonymity-Preserving Revocation. 2017 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS P). :301–315.

Membership revocation is essential for cryptographic applications, from traditional PKIs to group signatures and anonymous credentials. Of the various solutions for the revocation problem that have been explored, dynamic accumulators are one of the most promising. We propose Braavos, a new, RSA-based, dynamic accumulator. It has optimal communication complexity and, when combined with efficient zero-knowledge proofs, provides an ideal solution for anonymous revocation. For the construction of Braavos we use a modular approach: we show how to build an accumulator with better functionality and security from accumulators with fewer features and weaker security guarantees. We then describe an anonymous revocation component (ARC) that can be instantiated using any dynamic accumulator. ARC can be added to any anonymous system, such as anonymous credentials or group signatures, in order to equip it with a revocation functionality. Finally, we implement ARC with Braavos and plug it into Idemix, the leading implementation of anonymous credentials. This work resolves, for the first time, the problem of practical revocation for anonymous credential systems.

Sayakkara, Asanka, Le-Khac, Nhien-An, Scanlon, Mark.  2018.  Accuracy Enhancement of Electromagnetic Side-Channel Attacks on Computer Monitors. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security. :15:1–15:9.
Electromagnetic noise emitted from running computer displays modulates information about the picture frames being displayed on screen. Attacks have been demonstrated on eavesdropping computer displays by utilising these emissions as a side-channel vector. The accuracy of reconstructing a screen image depends on the emission sampling rate and bandwidth of the attackers signal acquisition hardware. The cost of radio frequency acquisition hardware increases with increased supported frequency range and bandwidth. A number of enthusiast-level, affordable software defined radio equipment solutions are currently available facilitating a number of radio-focused attacks at a more reasonable price point. This work investigates three accuracy influencing factors, other than the sample rate and bandwidth, namely noise removal, image blending, and image quality adjustments, that affect the accuracy of monitor image reconstruction through electromagnetic side-channel attacks.
Uemura, Toshiaki, Kashiwabara, Yuta, Kawanuma, Daiki, Tomii, Takashi.  2016.  Accuracy Evaluation by GPS Data Correction for the EV Energy Consumption Database. Adjunct Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Computing Networking and Services. :213–218.
Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to be applicable to smart grids because they have large-capacity batteries. It is important that smart grid users be able to estimate surplus battery energy and/or surplus capacity in advance of deploying EVs. We constructed a database, the Energy COnsumption LOG (ECOLOG) Database System, to store vehicle daily logs acquired by smartphones placed in vehicles. The electrical energy consumption is estimated from GPS coordinate data using an EV energy-consumption model. This research specifically examines commuting with a vehicle used for same route every day. We corrected GPS coordinate data by map matching, and input the data to the EV energy consumption model. We regard the remaining battery capacity data acquired by the EV CAN as correct data. Then we evaluate the accuracy of driving energy consumption logs as estimated using the corrected GPS coordinate data.
Darabseh, A., Namin, A. S..  2015.  On Accuracy of Classification-Based Keystroke Dynamics for Continuous User Authentication. 2015 International Conference on Cyberworlds (CW). :321–324.

The aim of this research is to advance the user active authentication using keystroke dynamics. Through this research, we assess the performance and influence of various keystroke features on keystroke dynamics authentication systems. In particular, we investigate the performance of keystroke features on a subset of most frequently used English words. The performance of four features such as i) key duration, ii) flight time latency, iii) diagraph time latency, and iv) word total time duration are analyzed. Two machine learning techniques are employed for assessing keystroke authentications. The selected classification methods are support vector machine (SVM), and k-nearest neighbor classifier (K-NN). The logged experimental data are captured for 28 users. The experimental results show that key duration time offers the best performance result among all four keystroke features, followed by word total time.

Almogbil, Atheer, Alghofaili, Abdullah, Deane, Chelsea, Leschke, Timothy, Almogbil, Atheer, Alghofaili, Abdullah.  2020.  The Accuracy of GPS-Enabled Fitbit Activities as Evidence: A Digital Forensics Study. 2020 7th IEEE International Conference on Cyber Security and Cloud Computing (CSCloud)/2020 6th IEEE International Conference on Edge Computing and Scalable Cloud (EdgeCom). :186—189.

Technology is advancing rapidly and with this advancement, it has become apparent that it is nearly impossible to not leave a digital trace when committing a crime. As evidenced by multiple cases handled by law enforcement, Fitbit data has proved to be useful when determining the validity of alibis and in piecing together the timeline of a crime scene. In our paper, experiments testing the accuracy and reliability of GPS-tracked activities logged by the Fitbit Alta tracker and Ionic smartwatch are conducted. Potential indicators of manipulated or altered GPS-tracked activities are identified to help guide digital forensic investigators when handling such Fitbit data as evidence.

Darabseh, A., Namin, A. Siami.  2015.  On Accuracy of Keystroke Authentications Based on Commonly Used English Words. 2015 International Conference of the Biometrics Special Interest Group (BIOSIG). :1–8.

The aim of this research is to advance the user active authentication using keystroke dynamics. Through this research, we assess the performance and influence of various keystroke features on keystroke dynamics authentication systems. In particular, we investigate the performance of keystroke features on a subset of most frequently used English words. The performance of four features such as i) key duration, ii) flight time latency, iii) digraph time latency, and iv) word total time duration are analyzed. Experiments are performed to measure the performance of each feature individually as well as the results from the different subsets of these features. Four machine learning techniques are employed for assessing keystroke authentications. The selected classification methods are two-class support vector machine (TC) SVM, one-class support vector machine (OC) SVM, k-nearest neighbor classifier (K-NN), and Naive Bayes classifier (NB). The logged experimental data are captured for 28 users. The experimental results show that key duration time offers the best performance result among all four keystroke features, followed by word total time. Furthermore, our results show that TC SVM and KNN perform the best among the four classifiers.

Shimauchi, S., Ohmuro, H..  2014.  Accurate adaptive filtering in square-root Hann windowed short-time fourier transform domain. Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 2014 IEEE International Conference on. :1305-1309.

A novel short-time Fourier transform (STFT) domain adaptive filtering scheme is proposed that can be easily combined with nonlinear post filters such as residual echo or noise reduction in acoustic echo cancellation. Unlike normal STFT subband adaptive filters, which suffers from aliasing artifacts due to its poor prototype filter, our scheme achieves good accuracy by exploiting the relationship between the linear convolution and the poor prototype filter, i.e., the STFT window function. The effectiveness of our scheme was confirmed through the results of simulations conducted to compare it with conventional methods.

Khadka, A., Argyriou, V., Remagnino, P..  2020.  Accurate Deep Net Crowd Counting for Smart IoT Video acquisition devices. 2020 16th International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems (DCOSS). :260—264.

A novel deep neural network is proposed, for accurate and robust crowd counting. Crowd counting is a complex task, as it strongly depends on the deployed camera characteristics and, above all, the scene perspective. Crowd counting is essential in security applications where Internet of Things (IoT) cameras are deployed to help with crowd management tasks. The complexity of a scene varies greatly, and a medium to large scale security system based on IoT cameras must cater for changes in perspective and how people appear from different vantage points. To address this, our deep architecture extracts multi-scale features with a pyramid contextual module to provide long-range contextual information and enlarge the receptive field. Experiments were run on three major crowd counting datasets, to test our proposed method. Results demonstrate our method supersedes the performance of state-of-the-art methods.

Shahid, U., Farooqi, S., Ahmad, R., Shafiq, Z., Srinivasan, P., Zaffar, F..  2017.  Accurate Detection of Automatically Spun Content via Stylometric Analysis. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Data Mining (ICDM). :425–434.

Spammers use automated content spinning techniques to evade plagiarism detection by search engines. Text spinners help spammers in evading plagiarism detectors by automatically restructuring sentences and replacing words or phrases with their synonyms. Prior work on spun content detection relies on the knowledge about the dictionary used by the text spinning software. In this work, we propose an approach to detect spun content and its seed without needing the text spinner's dictionary. Our key idea is that text spinners introduce stylometric artifacts that can be leveraged for detecting spun documents. We implement and evaluate our proposed approach on a corpus of spun documents that are generated using a popular text spinning software. The results show that our approach can not only accurately detect whether a document is spun but also identify its source (or seed) document - all without needing the dictionary used by the text spinner.

Raiola, P., Erb, D., Reddy, S. M., Becker, B..  2017.  Accurate Diagnosis of Interconnect Open Defects Based on the Robust Enhanced Aggressor Victim Model. 2017 30th International Conference on VLSI Design and 2017 16th International Conference on Embedded Systems (VLSID). :135–140.

Interconnect opens are known to be one of the predominant defects in nanoscale technologies. Automatic test pattern generation for open faults is challenging, because of their rather unstable behavior and the numerous electrical parameters which need to be considered. Thus, most approaches try to avoid accurate modeling of all constraints like the influence of the aggressors on the open net and use simplified fault models in order to detect as many faults as possible or make assumptions which decrease both complexity and accuracy. Yet, this leads to the problem that not only generated tests may be invalidated but also the localization of a specific fault may fail - in case such a model is used as basis for diagnosis. Furthermore, most of the models do not consider the problem of oscillating behavior, caused by feedback introduced by coupling capacitances, which occurs in almost all designs. In [1], the Robust Enhanced Aggressor Victim Model (REAV) and in [2] an extension to address the problem of oscillating behavior were introduced. The resulting model does not only consider the influence of all aggressors accurately but also guarantees robustness against oscillating behavior as well as process variations affecting the thresholds of gates driven by an open interconnect. In this work we present the first diagnostic classification algorithm for this model. This algorithm considers all constraints enforced by the REAV model accurately - and hence handles unknown values as well as oscillating behavior. In addition, it allows to distinguish faults at the same interconnect and thus reducing the area that has to be considered for physical failure analysis. Experimental results show the high efficiency of the new method handling circuits with up to 500,000 non-equivalent faults and considerably increasing the diagnostic resolution.

Wang, Yufeng, Shi, Wanjiao, Jin, Qun, Ma, Jianhua.  2019.  An Accurate False Data Detection in Smart Grid Based on Residual Recurrent Neural Network and Adaptive threshold. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Energy Internet (ICEI). :499—504.
Smart grids are vulnerable to cyber-attacks, which can cause significant damage and huge economic losses. Generally, state estimation (SE) is used to observe the operation of the grid. State estimation of the grid is vulnerable to false data injection attack (FDIA), so diagnosing this type of malicious attack has a major impact on ensuring reliable operation of the power system. In this paper, we present an effective FDIA detection method based on residual recurrent neural network (R2N2) prediction model and adaptive judgment threshold. Specifically, considering the data contains both linear and nonlinear components, the R2N2 model divides the prediction process into two parts: the first part uses the linear model to fit the state data; the second part predicts the nonlinearity of the residuals of the linear prediction model. The adaptive judgment threshold is inferred through fitting the Weibull distribution with the sum of squared errors between the predicted values and observed values. The thorough simulation results demonstrate that our scheme performs better than other prediction based FDIA detection schemes.