Visible to the public Biblio

Found 12055 results

2015-04-28
Creech, G., Jiankun Hu.  2014.  A Semantic Approach to Host-Based Intrusion Detection Systems Using Contiguousand Discontiguous System Call Patterns. Computers, IEEE Transactions on. 63:807-819.

Host-based anomaly intrusion detection system design is very challenging due to the notoriously high false alarm rate. This paper introduces a new host-based anomaly intrusion detection methodology using discontiguous system call patterns, in an attempt to increase detection rates whilst reducing false alarm rates. The key concept is to apply a semantic structure to kernel level system calls in order to reflect intrinsic activities hidden in high-level programming languages, which can help understand program anomaly behaviour. Excellent results were demonstrated using a variety of decision engines, evaluating the KDD98 and UNM data sets, and a new, modern data set. The ADFA Linux data set was created as part of this research using a modern operating system and contemporary hacking methods, and is now publicly available. Furthermore, the new semantic method possesses an inherent resilience to mimicry attacks, and demonstrated a high level of portability between different operating system versions.

2015-04-29
Shafagh, H., Hithnawi, A..  2014.  Poster Abstract: Security Comes First, a Public-key Cryptography Framework for the Internet of Things. Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems (DCOSS), 2014 IEEE International Conference on. :135-136.

Novel Internet services are emerging around an increasing number of sensors and actuators in our surroundings, commonly referred to as smart devices. Smart devices, which form the backbone of the Internet of Things (IoT), enable alternative forms of user experience by means of automation, convenience, and efficiency. At the same time new security and safety issues arise, given the Internet-connectivity and the interaction possibility of smart devices with human's proximate living space. Hence, security is a fundamental requirement of the IoT design. In order to remain interoperable with the existing infrastructure, we postulate a security framework compatible to standard IP-based security solutions, yet optimized to meet the constraints of the IoT ecosystem. In this ongoing work, we first identify necessary components of an interoperable secure End-to-End communication while incorporating Public-key Cryptography (PKC). To this end, we tackle involved computational and communication overheads. The required components on the hardware side are the affordable hardware acceleration engines for cryptographic operations and on the software side header compression and long-lasting secure sessions. In future work, we focus on integration of these components into a framework and the evaluation of an early prototype of this framework.

2015-04-30
Shafagh, H., Hithnawi, A..  2014.  Poster Abstract: Security Comes First, a Public-key Cryptography Framework for the Internet of Things. Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems (DCOSS), 2014 IEEE International Conference on. :135-136.

Novel Internet services are emerging around an increasing number of sensors and actuators in our surroundings, commonly referred to as smart devices. Smart devices, which form the backbone of the Internet of Things (IoT), enable alternative forms of user experience by means of automation, convenience, and efficiency. At the same time new security and safety issues arise, given the Internet-connectivity and the interaction possibility of smart devices with human's proximate living space. Hence, security is a fundamental requirement of the IoT design. In order to remain interoperable with the existing infrastructure, we postulate a security framework compatible to standard IP-based security solutions, yet optimized to meet the constraints of the IoT ecosystem. In this ongoing work, we first identify necessary components of an interoperable secure End-to-End communication while incorporating Public-key Cryptography (PKC). To this end, we tackle involved computational and communication overheads. The required components on the hardware side are the affordable hardware acceleration engines for cryptographic operations and on the software side header compression and long-lasting secure sessions. In future work, we focus on integration of these components into a framework and the evaluation of an early prototype of this framework.

Djouadi, S.M., Melin, A.M., Ferragut, E.M., Laska, J.A., Jin Dong.  2014.  Finite energy and bounded attacks on control system sensor signals. American Control Conference (ACC), 2014. :1716-1722.

Control system networks are increasingly being connected to enterprise level networks. These connections leave critical industrial controls systems vulnerable to cyber-attacks. Most of the effort in protecting these cyber-physical systems (CPS) from attacks has been in securing the networks using information security techniques. Effort has also been applied to increasing the protection and reliability of the control system against random hardware and software failures. However, the inability of information security techniques to protect against all intrusions means that the control system must be resilient to various signal attacks for which new analysis methods need to be developed. In this paper, sensor signal attacks are analyzed for observer-based controlled systems. The threat surface for sensor signal attacks is subdivided into denial of service, finite energy, and bounded attacks. In particular, the error signals between states of attack free systems and systems subject to these attacks are quantified. Optimal sensor and actuator signal attacks for the finite and infinite horizon linear quadratic (LQ) control in terms of maximizing the corresponding cost functions are computed. The closed-loop systems under optimal signal attacks are provided. Finally, an illustrative numerical example using a power generation network is provided together with distributed LQ controllers.

Manandhar, K., Xiaojun Cao, Fei Hu, Yao Liu.  2014.  Combating False Data Injection Attacks in Smart Grid using Kalman Filter. Computing, Networking and Communications (ICNC), 2014 International Conference on. :16-20.


The security of Smart Grid, being one of the very important aspects of the Smart Grid system, is studied in this paper. We first discuss different pitfalls in the security of the Smart Grid system considering the communication infrastructure among the sensors, actuators, and control systems. Following that, we derive a mathematical model of the system and propose a robust security framework for power grid. To effectively estimate the variables of a wide range of state processes in the model, we adopt Kalman Filter in the framework. The Kalman Filter estimates and system readings are then fed into the χ2-square detectors and the proposed Euclidean detectors, which can detect various attacks and faults in the power system including False Data Injection Attacks. The χ2-detector is a proven-effective exploratory method used with Kalman Filter for the measurement of the relationship between dependent variables and a series of predictor variables. The χ2-detector can detect system faults/attacks such as replay and DoS attacks. However, the study shows that the χ2-detector detectors are unable to detect statistically derived False Data Injection Attacks while the Euclidean distance metrics can identify such sophisticated injection attacks.
 

Manandhar, K., Xiaojun Cao, Fei Hu, Yao Liu.  2014.  Detection of Faults and Attacks Including False Data Injection Attack in Smart Grid Using Kalman Filter. Control of Network Systems, IEEE Transactions on. 1:370-379.

By exploiting the communication infrastructure among the sensors, actuators, and control systems, attackers may compromise the security of smart-grid systems, with techniques such as denial-of-service (DoS) attack, random attack, and data-injection attack. In this paper, we present a mathematical model of the system to study these pitfalls and propose a robust security framework for the smart grid. Our framework adopts the Kalman filter to estimate the variables of a wide range of state processes in the model. The estimates from the Kalman filter and the system readings are then fed into the χ2-detector or the proposed Euclidean detector. The χ2-detector is a proven effective exploratory method used with the Kalman filter for the measurement of the relationship between dependent variables and a series of predictor variables. The χ2-detector can detect system faults/attacks, such as DoS attack, short-term, and long-term random attacks. However, the studies show that the χ2-detector is unable to detect the statistically derived false data-injection attack. To overcome this limitation, we prove that the Euclidean detector can effectively detect such a sophisticated injection attack.

Zhuoping Yu, Junxian Wu, Lu Xiong.  2014.  Research of stability control of distributed drive electric vehicles under motor failure modes. Transportation Electrification Asia-Pacific (ITEC Asia-Pacific), 2014 IEEE Conference and Expo. :1-5.

With the application and promotion of electric vehicles, vehicle security problems caused by actuator reliability have become increasingly prominent. Firstly, the paper analyses and sums motor failure modes and their effects of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) , which is commonly used on electric vehicles. And then design a hierarchical structure of the vehicle control strategies and the corresponding algorithms, and adjust based on the different failure modes. Finally conduct simulation conditions in CarSim environment. Verify the control strategy and algorithm can maintain vehicle stability and reduce the burden on driver under motor failure conditions.

Mitchell, R., Ing-Ray Chen.  2014.  Adaptive Intrusion Detection of Malicious Unmanned Air Vehicles Using Behavior Rule Specifications. Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems, IEEE Transactions on. 44:593-604.


In this paper, we propose an adaptive specification-based intrusion detection system (IDS) for detecting malicious unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) in an airborne system in which continuity of operation is of the utmost importance. An IDS audits UAVs in a distributed system to determine if the UAVs are functioning normally or are operating under malicious attacks. We investigate the impact of reckless, random, and opportunistic attacker behaviors (modes which many historical cyber attacks have used) on the effectiveness of our behavior rule-based UAV IDS (BRUIDS) which bases its audit on behavior rules to quickly assess the survivability of the UAV facing malicious attacks. Through a comparative analysis with the multiagent system/ant-colony clustering model, we demonstrate a high detection accuracy of BRUIDS for compliant performance. By adjusting the detection strength, BRUIDS can effectively trade higher false positives for lower false negatives to cope with more sophisticated random and opportunistic attackers to support ultrasafe and secure UAV applications.
 

Li Yumei, Voos, H., Darouach, M..  2014.  Robust H #x221E; cyber-attacks estimation for control systems. Control Conference (CCC), 2014 33rd Chinese. :3124-3129.

This paper deals with the robust H∞ cyber-attacks estimation problem for control systems under stochastic cyber-attacks and disturbances. The focus is on designing a H∞ filter which maximize the attack sensitivity and minimize the effect of disturbances. The design requires not only the disturbance attenuation, but also the residual to remain the attack sensitivity as much as possible while the effect of disturbance is minimized. A stochastic model of control system with stochastic cyber-attacks which satisfy the Markovian stochastic process is constructed. And we also present the stochastic attack models that a control system is possibly exposed to. Furthermore, applying H∞ filtering technique-based on linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), the paper obtains sufficient conditions that ensure the filtering error dynamic is asymptotically stable and satisfies a prescribed ratio between cyber-attack sensitivity and disturbance sensitivity. Finally, the results are applied to the control of a Quadruple-tank process (QTP) under a stochastic cyber-attack and a stochastic disturbance. The simulation results underline that the designed filters is effective and feasible in practical application.

Bovet, G., Hennebert, J..  2014.  Distributed Semantic Discovery for Web-of-Things Enabled Smart Buildings. New Technologies, Mobility and Security (NTMS), 2014 6th International Conference on. :1-5.

Nowadays, our surrounding environment is more and more scattered with various types of sensors. Due to their intrinsic properties and representation formats, they form small islands isolated from each other. In order to increase interoperability and release their full capabilities, we propose to represent devices descriptions including data and service invocation with a common model allowing to compose mashups of heterogeneous sensors. Pushing this paradigm further, we also propose to augment service descriptions with a discovery protocol easing automatic assimilation of knowledge. In this work, we describe the architecture supporting what can be called a Semantic Sensor Web-of-Things. As proof of concept, we apply our proposal to the domain of smart buildings, composing a novel ontology covering heterogeneous sensing, actuation and service invocation. Our architecture also emphasizes on the energetic aspect and is optimized for constrained environments.

Vamsi, P.R., Kant, K..  2014.  Sybil attack detection using Sequential Hypothesis Testing in Wireless Sensor Networks. Signal Propagation and Computer Technology (ICSPCT), 2014 International Conference on. :698-702.

Sybil attack poses a serious threat to geographic routing. In this attack, a malicious node attempts to broadcast incorrect location information, identity and secret key information. A Sybil node can tamper its neighboring nodes for the purpose of converting them as malicious. As the amount of Sybil nodes increase in the network, the network traffic will seriously affect and the data packets will never reach to their destinations. To address this problem, researchers have proposed several schemes to detect Sybil attacks. However, most of these schemes assume costly setup such as the use of relay nodes or use of expensive devices and expensive encryption methods to verify the location information. In this paper, the authors present a method to detect Sybil attacks using Sequential Hypothesis Testing. The proposed method has been examined using a Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR) protocol with analysis and simulation. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method is robust against detecting Sybil attacks.

Vamsi, P.R., Kant, K..  2014.  Sybil attack detection using Sequential Hypothesis Testing in Wireless Sensor Networks. Signal Propagation and Computer Technology (ICSPCT), 2014 International Conference on. :698-702.

Sybil attack poses a serious threat to geographic routing. In this attack, a malicious node attempts to broadcast incorrect location information, identity and secret key information. A Sybil node can tamper its neighboring nodes for the purpose of converting them as malicious. As the amount of Sybil nodes increase in the network, the network traffic will seriously affect and the data packets will never reach to their destinations. To address this problem, researchers have proposed several schemes to detect Sybil attacks. However, most of these schemes assume costly setup such as the use of relay nodes or use of expensive devices and expensive encryption methods to verify the location information. In this paper, the authors present a method to detect Sybil attacks using Sequential Hypothesis Testing. The proposed method has been examined using a Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR) protocol with analysis and simulation. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method is robust against detecting Sybil attacks.

Cam, H., Mouallem, P., Yilin Mo, Sinopoli, B., Nkrumah, B..  2014.  Modeling impact of attacks, recovery, and attackability conditions for situational awareness. Cognitive Methods in Situation Awareness and Decision Support (CogSIMA), 2014 IEEE International Inter-Disciplinary Conference on. :181-187.

A distributed cyber control system comprises various types of assets, including sensors, intrusion detection systems, scanners, controllers, and actuators. The modeling and analysis of these components usually require multi-disciplinary approaches. This paper presents a modeling and dynamic analysis of a distributed cyber control system for situational awareness by taking advantage of control theory and time Petri net. Linear time-invariant systems are used to model the target system, attacks, assets influences, and an anomaly-based intrusion detection system. Time Petri nets are used to model the impact and timing relationships of attacks, vulnerability, and recovery at every node. To characterize those distributed control systems that are perfectly attackable, algebraic and topological attackability conditions are derived. Numerical evaluation is performed to determine the impact of attacks on distributed control system.

Lee, P., Clark, A., Bushnell, L., Poovendran, R..  2014.  A Passivity Framework for Modeling and Mitigating Wormhole Attacks on Networked Control Systems. Automatic Control, IEEE Transactions on. 59:3224-3237.

Networked control systems consist of distributed sensors and actuators that communicate via a wireless network. The use of an open wireless medium and unattended deployment leaves these systems vulnerable to intelligent adversaries whose goal is to disrupt the system performance. In this paper, we study the wormhole attack on a networked control system, in which an adversary establishes a link between two geographically distant regions of the network by using either high-gain antennas, as in the out-of-band wormhole, or colluding network nodes as in the in-band wormhole. Wormholes allow the adversary to violate the timing constraints of real-time control systems by first creating low-latency links, which attract network traffic, and then delaying or dropping packets. Since the wormhole attack reroutes and replays valid messages, it cannot be detected using cryptographic mechanisms alone. We study the impact of the wormhole attack on the network flows and delays and introduce a passivity-based control-theoretic framework for modeling and mitigating the wormhole attack. We develop this framework for both the in-band and out-of-band wormhole attacks as well as complex, hereto-unreported wormhole attacks consisting of arbitrary combinations of in-and out-of band wormholes. By integrating existing mitigation strategies into our framework, we analyze the throughput, delay, and stability properties of the overall system. Through simulation study, we show that, by selectively dropping control packets, the wormhole attack can cause disturbances in the physical plant of a networked control system, and demonstrate that appropriate selection of detection parameters mitigates the disturbances due to the wormhole while satisfying the delay constraints of the physical system.

Lee, P., Clark, A., Bushnell, L., Poovendran, R..  2014.  A Passivity Framework for Modeling and Mitigating Wormhole Attacks on Networked Control Systems. Automatic Control, IEEE Transactions on. 59:3224-3237.

Networked control systems consist of distributed sensors and actuators that communicate via a wireless network. The use of an open wireless medium and unattended deployment leaves these systems vulnerable to intelligent adversaries whose goal is to disrupt the system performance. In this paper, we study the wormhole attack on a networked control system, in which an adversary establishes a link between two geographically distant regions of the network by using either high-gain antennas, as in the out-of-band wormhole, or colluding network nodes as in the in-band wormhole. Wormholes allow the adversary to violate the timing constraints of real-time control systems by first creating low-latency links, which attract network traffic, and then delaying or dropping packets. Since the wormhole attack reroutes and replays valid messages, it cannot be detected using cryptographic mechanisms alone. We study the impact of the wormhole attack on the network flows and delays and introduce a passivity-based control-theoretic framework for modeling and mitigating the wormhole attack. We develop this framework for both the in-band and out-of-band wormhole attacks as well as complex, hereto-unreported wormhole attacks consisting of arbitrary combinations of in-and out-of band wormholes. By integrating existing mitigation strategies into our framework, we analyze the throughput, delay, and stability properties of the overall system. Through simulation study, we show that, by selectively dropping control packets, the wormhole attack can cause disturbances in the physical plant of a networked control system, and demonstrate that appropriate selection of detection parameters mitigates the disturbances due to the wormhole while satisfying the delay constraints of the physical system.

Grilo, A.M., Chen, J., Diaz, M., Garrido, D., Casaca, A..  2014.  An Integrated WSAN and SCADA System for Monitoring a Critical Infrastructure. Industrial Informatics, IEEE Transactions on. 10:1755-1764.

Wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSAN) constitute an emerging technology with multiple applications in many different fields. Due to the features of WSAN (dynamism, redundancy, fault tolerance, and self-organization), this technology can be used as a supporting technology for the monitoring of critical infrastructures (CIs). For decades, the monitoring of CIs has centered on supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems, where operators can monitor and control the behavior of the system. The reach of the SCADA system has been hampered by the lack of deployment flexibility of the sensors that feed it with monitoring data. The integration of a multihop WSAN with SCADA for CI monitoring constitutes a novel approach to extend the SCADA reach in a cost-effective way, eliminating this handicap. However, the integration of WSAN and SCADA presents some challenges which have to be addressed in order to comprehensively take advantage of the WSAN features. This paper presents a solution for this joint integration. The solution uses a gateway and a Web services approach together with a Web-based SCADA, which provides an integrated platform accessible from the Internet. A real scenario where this solution has been successfully applied to monitor an electrical power grid is presented.

Fawzi, H., Tabuada, P., Diggavi, S..  2014.  Secure Estimation and Control for Cyber-Physical Systems Under Adversarial Attacks. Automatic Control, IEEE Transactions on. 59:1454-1467.

The vast majority of today's critical infrastructure is supported by numerous feedback control loops and an attack on these control loops can have disastrous consequences. This is a major concern since modern control systems are becoming large and decentralized and thus more vulnerable to attacks. This paper is concerned with the estimation and control of linear systems when some of the sensors or actuators are corrupted by an attacker. We give a new simple characterization of the maximum number of attacks that can be detected and corrected as a function of the pair (A,C) of the system and we show in particular that it is impossible to accurately reconstruct the state of a system if more than half the sensors are attacked. In addition, we show how the design of a secure local control loop can improve the resilience of the system. When the number of attacks is smaller than a threshold, we propose an efficient algorithm inspired from techniques in compressed sensing to estimate the state of the plant despite attacks. We give a theoretical characterization of the performance of this algorithm and we show on numerical simulations that the method is promising and allows to reconstruct the state accurately despite attacks. Finally, we consider the problem of designing output-feedback controllers that stabilize the system despite sensor attacks. We show that a principle of separation between estimation and control holds and that the design of resilient output feedback controllers can be reduced to the design of resilient state estimators.

Weyrich, M., Schmidt, J.-P., Ebert, C..  2014.  Machine-to-Machine Communication. Software, IEEE. 31:19-23.

Although wireless communication is integral to our daily lives, there are numerous crucial questions related to coverage, energy consumption, reliability, and security when it comes to industrial deployment. The authors provide an overview of wireless machine-to-machine (M2M) technologies in the context of a smart factory.

Sasidharan, B., Kumar, P.V., Shah, N.B., Rashmi, K.V., Ramachandran, K..  2014.  Optimality of the product-matrix construction for secure MSR regenerating codes. Communications, Control and Signal Processing (ISCCSP), 2014 6th International Symposium on. :10-14.

In this paper, we consider the security of exact-repair regenerating codes operating at the minimum-storage-regenerating (MSR) point. The security requirement (introduced in Shah et. al.) is that no information about the stored data file must be leaked in the presence of an eavesdropper who has access to the contents of ℓ1 nodes as well as all the repair traffic entering a second disjoint set of ℓ2 nodes. We derive an upper bound on the size of a data file that can be securely stored that holds whenever ℓ2 ≤ d - k + 1. This upper bound proves the optimality of the product-matrix-based construction of secure MSR regenerating codes by Shah et. al.

Yufei Gu, Yangchun Fu, Prakash, A., Zhiqiang Lin, Heng Yin.  2014.  Multi-Aspect, Robust, and Memory Exclusive Guest OS Fingerprinting. Cloud Computing, IEEE Transactions on. 2:380-394.

Precise fingerprinting of an operating system (OS) is critical to many security and forensics applications in the cloud, such as virtual machine (VM) introspection, penetration testing, guest OS administration, kernel dump analysis, and memory forensics. The existing OS fingerprinting techniques primarily inspect network packets or CPU states, and they all fall short in precision and usability. As the physical memory of a VM always exists in all these applications, in this article, we present OS-SOMMELIER+, a multi-aspect, memory exclusive approach for precise and robust guest OS fingerprinting in the cloud. It works as follows: given a physical memory dump of a guest OS, OS-SOMMELIER+ first uses a code hash based approach from kernel code aspect to determine the guest OS version. If code hash approach fails, OS-SOMMELIER+ then uses a kernel data signature based approach from kernel data aspect to determine the version. We have implemented a prototype system, and tested it with a number of Linux kernels. Our evaluation results show that the code hash approach is faster but can only fingerprint the known kernels, and data signature approach complements the code signature approach and can fingerprint even unknown kernels.

Liu, Yuanyuan, Cheng, Jianping, Zhang, Li, Xing, Yuxiang, Chen, Zhiqiang, Zheng, Peng.  2014.  A low-cost dual energy CT system with sparse data. Tsinghua Science and Technology. 19:184-194.

Dual Energy CT (DECT) has recently gained significant research interest owing to its ability to discriminate materials, and hence is widely applied in the field of nuclear safety and security inspection. With the current technological developments, DECT can be typically realized by using two sets of detectors, one for detecting lower energy X-rays and another for detecting higher energy X-rays. This makes the imaging system expensive, limiting its practical implementation. In 2009, our group performed a preliminary study on a new low-cost system design, using only a complete data set for lower energy level and a sparse data set for the higher energy level. This could significantly reduce the cost of the system, as it contained much smaller number of detector elements. Reconstruction method is the key point of this system. In the present study, we further validated this system and proposed a robust method, involving three main steps: (1) estimation of the missing data iteratively with TV constraints; (2) use the reconstruction from the complete lower energy CT data set to form an initial estimation of the projection data for higher energy level; (3) use ordered views to accelerate the computation. Numerical simulations with different number of detector elements have also been examined. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that 1 + 14% CT data is sufficient enough to provide a rather good reconstruction of both the effective atomic number and electron density distributions of the scanned object, instead of 2 sets CT data.

Hongyi Yao, Silva, D., Jaggi, S., Langberg, M..  2014.  Network Codes Resilient to Jamming and Eavesdropping. Networking, IEEE/ACM Transactions on. 22:1978-1987.

We consider the problem of communicating information over a network secretly and reliably in the presence of a hidden adversary who can eavesdrop and inject malicious errors. We provide polynomial-time distributed network codes that are information-theoretically rate-optimal for this scenario, improving on the rates achievable in prior work by Ngai Our main contribution shows that as long as the sum of the number of links the adversary can jam (denoted by ZO) and the number of links he can eavesdrop on (denoted by ZI) is less than the network capacity (denoted by C) (i.e., ), our codes can communicate (with vanishingly small error probability) a single bit correctly and without leaking any information to the adversary. We then use this scheme as a module to design codes that allow communication at the source rate of C- ZO when there are no security requirements, and codes that allow communication at the source rate of C- ZO- ZI while keeping the communicated message provably secret from the adversary. Interior nodes are oblivious to the presence of adversaries and perform random linear network coding; only the source and destination need to be tweaked. We also prove that the rate-region obtained is information-theoretically optimal. In proving our results, we correct an error in prior work by a subset of the authors in this paper.

Yang, J.-S., Chang, J.-M., Pai, K.-J., Chan, H.-C..  2015.  Parallel Construction of Independent Spanning Trees on Enhanced Hypercubes. Parallel and Distributed Systems, IEEE Transactions on. PP:1-1.

The use of multiple independent spanning trees (ISTs) for data broadcasting in networks provides a number of advantages, including the increase of fault-tolerance, bandwidth and security. Thus, the designs of multiple ISTs on several classes of networks have been widely investigated. In this paper, we give an algorithm to construct ISTs on enhanced hypercubes Qn,k, which contain folded hypercubes as a subclass. Moreover, we show that these ISTs are near optimal for heights and path lengths. Let D(Qn,k) denote the diameter of Qn,k. If n - k is odd or n - k ∈ {2; n}, we show that all the heights of ISTs are equal to D(Qn,k) + 1, and thus are optimal. Otherwise, we show that each path from a node to the root in a spanning tree has length at most D(Qn,k) + 2. In particular, no more than 2.15 percent of nodes have the maximum path length. As a by-product, we improve the upper bound of wide diameter (respectively, fault diameter) of Qn,k from these path lengths.

Ben Othman, S., Trad, A., Youssef, H..  2014.  Security architecture for at-home medical care using Wireless Sensor Network. Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC), 2014 International. :304-309.

Distributed wireless sensor network technologies have become one of the major research areas in healthcare industries due to rapid maturity in improving the quality of life. Medical Wireless Sensor Network (MWSN) via continuous monitoring of vital health parameters over a long period of time can enable physicians to make more accurate diagnosis and provide better treatment. The MWSNs provide the options for flexibilities and cost saving to patients and healthcare industries. Medical data sensors on patients produce an increasingly large volume of increasingly diverse real-time data. The transmission of this data through hospital wireless networks becomes a crucial problem, because the health information of an individual is highly sensitive. It must be kept private and secure. In this paper, we propose a security model to protect the transfer of medical data in hospitals using MWSNs. We propose Compressed Sensing + Encryption as a strategy to achieve low-energy secure data transmission in sensor networks.

Xi Xiong, Haining Fan.  2014.  GF(2n) bit-parallel squarer using generalised polynomial basis for new class of irreducible pentanomials. Electronics Letters. 50:655-657.

Explicit formulae and complexities of bit-parallel GF(2n) squarers for a new class of irreducible pentanomials xn + xn-1 + xk + x + 1, where n is odd and 1 <; k <; (n - 1)/2 are presented. The squarer is based on the generalised polynomial basis of GF(2n). Its gate delay matches the best results, whereas its XOR gate complexity is n + 1, which is only about two thirds of the current best results.